Papua New Guinea: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use


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heavy in the Colon Free Zone; offshore financial center; negligible signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem


Background: The eastern half of the island of New Guinea—second

largest in the world—was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives. Since 2001, Bougainville has experienced autonomy. Under the terms of a peace accord, 2015 is the year that a five-year window opens for a referendum on the question of independence.

Location: Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00

S, 147 00 E

Map references: Oceania Area: total: 462,840 sq km land: 452,860 sq km

water: 9,980 sq km

country comparison to the world: 55 Area—comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total: 824 km

border countries (1): Indonesia 824 km

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March),

southeast monsoon (May to October);

slight seasonal temperature variation Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills Elevation: mean elevation: 667 m

elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, Natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries Land use: agricultural land: 2.6% arable land: 0.7%

permanent crops: 1.5%

permanent pasture: 0.4%

forest: 63.1%

other: 34.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012) Total renewable water resources: 801 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricult

total: 0.39 cu km/yr (57%/43%/0%)

per capita: 61.3 cu m/yr (2005) Natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific “Ring of Fire”; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis

volcanism: severe volcanic activity; Ulawun (elev. 2,334 m), one of Papua New Guinea’s potentially most dangerous volcanoes, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy

of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Rabaul (elev. 688 m) destroyed the city of Rabaul in 1937 and 1994; Lamington erupted in 1951 killing 3,000 people; Manam’s 2004 eruption forced the island’s abandonment; other historically active volcanoes include Bam, Bagana, Garbuna, Karkar, Langila, Lolobau, Long Island, Pago, St. Andrew Strait, Victory, and Waiowa

Environment—current issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought

Environment— international agreements:

party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography—note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; generally east-west trending highlands

break up New Guinea into diverse ecoregions; one of world’s largest swamps along southwest coast

Nationality: noun: Papua New Guinean(s)

adjective: Papua New Guinean








Languages: Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 836 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world’s total); most languages have fewer than 1,000


note: Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understood; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-

Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant

8.9%), Baha’i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs

and other 3.3% (2000 census)

Population: 6,672,429 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 106

Age structure: 0–14 years:

34.45% (male 1,169,870/female


15–24 years: 19.77% (male

668,327/female 650,672)

25–54 years: 36.43% (male

1,253,827/female 1,177,004)

55–64 years: 5.3% (male

179,075/female 174,721)

65 years and over: 4.05% (male 139,060/female 131,242) (2015 est.) Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 67.1%

youth dependency ratio: 62.1%

elderly dependency ratio: 5%

potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015


Median age: total: 22.6 years

male: 22.8 years

female: 22.5 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 173

Population growth rate:

1.78% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 66 Birth rate: 24.38 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58 Death rate: 6.53 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Net migration rate: 0

migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 85 Urbanization: urbanpopulation: 13% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.12% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: PORT MORESBY (capital) 345,000 (2015)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 215 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 51 Infant mortality rate: total:

38.55 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 42.12 deaths/1,000 live births female: 34.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.03 years

male: 64.81 years

female: 69.36 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 169 Total fertility rate: 3.16 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 32.4% (2006/07)

Health expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 137

Physicians density: 0.06

physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking water source:


urban: 88% of population

rural: 32.8% of population total: 40% of population unimproved:

urban: 12% of population

rural: 67.2% of population

total: 60% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:


urban: 56.4% of population rural: 13.3% of population total: 18.9% of population unimproved:

urban: 43.6% of population

rural: 86.7% of population

total: 81.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate: 0.72% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS: 37,200 (2014


country comparison to the world: 69

HIV/AIDS—deaths: 900 (2014


country comparison to the world: 69

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2013)

Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 25.5% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 115

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 27.9%


country comparison to the world: 19 Education expenditures: NA Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 64.2%

male: 65.6%

female: 62.8% (2015 est.)

People—note: the indigenous population of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the most heterogeneous in the world; PNG has several thousand separate communities, most with only a few hundred people; divided by language, customs, and tradition, some of these communities have engaged in low-scale tribal conflict with their neighbors for millennia; the advent of modern weapons and modern migrants into urban areas has greatly magnified the impact of this lawlessness

Country name: conventional long form: Independent State of Papua

New Guinea

conventional short form: Papua New Guinea

local short form: Papuaniugini

former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea

abbreviation: PNG

etymology: the word “papua” derives from the Malay “papuah” describing the frizzy hair of the Melanesians; Spanish explorer Ynigo ORTIZ de RETEZ applied the term “Nueva Guinea” to the island of New Guinea in 1545 after noting the resemblance of the locals to the peoples of the Guinea coast of Africa

Government type: parliamentary

democracy (National Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital: name: Port Moresby

Geographic coordinates: 9 27

S, 147 11 E

time difference: UTC + 10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 20

provinces, 1 autonomous region*, and 1 district**; Bougainville*, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Hela, Jiwaka, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital**, New

Ireland, Northern, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain, West Sepik

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975) Constitution: adopted 15 August

1975, effective at independence 16

September 1975; amended many times, last in 2013; note—in September 2015, the Supreme Court nullified the 2013 constitutional amendment that increased the grace period on motions of no confidence (2016)

Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt Citizenship: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Papua New Guinea

dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Michael OGIO (since 25 February 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister Peter Paire O’NEILL (since 2 August 2011); Deputy Prime Minister Leo DION (since 9 August 2012)

cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general nominated

by the National Parliament and

appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general pending the outcome of a National Parliament vote

election results: Peter Paire O’NEILL (PNC) elected prime minister; National Parliament vote—94 to 12 Legislative branch: description: unicameral national Parliament (111 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies—91 local and 20 provincial—by majority preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); note

—the constitution allows up to 126 seats

note: 14 other parties won 3 or fewer

seats; association with political parties is fluid

elections: last held from 23 June 2012 to 27 July 2012 (next to be held in June 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party

—NA; seats by party—People’s National Congress Party 27, Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party 12, PNG Party 8, National Alliance Party 7, United Resources Party 7, People’s Party 6, People’s Progess Party 6, other 22, independent 16

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and 28 other judges); National Courts (10 courts

located in the province capitals, with a total of 16 resident judges)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the governor- general upon advice of the National Executive Council (cabinet) after consultation with the National Justice Administration Minister; deputy chief justice and other justices appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, a 5-member body to include the Supreme Court chief and deputy chief justices, the chief ombudsman, and a member of the National Parliament; citizen judges appointed for 10-year renewable terms; non-citizen judges appointed for 3-year

renewable terms; appointment and tenure of National Court resident judges NA subordinate courts: district, village, and juvenile courts

Political parties and leaders: National Alliance Party or NA [Patrick PRUAITCHI]

Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Beldan NAMAH]

People’s National Congress Party or PNC [Peter Paire O’NEILL]

People’s Party or PP (merged with PNC) People’s Progress Party or PPP [Sir Julius CHAN]

Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE

United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA]

note: as of 13 March 2012, 41 political parties were registered

Political pressure groups and leaders: Centre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE]

Community Coalition Against Corruption

National Council of Women Transparency International Papau New Guinea or TIPNG (chapter of Transparency International)

International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS,

APEC, ARF, ASEAN (observer), C,

CD, CP, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO


Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rupa Abraham MALINA (since 10 March 2014)

chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680

FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Catherine EBERT-GRAY (since 23 February 2016); note—also accredited to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu

embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby, N.C.D.

mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby Place, US Department of State,

Washington DC 20521–4240

telephone: [675] 321-1455

FAX: [675] 321-3423

Flag description: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner;

the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered; red, black, and yellow are traditional colors of Papua New Guinea; the bird of paradise— endemic to the island of New Guinea— is an emblem of regional tribal culture and represents the emergence of Papua New Guinea as a nation; the Southern Cross, visible in the night sky, symbolizes Papua New Guinea’s connection with Australia and several other countries in the South Pacific

National symbol(s): bird of paradise; National colors: red, black

National anthem: name: “O Arise All You Sons”

lyrics/music: Thomas SHACKLADY

note: adopted 1975

Economy—overview: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is richly endowed with Natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain, land tenure issues, and the high cost of developing infrastructure. The economy has a small formal sector, focused mainly on the export of those Natural resources, and an informal sector, employing the majority of the population. Agriculture provides a

subsistence livelihood for 85% of the people. The global financial crisis had little impact because of continued foreign demand for PNG’s commodities.

Mineral deposits, including copper, gold, and oil, account for nearly two- thirds of export earnings. natural gas reserves amount to an estimated 155 billion cubic meters. A consortium led by a major American oil company is constructing a liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facility that began exporting in April 2014. As the largest investment project in the country’s history, it has the potential to double GDP in the near-term and triple Papua New Guinea’s export revenue. An

American-owned firm also opened PNG’s first oil refinery in 2004 and is building a second LNG production facility. The government faces the challenge of ensuring transparency and accountability for revenues flowing from this and other large LNG projects. In 2011 and 2012, the National Parliament passed legislation that created an offshore Sovereign Wealth Fund to manage government surpluses from mineral, oil, and natural gas projects. In recent years, the government has opened up markets in telecommunications and air transport, making both more affordable to the people.

Numerous challenges still face the

government of Peter O‘NEILL, including providing physical security for foreign investors, regaining investor confidence, restoring integrity to state institutions, promoting economic efficiency by privatizing moribund state institutions, and maintaining good relations with Australia, its former colonial ruler. Other socio-cultural challenges could upend the economy including chronic law and order and land tenure issues.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $20.47 billion (2015 est.)

$18.78 billion (2014 est.)

$17.3 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 143

GDP (official exchange rate): $16.09 billion (2015 est.) GDP—real growth rate: 9% (2015 est.)

8.5% (2014 est.)

5.5% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$2,700 (2015 est.)

$2,500 (2014 est.)

$2,400 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars country comparison to the world: 193 Gross national saving: 24.5%

of GDP (2015 est.)

26.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

8.6% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 56.1%

government consumption: 10.5% investment in fixed capital: 13.4% investment in inventories: 7.7% exports of goods and services: 62.6%

imports of goods and services: -50.3% (2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 23.3%

industry: 38.3%

services: 38.4% (2015 est.) Agriculture—products: coffee, cocoa, copra, palm kernels, tea, sugar,

rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables,

vanilla; poultry, pork; shellfish Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood

chip production; mining (gold, silver,

copper); crude oil and petroleum products; construction, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 10.8% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 4

Labor force: 4.267 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 91

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 85%

industry: NA%

services: NA% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.9%

(2008 est.)

1.6% (2004)

country comparison to the world: 11

Population below poverty line: 37% (2002 est.)

Household income or

consumption by percentage share: lowest: 10%: 1.7%

highest: 10%: 40.5% (1996)

Distribution of family income—Gini index: 50.9


country comparison to the world: 18 Budget: revenues: $4.142 billion expenditures: $5.643 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 23% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): -8.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 199 Public debt: 48.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

41.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84 Fiscal year: calendar year Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (2015 est.)

5.3% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186

Central bank discount rate:

14% (31 December 2010)

6.92% (31 December 2009)

country comparison to the world: 14

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 9.1% (31 December

2015 est.)

9.38% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94

Stock of narrow money:

$5.113 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$5.034 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 98 Stock of broad money: $8.085 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$7.477 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Stock of domestic credit:

$6.347 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$6.125 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 115

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$10.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$8.999 billion (31 December 2011)

$9.742 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Current account balance:

$444 million (2015 est.)

-$703 million (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Exports: $8.653 billion (2015 est.)

$8.941 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Exports—commodities: oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns

Exports—partners: Japan 17.4%, Australia 15.9%, China 12.1%


Imports: $3.311 billion (2015 est.)

$4.013 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142


machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals

Imports—partners: Australia 25.9%, China 20%, Singapore 12.6%,

Malaysia 7.2%, US 4.2%, Indonesia

4.1%, South Korea 4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.966 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.305 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 106 Debt—external: $26.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$21.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Stock of direct foreign investment—at home: $NA Stock of direct foreign

investment—abroad: $NA Exchange rates: kina (PGK) per US dollar—

2.748 (2015 est.)

2.4614 (2014 est.)

2.4614 (2013 est.)

2.08 (2012 est.)

2.371 (2011 est.)

Electricity—production: 3.35 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130


3.116 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Electricity—exports: 0 kWh

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184

Electricity—imports: 0 kWh

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 190

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 700,000

kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Electricity—from fossil fuels: 61.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 129

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Electricity—from hydroelectric plants: 30.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Electricity—from other renewable sources: 8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Crude oil—production:

34,210 bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Crude oil—exports: 25,400

bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Crude oil—imports: 14,880

bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72

Crude oil—proved reserves:

175.2 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

Refined petroleum products

—production: 17,330 bbl/day

(2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 20,000 bbl/day

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Refined petroleum products

—exports: 3,536 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Refined petroleum products

—imports: 5,933 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154 Natural gas—production: 110 million cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Natural gas—consumption:

110 million cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108 Natural gas—exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166 Natural gas—imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Natural gas—proved reserves: 155.3 billion cu m (1

January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of

energy: 3.385 million Mt (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 150,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 3.4 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 51

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Telephone system: general

assessment: services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services

domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available although combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to roughly 40 per 100 persons

international: country code—675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station—1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service (2009)

Broadcast media: TV stations, 1 commercial station operating since the

late 1980s, and 1 state-run station launched in 2008; satellite and cable TV services are available; state-run National Broadcasting Corporation operates radio networks with multiple repeaters and about 20 provincial stations; several commercial radio stations with multiple transmission points as well as several community stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are accessible (2009)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (all in the Port Moresby area; stations at Mt. Hagen, Goroka, Lae, and Rabaul are

planned) (2004)

Internet country code: .pg Internet hosts: 5,006 (2012) country comparison to the world: 145 Internet users: total: 164,500 percent of population: 2.5% (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 162

Airports: 561 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 12

Airports—with paved runways: total: 21

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 540

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 53

under 914 m: 476 (2013)

Heliports: 2 (2013)

Pipelines: oil 264 km (2013) Roadways: total: 9,349 km paved: 3,000 km

unpaved: 6,349 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 138

Waterways: 11,000 km (2011) country comparison to the world: 11 Merchant marine: total: 31

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 22, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 8 (Germany 1, Malaysia

1, UAE 6) (2010)

country comparison to the world: 83 Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Kimbe, Lae, Madang,

Rabaul, Wewak

LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Moresby

Military branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF;

includes Maritime Operations Element, Air Operations Element) (2013)

Military service age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; graduation from grade 12 required (2013)

Military expenditures: 0.54%

of GDP (2012)

0.6% of GDP (2011)

0.54% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 127


relies on assistance from Australia to

keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists

Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 9,368 (Indonesia) (2014)

IDPs: 6,300 (Natural disasters, tribal conflict, inter-communal violence, development projects) (2015) Trafficking in persons: current

situation: Papua New Guinea is a

source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex

trafficking and forced labor; foreign and Papua New Guinean women and children are subjected to sex trafficking, domestic servitude, forced begging, and street vending; parents may sell girls into forced marriages to settle debts or as peace offerings or trade them to another tribe to forge a political alliance, leaving them vulnerable to forced domestic service, or, in urban areas, they may prostitute their children for income or to pay school fees; Chinese, Malaysian, and local men are forced to labor in logging and mining camps through debt bondage schemes; migrant women from Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, China, and the

Philippines are subjected to sex trafficking and domestic servitude at logging and mining camps, fisheries, and entertainment sites

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List— Papua New Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the Criminal Code Amendment of 2013, which prohibits all forms of trafficking was brought into force in 2014; the government also formed an anti- trafficking committee, which drafted a National action plan; despite corruption problems, trafficking-related crimes were prosecuted in village courts rather

than criminal courts, resulting in restitution to the victim but no prison time for offenders; the government did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any officials or law enforcement personnel complicit in trafficking offenses; the government made no efforts to proactively identify trafficking victims, has no formal victim identification and referral mechanism, and does not provide care facilities to victims or funding to shelters run by NGOs or international organizations (2015)

Illicit drugs: major consumer of cannabis


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