Rwanda: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use

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Background: In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and begaNA civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including

approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees

—many fearing Tutsi retribution—fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF

did in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post- genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009 and assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013–14 term.

Location: Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, north of Burundi

Geographic coordinates: 2 00

S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa Area: total: 26,338 sq km land: 24,668 sq km

water: 1,670 sq km

country comparison to the world: 149 Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 930 km border countries (4): Burundi 315 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 221 km, Tanzania 222 km, Uganda 172 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east

Elevation: mean elevation: 1,598 m elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m

highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m

Natural resources: gold,

cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land Land use: agricultural land: 74.5% arable land: 47%

permanent crops: 10.1%

permanent pasture: 17.4%

forest: 18%

other: 7.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 96 sq km (2012) Total renewable water resources: 9.5 cu km (2011) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricult

total: 0.15 cu km/yr (33%/11%/55%)

per capita: 17.25 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo

volcanism: Visoke (elev. 3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country’s only historically active volcano

Environment—current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching

Environment—

international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea Geography—note: landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural

Nationality: noun: Rwandan(s)

adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%

Languages: Kinyarwanda only (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, Kinyarwanda and other language(s) 6.2%, French (official) and other language(s) 0.1%, English (official) and other language(s) 0.1%, Swahili (or Kiswahili, used in commercial centers) 0.02%, other 0.03%, unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 49.5%, Protestant 39.4% (includes Adventist 12.2% and other Protestant 27.2%),

other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 1.8%,

animist 0.1%, other 0.6%, none 3.6%

(2001), unspecified 0.5% (2002 est.)

Population: 12,661,733

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74 Age structure: 0–14 years: 41.83% (male 2,670,040/female

2,626,646)

15–24 years: 18.86% (male

1,193,523/female 1,193,953)

25–54 years: 32.72% (male

2,077,406/female 2,065,261)

55–64 years: 4.07% (male

239,924/female 274,829)

65 years and over: 2.53% (male 131,613/female 188,538) (2015 est.) Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 78.1%

youth dependency ratio: 73.1%

elderly dependency ratio: 5%

potential support ratio: 20.1% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 18.8 years

male: 18.6 years

female:19 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203

Population growth rate:

2.56% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22 Birth rate: 33.75 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30 Death rate: 8.96 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 69 Net migration rate: 0.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 66

Urbanization: urban Population:

28.8% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 6.43% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: KIGALI (capital)

1.257 million (2015)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth: 23

note: median age at first birth among

women 25–29 (2014/15 est.) Maternal mortality rate: 290 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Infant mortality rate: total:

58.19 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 61.68 deaths/1,000 live births female: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 59.67 years

male: 58.11 years

female: 61.27 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 199

Total fertility rate: 4.53 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 51.6% (2010/11)

Health expenditures: 11.1% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 18

Physicians density: 0.06

physicians/1,000 population (2010) Hospital bed density: 1.6 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 86.6% of population rural: 71.9% of population total: 76.1% of population unimproved:

urban: 13.4% of population

rural: 28.1% of population

total: 23.9% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 58.5% of population rural: 62.9% of population total: 61.6% of population unimproved:

urban: 41.5% of population

rural: 37.1% of population

total: 38.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate: 2.82% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS: 210,500 (2014

est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

HIV/AIDS—deaths: 3,000

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial

diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 3.3% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 170

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11.7%

(2011)

country comparison to the world: 63

Education expenditures: 5%

of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 73

Literacy: definition: age 15 and

over can read and write

total population: 70.5%

male: 73.2%

female: 68% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years

male: 11 years

female: 11 years (2013)

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24: total: 4.5%

male: 3.6%

female: 5.2% (2012 est.) People—note: Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda conventional short form: Rwanda

local long form: Republikay’u Rwanda

local short form: Rwanda

former: Ruanda, German East Africa etymology: the name translates as “domain” in the native Kinyarwanda language

Government type: presidential republic

Capital: name: Kigali

Geographic coordinates: 157

S, 30 03 E

time differen ce: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces (in French—provinces, singular—province; in Kinyarwanda— intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French—ville; in Kinyarwanda

—umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship) National holiday: Independence

Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: several previous;

latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003; amended

several times, last in 2015 (2016) Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law, based on German and

Belgian models, and customary law;

judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt Citizenship: citizenship by birth:

no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father

is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen

dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Anastase MUREKEZI (since 24 July 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority

popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 August 2010 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 93.1%, Jean

NTAWUKURIRYAYO (PSD) 5.1%,

other 1.8%

Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate or Senat (26 seats; 12 members indirectly elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum—a body of registered political parties, and

2 selected by institutions of higher learning; members serve 8-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (80 seats; 53 members directly elected by proportional representation vote, 24 women elected by special interest groups, and 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate—NA; Chamber of Deputies—last held on 16–18 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: Chamber of Deputies percent of vote by party—RPF 76.2%, PSD 13%, PL 9.3%, other 1.5%; seats

by party—RPF 41, PSD 7, PL 5,27

members indirectly elected

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 12 judges; normally organized into 3— judge benches)

note: the Gacaca Court was established in 2001 by the National Unity Government to try cases of genocide against the Tutsis

judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president of the republic after consultation with the Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary (a 14-member body of judges, other judicial officials, and legal

professionals), and approved by the Senate; court president and vice president appointed for 8-year nonrenewable terms; tenure of other judges NA

subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; Gacaca and military specialized courts

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]

Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Christian MARARA]

Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul

KAGAME]

Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)

International organization participation: ACP, AFDB, AU, C, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS,

UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mathilde MUKANTABANA (since 5 July 2013)

chancery: 1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 418, Washington, DC, 2000 telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Erica BARKS-RUGGLES (since 26 January 2015)

embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie, Kigali

mailing address: B. P.28, Kigali

telephone: [250] 596-400

FAX: [250] 596-591

Flag description: three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band; blue represents happiness and peace, yellow economic development and mineral wealth, green hope of prosperity and natural resources; the sun symbolizes unity, as well as enlightenment and transparency from ignorance

National symbol(s): traditional woven basket with peaked lid; national

colors: blue, yellow, green

National anthem: name: “Rwanda nziza” (Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country)

lyrics/music: Faustin MURIGO/Jean-

Bosco HASHAKAIMANA

note: adopted 2001

Economy—overview: Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in subsistence agriculture and some mineral and agro- processing. Tourism, minerals, coffee and tea are Rwanda’s main sources of foreign exchange. Despite Rwanda’s fertile ecosystem, food production often

does not keep pace with demand, requiring food imports. Energy shortages, instability in neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap private sector growth. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda’s fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and temporarily stalled the country’s ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels. GDP has rebounded with an average annual growth of 7%-8% since 2003 and

inflation has been reduced to single digits. Nonetheless, in 2015, 39% of the population lived below the poverty line, according to government statistics, compared to 57% in 2006.

Africa’s most densely populated country is trying to overcome the limitations of its small, landlocked economy by leveraging regional trade; Rwanda joined the East African Community and is aligning its budget, trade, and immigration policies with its regional partners. The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment, and pursuing market-

oriented reforms. in recognition of Rwanda’s successful management of its macro economy, in 2010, the IMF graduated Rwanda to a Policy Support Instrument. The Rwandan Government is seeking to become a regional leader in information and communication technologies. In 2012, Rwanda completed the first modern Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Kigali. The SEZ seeks to attract investment in all sectors, but specifically in agribusiness, information and communications, trade and logistics, mining, and construction.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $20.42 billion (2015 est.)

$19.1 billion (2014 est.)

$17.85 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 144

GDP (official exchange rate): $8.267 billion (2015 est.) GDP—real growth rate: 6.9% (2015 est.)

7% (2014 est.)

4.7% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$1,800 (2015 est.)

$1,700 (2014 est.)

$1,700 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 207 Gross national saving: 11.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 14.6% of GDP (2014

est.)

19.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 73.7%

government consumption: 14.7% investment in fixed capital: 25.6% investment in inventories: 0.8% exports of goods and services: 13.6%

imports of goods and services: -28.4% (2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 32.6%

industry: 14.1%

services: 53.3% (2015 est.) Agriculture—products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from

chrysanthemums), bananas, beans,

sorghum, potatoes; livestock Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45 Labor force: 6.247 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 90%

industry and services: 10% (2000) Unemployment rate: NA% Population below poverty line: 39.1% (2015 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage

share: lowest: 10%: 2.1%

highest: 10%: 43.2% (2011 est.)

Distribution of family income—Gini index: 46.8

(2000)

28.9 (1985)

country comparison to the world: 31 Budget: revenues: $1.857 billion expenditures: $2.255 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 21.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): -4.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163 Public debt: 33.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

30.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132 Fiscal year: calendar year Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2015 est.)

1.8% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 129

Central bank discount rate:

7.75% (31 December 2010)

11.25% (31 December 2008)

country comparison to the world: 42

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 17.2% (31 December

2015 est.)

17.25% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Stock of narrow money:

$845.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$820.3 million (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 156 Stock of broad money: $1.576 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.407 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Stock of domestic credit:

$1.577 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.261 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA

Current account balance: –

$1.139 billion (2015 est.)

-$909 million (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Exports: $726.1 million (2015 est.)

$719.9 million (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Exports—commodities:

coffee, tea, hides, tin ore Exports—partners: Democratic Republic of the Congo 19.8%, US

10.8%, China 10.3%, Swaziland 7.9%,

Malaysia 7%, Pakistan 6.2%, Germany

5.9%, Thailand 5.5% (2015)

Imports: $1.913 billion (2015 est.)

$1.984 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Imports—commodities:

foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material Imports—partners: Uganda

15.7%, Kenya 11.8%, India 8.7%, China

8.7%, UAE 8.6%, Russia 6.6%,

Tanzania 5.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.028 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.005 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 129

Debt—external: $1.778 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.691 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Stock of direct foreign investment—at home: $1.198 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.016 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad: $12.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$12.9 million (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 102 Exchange rates: Rwandan francs

(RWF) per US dollar— 726.9 (2015 est.)

680.95 (2014 est.)

680.95 (2013 est.) 616.6 (2012 est.)

601.83 (2011 est.)

Electricity—production:

310.2 million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

Electricity—consumption:

365.5 million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 173

Electricity—exports: 3 million

kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93

Electricity—imports: 80

million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 99,000 kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 174

Electricity—from fossil fuels: 34.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 173

Electricity—from hydroelectric plants: 65.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

Electricity—from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 124

Crude oil—production: 0

bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184 Crude oil—exports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181

Crude oil—imports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118

Crude oil—proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 183

Refined petroleum products

—production:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

Refined petroleum products

—consumption:

5,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Refined petroleum products

—exports:

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Refined petroleum products

—imports:

5,302 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158 Natural gas—production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Natural gas—consumption:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 188

Natural gas—exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171 Natural gas—imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Natural gas—proved reserves: 56.63 billion cu m (1

January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 769,300 Mt (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 171

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 49,600

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 7.7 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 63

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98 Telephone system: general assessment: small, inadequate telephone

system primarily serves business,

education, and government

domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to provincial centers by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased and now exceeds 40 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code—250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations—1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service) (2010)

Broadcast media: government owns and operates the only TV station; government-owned and operated Radio Rwanda has a national reach;9 private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 10 (two main FM programs are broadcast through a system of repeaters; international FM programming includes the BBC, VOA, and Deutchewelle) (2007)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (2004) Internet country code: .rw Internet hosts: 1,447 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 168 Internet users: total: 1.1 million percent of population: 9.2% (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 120

Airports: 7 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 167

Airports—with paved runways: total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2013) Roadways: total: 4,700 km paved: 1,207 km

unpaved: 3,493 km (2012)

country comparison to the world: 153 Waterways: (Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft)

(2011)

Ports and terminals: lake port(s): Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye (Lake Kivu)

Military branches: Rwanda Defense Force (RDF): Rwanda Army

(Rwanda Land Force), Rwanda Air Force (Force Aerienne Rwandaise, FAR) (2013)

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Rwandan citizenship is required, as is a 9th-grade education for enlisted recruits and an A-level certificate for officer candidates; enlistment is either as contract (5-years, renewable twice) or career; retirement (for officers and senior NCOs) after 20 years of service or at 40–60 years of age (2012)

Military expenditures:

1.12% of GDP (2012)

1.19% of GDP (2011)

1.12% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 91

Disputes—international:

Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akany aru/Kany aru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups—loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic

Republic of the Congo (DROC), Rwanda, and Uganda—abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional cou rts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place

Refugees and internally

displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 79,057 (Burundi); 73,264 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)

IDPs: undetermined (fighting between governm ent and insurgency in 1998–99; returning refugees) (2012)

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