Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power
Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power

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As Amended Through 9 June 2004


objective — 1. The clearly defined, decisive, and attainable goals towards which every military operation should be directed. 2. The specific target of the action taken (for example, a definite terrain feature, the seizure or holding of which is essential to the commander’s plan, or, an enemy force or capability without regard to terrain features). See also target. (JP 3-0)

objective area — (*) A defined geographical area within which is located an objective to be captured or reached by the military forces. This area is defined by competent authority for purposes of command and control. Also called OA.

objective force level — The level of military forces that needs to be attained within a finite time frame and resource level to accomplish approved military objectives, missions, or tasks. See also military requirement.

obligated reservist — An individual who has a statutory requirement imposed by the Military Selective Service Act of 1967 or Section 651, Title 10, United States Code, to serve on active duty in the armed forces or to serve while not on active duty in a Reserve Component for a period not to exceed that prescribed by the applicable statute.

oblique air photograph — (*) An air photograph taken with the camera axis directed between the horizontal and vertical planes. Commonly referred to as an “oblique.” a. High Oblique. One in which the apparent horizon appears. b. Low Oblique. One in which the apparent horizon does not appear.

oblique air photograph strip — Photographic strip composed of oblique air photographs.

obliquity — The characteristic in wide-angle or oblique photography that portrays the terrain and objects at such an angle and range that details necessary for interpretation are seriously masked or are at a very small scale, rendering interpretation difficult or impossible.

observation helicopter — (*) Helicopter used primarily for observation and reconnaissance, but which may be used for other roles.

observation post — (*) A position from which military observations are made, or fire directed and adjusted, and which possesses appropriate communications; may be airborne. Also called OP.

observed fire — (*) Fire for which the point of impact or burst can be seen by an observer. The fire can be controlled and adjusted on the basis of observation. See also fire.

observed fire procedure — (*) A standardized procedure for use in adjusting indirect fire on a target.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

observer-target line — (*) An imaginary straight line from the observer/spotter to the target.

See also spotting line.

observer-target range — The distance along an imaginary straight line from the observer or spotter to the target.

obstacle — Any obstruction designed or employed to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the movement of an opposing force, and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. Obstacles can be natural, manmade, or a combination of both. (JP 3-15)

obstacle belt — A brigade-level command and control measure, normally given graphically, to show where within an obstacle zone the ground tactical commander plans to limit friendly obstacle employment and focus the defense. It assigns an intent to the obstacle plan and provides the necessary guidance on the overall effect of obstacles within a belt. See also obstacle. (JP 3-15)

obstacle clearing — The total elimination or neutralization of obstacles.

obstacle restricted areas — A command and control measure used to limit the type or number of obstacles within an area. See also obstacle. (JP 3-15)

obstacle zone — A division-level command and control measure, normally done graphically, to designate specific land areas where lower echelons are allowed to employ tactical obstacles. See also obstacle. (JP 3-15)

obstructor — (*) In naval mine warfare, a device laid with the sole object of obstructing or damaging mechanical minesweeping equipment.

occupational and environmental health threats — Threats to the health of military personnel and to military readiness created by exposure to hazardous agents, environmental contamination, or toxic industrial materials. See also health threat. (JP 4-02)

occupation currency — See military currency.

occupied territory — Territory under the authority and effective control of a belligerent armed force. The term is not applicable to territory being administered pursuant to peace terms, treaty, or other agreement, express or implied, with the civil authority of the territory. See also civil affairs agreement.

Ocean Cargo Clearance Authority — The Military Traffic Management Command activity that books Department of Defense (DOD) sponsored cargo and passengers for surface movement, performs related contract administration, and accomplishes export and import surface traffic management functions for DOD cargo moving within the Defense Transportation System. Also called OCCA.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

ocean convoy — (*) A convoy whose voyage lies, in general, outside the continental shelf. See also convoy.

ocean manifest — (*) A detailed listing of the entire cargo loaded into any one ship showing all pertinent data which will readily identify such cargo and where and how the cargo is stowed.

oceanography — The study of the sea, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the sea and its physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of seawater, and marine biology.

ocean station ship — (*) A ship assigned to operate within a specified area to provide several services, including search and rescue, meteorological information, navigational aid, and communications facilities.

offensive counterair — Offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, missiles, launch platforms, and their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible. Offensive counterair operations range throughout enemy territory and are generally conducted at the initiative of friendly forces. These operations include attack operations, fighter sweep, escort, and suppression of enemy air defenses. Also called OCA. See also counterair; defensive counterair; operation. (JP 3-01)

offensive counterair attack operations — Offensive action in support of the offensive counterair mission against surface targets that contribute to the enemy’s air power capabilities. The objective of attack operations is to prevent the hostile use of aircraft and missile forces by attacking targets such as missile launch sites, airfields, naval vessels, command and control nodes, munitions stockpiles, and supporting infrastructure. Attack operations may be performed by fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft, surface-to-surface weapons, special operations forces, or ground forces. Also called OCA attack ops. See also counterair; offensive counterair.

offensive information operations — The integrated use of assigned and supporting capabilities and activities, mutually supported by intelligence, to affect adversary decision makers to achieve or promote specific objectives. These capabilities and activities include but are not limited to operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, physical attack and/or destruction, and special information operations, and could also include computer network attack. See also computer network attack; defensive information operations; electronic warfare; information operations; intelligence; military deception; operations security; psychological operations; special information operations. (JP 3-13)

offensive minefield — (*) In naval mine warfare, a minefield laid in enemy territorial water or waters under enemy control.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

officer in tactical command — In maritime usage, the senior officer present eligible to assume command, or the officer to whom the senior officer has delegated tactical command. Also called OTC.

officer of the deck — The officer of the deck under way has been designated by the commanding officer to be in charge of the ship, including its safe and proper operation. The officer of the deck reports directly to the commanding officer for the safe navigation and general operation of the ship, to the executive officer (and command duty officer if appointed) for carrying out the ship’s routine, and to the navigator on sighting navigational landmarks and making course and speed changes. Also called OOD. (JP 3-04.1)

official information — Information that is owned by, produced for or by, or is subject to the control of the United States Government.

off-load preparation party — A temporary task organization of Navy and Marine maintenance, embarkation, equipment operators, and cargo-handling personnel deployed to the maritime pre-positioning ship before or during its transit to the objective area to prepare the ship’s off-load systems and embarked equipment for off-load. Also called OPP. See also task organization. (JP 4-01.8)

offset bombing — (*) Any bombing procedure which employs a reference or aiming point other than the actual target.

offset costs — Costs for which funds have been appropriated but will not be obligated because of a contingency operation. See also contingency operation. (JP 1-06)

offset distance (nuclear) — The distance the desired ground zero or actual ground zero is offset from the center of an area target or from a point target.

offset lasing — The technique of aiming a laser designator at a point other than the target and, after laser acquisition, moving the laser to designate the target for terminal attack guidance. See also laser target designator. (JP 3-09.1)

offshore assets — Oil and gas facilities, mining and industrial installations, ocean thermal energy conversion facilities, deep water ports, aids to navigation, and nuclear power plants located or in operation seaward of the coastline.

offshore bulk fuel system — The system used for transferring fuel from points offshore to reception facilities on the beach. It consists of two subsystems: amphibious assault bulk fuel system and the offshore petroleum discharge system. See also amphibious assault bulk fuel system; offshore petroleum discharge system. (JP 4-01.6)

offshore patrol — (*) A naval defense patrol operating in the outer areas of navigable coastal waters. It is a part of the naval local defense forces consisting of naval ships and aircraft and operates outside those areas assigned to the inshore patrol.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

offshore petroleum discharge system — Provides a semipermanent, all-weather facility for bulk transfer of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) directly from an offshore tanker to a beach termination unit (BTU) located immediately inland from the high watermark. POL then is either transported inland or stored in the beach support area. Major offshore petroleum discharge systems (OPDS) components are: the OPDS tanker with booster pumps and spread mooring winches; a recoverable single anchor leg mooring (SALM) to accommodate tankers of up to 70,000 deadweight tons; ship to SALM hose lines; up to 4 miles of 6-inch (internal diameter) conduit for pumping to the beach; and two BTUs to interface with the shoreside systems. OPDS can support a two-line system for multiproduct discharge, but ship standoff distance is reduced from 4 to 2 miles. Amphibious construction battalions install the OPDS with underwater construction team assistance. OPDS are embarked on selected Ready Reserve Force tankers modified to support the system. Also called OPDS. See also facility; petroleum, oil, and lubricants; single-anchor leg mooring. (JP 4-03)

off-the-shelf item — An item that has been developed and produced to military or commercial standards and specifications, is readily available for delivery from an industrial source, and may be procured without change to satisfy a military requirement.

oiler — (*) A naval or merchant tanker specially equipped and rigged for replenishing other ships at sea.

on berth — Said of a ship when it is properly moored to a quay, wharf, jetty, pier, or buoy or when it is at anchor and available for loading or discharging passengers and cargo.

on-call — 1. A term used to signify that a prearranged concentration, air strike, or final protective fire may be called for. 2. Preplanned, identified force or materiel requirements without designated time-phase and destination information. Such requirements will be called forward upon order of competent authority. See also call for fire.

on-call resupply — A resupply mission planned before insertion of a special operations team into the operations area but not executed until requested by the operating team. See also automatic resupply; emergency resupply. (JP 3-05.1)

on-call targets — Planned targets that are known to exist in an operational area and are located in sufficient time for deliberate planning to meet emerging situations specific to campaign objectives. See also on-call; operational area; target. (JP 3-60)

on-call target (nuclear) — A planned nuclear target other than a scheduled nuclear target for which a need can be anticipated but which will be delivered upon request rather than at a specific time. Coordination and warning of friendly troops and aircraft are mandatory.

on-call wave — See wave.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

one day’s supply — (*) A unit or quantity of supplies adopted as a standard of measurement, used in estimating the average daily expenditure under stated conditions. It may also be expressed in terms of a factor, e.g., rounds of ammunition per weapon per day.

one-look circuit — (*) A mine circuit which requires actuation by a given influence once only.

on hand — The quantity of an item that is physically available in a storage location and contained in the accountable property book records of an issuing activity.

on-scene commander — 1. The person designated to coordinate the rescue efforts at the rescue site. 2. Federal officer designated to direct federal crisis and consequence management efforts at the scene of a terrorist or weapons of mass destruction incident. Also called OSC.

on-station time — The time an aircraft can remain on station. May be determined by endurance or orders.

open improved storage space — Open area that has been graded and hard surfaced or prepared with topping of some suitable material so as to permit effective materials handling operations. See also storage.

open ocean — Ocean limit defined as greater than 12 nautical miles (nm) from shore, as compared with high seas that are over 200 nm from shore. See also contiguous zone.

open route — (*) A route not subject to traffic or movement control restrictions.

open-source intelligence — Information of potential intelligence value that is available to the general public. Also called OSINT. See also intelligence. (JP 2-0)

open unimproved wet space — That water area specifically allotted to and usable for storage of floating equipment. See also storage.

operating forces — Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof. See also combat forces; combat service support element; combat support elements.

operating level of supply — The quantities of materiel required to sustain operations in the interval between requisitions or the arrival of successive shipments. These quantities should be based on the established replenishment period (monthly, quarterly, etc.) See also level of supply.

operation — 1. A military action or the carrying out of a strategic, operational, tactical, service, training, or administrative military mission. 2. The process of carrying on combat, including movement, supply, attack, defense, and maneuvers needed to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

operational architecture — Descriptions of the tasks, operational elements, and information flows required to accomplish or support a warfighting function.

operational area — An overarching term encompassing more descriptive terms for geographic areas in which military operations are conducted. Operational areas include, but are not limited to, such descriptors as area of responsibility, theater of war, theater of operations, joint operations area, amphibious objective area, joint special operations area, and area of operations. See also amphibious objective area; area of operations; area of responsibility; joint operations area; joint special operations area; theater of operations; theater of war. (JP 3-0)

operational art — The employment of military forces to attain strategic and/or operational objectives through the design, organization, integration, and conduct of strategies, campaigns, major operations, and battles. Operational art translates the joint force commander’s strategy into operational design and, ultimately, tactical action, by integrating the key activities at all levels of war. (JP 3-0)

operational authority — That authority exercised by a commander in the chain of command, defined further as combatant command (command authority), operational control, tactical control, or a support relationship. See also combatant command (command authority); in support of; operational control; support; tactical control. (JP 0-2)

operational characteristics — Those military characteristics that pertain primarily to the functions to be performed by equipment, either alone or in conjunction with other equipment; e.g., for electronic equipment, operational characteristics include such items as frequency coverage, channeling, type of modulation, and character of emission.

operational control — Command authority that may be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of combatant command. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority) and may be delegated within the command. When forces are transferred between combatant commands, the command relationship the gaining commander will exercise (and the losing commander will relinquish) over these forces must be specified by the Secretary of Defense. Operational control is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Operational control includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command. Operational control should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service and/or functional component commanders. Operational control normally provides full authority to organize commands and forces and to employ those forces as the commander in operational control considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions; it does not, in and of itself, include authoritative direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

training. Also called OPCON. See also combatant command; combatant command (command authority); tactical control. (JP 0-2)

operational control authority — (*) The naval commander responsible within a specified geographical area for the naval control of all merchant shipping under Allied naval control. Also called OCA.

operational decontamination — (*) Decontamination carried out by an individual and/or a unit, restricted to specific parts of operationally essential equipment, materiel and/or working areas, in order to minimize contact and transfer hazards and to sustain operations. This may include decontamination of the individual beyond the scope of immediate decontamination, as well as decontamination of mission-essential spares and limited terrain decontamination. See also decontamination; immediate decontamination; thorough decontamination.

operational design — The key considerations used as a framework in the course of planning for a campaign or major operation. See also campaign; major operation. (JP 5-00.1)

operational documentation — Visual information documentation of activities to convey information about people, places, and things. It is general purpose documentation normally accomplished in peacetime. Also called OPDOC. See also visual information documentation.

operational environment — A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander. Some examples are as follows. a. permissive environment — Operational environment in which host country military and law enforcement agencies have control as well as the intent and capability to assist operations that a unit intends to conduct. b. uncertain environment — Operational environment in which host government forces, whether opposed to or receptive to operations that a unit intends to conduct, do not have totally effective control of the territory and population in the intended operational area. c. hostile environment — Operational environment in which hostile forces have control as well as the intent and capability to effectively oppose or react to the operations a unit intends to conduct. (JP 3-05.1)

operational evaluation — The test and analysis of a specific end item or system, insofar as practicable under Service operating conditions, in order to determine if quantity production is warranted considering: a. the increase in military effectiveness to be gained; and b. its effectiveness as compared with currently available items or systems, consideration being given to: (1) personnel capabilities to maintain and operate the equipment; (2) size, weight, and location considerations; and (3) enemy capabilities in the field. See also technical evaluation.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

operational intelligence — Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or operational areas. See also intelligence; strategic intelligence; tactical intelligence. (JP 2-0)

operational level of war — The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or other operational areas. Activities at this level link tactics and strategy by establishing operational objectives needed to accomplish the strategic objectives, sequencing events to achieve the operational objectives, initiating actions, and applying resources to bring about and sustain these events. These activities imply a broader dimension of time or space than do tactics; they ensure the logistic and administrative support of tactical forces, and provide the means by which tactical successes are exploited to achieve strategic objectives. See also strategic level of war; tactical level of war. (JP 3-0)

operationally ready — 1. A unit, ship, or weapon system capable of performing the missions or functions for which organized or designed. Incorporates both equipment readiness and personnel readiness. 2. Personnel available and qualified to perform assigned missions or functions.

operational necessity — A mission associated with war or peacetime operations in which the consequences of an action justify the risk of loss of aircraft and crew. See also mission. (JP 3-04.1)

operational procedures — (*) The detailed methods by which headquarters and units carry out their operational tasks.

operational reach — The distance and duration across which a unit can successfully employ military capabilities. (JP 3-0)

operational readiness — (*) The capability of a unit/formation, ship, weapon system, or equipment to perform the missions or functions for which it is organized or designed. May be used in a general sense or to express a level or degree of readiness. Also called OR. See also combat readiness.

operational readiness evaluation — (*) An evaluation of the operational capability and effectiveness of a unit or any portion thereof.

operational requirement — See military requirement.

Operational Requirements Document — A formatted statement containing performance and related operational parameters for the proposed concept or system. Prepared by the user or user’s representative at each milestone beginning with Milestone I, Concept Demonstration Approval of the Requirements Generation Process. Also called ORD.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

operational reserve — An emergency reserve of men and/or materiel established for the support of a specific operation. See also reserve supplies.

operational route — (*) Land route allocated to a command for the conduct of a specific operation; derived from the corresponding basic military route network.

operational support airlift — Operational support airlift (OSA) missions are movements of high-priority passengers and cargo with time, place, or mission-sensitive requirements. OSA aircraft are those fixed-wing aircraft acquired and/or retained exclusively for OSA missions, as well as any other Department of Defense-owned or controlled aircraft, fixed- or rotary-wing, used for OSA purposes. Also called OSA. See also aircraft. (JP 4-01)

operational testing — Acontinuing process of evaluation that may be applied to either operational personnel or situations to determine their validity or reliability.

operational training — (*) Training that develops, maintains, or improves the operational readiness of individuals or units.

operation and maintenance — Maintenance and repair of real property, operation of utilities, and provision of other services such as refuse collection and disposal, entomology, snow removal, and ice alleviation. Also called O&M. (JP 4-04)

operation annexes — Those amplifying instructions that are of such a nature, or are so voluminous or technical, as to make their inclusion in the body of the plan or order undesirable.

operation exposure guide — The maximum amount of nuclear radiation that the commander considers a unit may be permitted to receive while performing a particular mission or missions. Also called OEG. See also radiation exposure status.

operation map — A map showing the location and strength of friendly forces involved in an operation. It may indicate predicted movement and location of enemy forces. See also map.

operation order — A directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation. Also called OPORD.

operation plan — Any plan, except for the Single Integrated Operational Plan, for the conduct of military operations. Plans are prepared by combatant commanders in response to requirements established by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and by commanders of subordinate commands in response to requirements tasked by the establishing unified commander. Operation plans are prepared in either a complete format (OPLAN) or as a concept plan (CONPLAN). The CONPLAN can be published with or without a time- phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) file. a. OPLAN — An operation plan for the conduct of joint operations that can be used as a basis for development of an operation order (OPORD). An OPLAN identifies the forces and supplies required to execute the

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

combatant commander’s strategic concept and a movement schedule of these resources to the theater of operations. The forces and supplies are identified in TPFDD files. OPLANs will include all phases of the tasked operation. The plan is prepared with the appropriate annexes, appendixes, and TPFDD files as described in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System manuals containing planning policies, procedures, and formats. Also called OPLAN. b. CONPLAN — An operation plan in an abbreviated format that would require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into an OPLAN or OPORD. A CONPLAN contains the combatant commander’s strategic concept and those annexes and appendixes deemed necessary by the combatant commander to complete planning. Generally, detailed support requirements are not calculated and TPFDD files are not prepared. c. CONPLAN with TPFDD — A CONPLAN with TPFDD is the same as a CONPLAN except that it requires more detailed planning for phased deployment of forces. Also called CONPLAN. See also operation order; time-phased force and deployment data. (JP 3-30)

operations center — The facility or location on an installation, base, or facility used by the commander to command, control, and coordinate all crisis activities. See also base defense operations center; command center. (JP 3-07.2)

operations research — The analytical study of military problems undertaken to provide responsible commanders and staff agencies with a scientific basis for decision on action to improve military operations. Also called operational research; operations analysis.

operations security — A process of identifying critical information and subsequently analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities to: a. identify those actions that can be observed by adversary intelligence systems; b. determine indicators that hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information in time to be useful to adversaries; and c. select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to adversary exploitation. Also called OPSEC. See also command and control warfare; operations security indicators; operations security measures; operations security planning guidance; operations security vulnerabilbity. (JP 3-07.2)

operations security indicators — Friendly detectable actions and open-source information that can be interpreted or pieced together by an adversary to derive critical information.

operations security measures — Methods and means to gain and maintain essential secrecy about critical information. The following categories apply. a. action control — The objective is to eliminate indicators or the vulnerability of actions to exploitation by adversary intelligence systems. Personnel will select what actions to undertake; decide whether or not to execute actions; and determine the “who,” “when,” “where,” and “how” for actions necessary to accomplish tasks. b. countermeasures — The objective is to disrupt effective adversary information gathering or prevent their recognition of indicators when collected materials are processed. Use diversions, camouflage, concealment, jamming, threats, police powers, and force against adversary information gathering and processing capabilities. c.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

counteranalysis — The objective is to prevent accurate interpretations of indicators during adversary analysis of collected materials. This is done by confusing the adversary analyst through deception techniques such as covers.

operations security planning guidance — Guidance that serves as the blueprint for operations security planning by all functional elements throughout the organization. It defines the critical information that requires protection from adversary appreciations, taking into account friendly and adversary goals, estimated key adversary questions, probable adversary knowledge, desirable and harmful adversary appreciations, and pertinent intelligence system threats. It also should outline provisional operations security measures to ensure the requisite essential secrecy.

operations security vulnerability — A condition in which friendly actions provide operations security indicators that may be obtained and accurately evaluated by an adversary in time to provide a basis for effective adversary decisionmaking.

operations to restore order — Operations intended to halt violence and support, reinstate, or establish civil authorities. They are designed to return an unstable and lawless environment to the point where indigenous police forces can effectively enforce the law and restore civil authority. See also operation; peace operations. (JP 3-07.3)

opportune lift — That portion of lift capability available for use after planned requirements have been met.

opportunity target — See target of opportunity.

opposite numbers — Officers (including foreign) having corresponding duty assignments within their respective Military Services or establishments.

optical axis — (*) In a lens element, the straight line which passes through the centers of curvature of the lens surfaces. In an optical system, the line formed by the coinciding principal axes of the series of optical elements.

optical minehunting — (*) The use of an optical system (e.g., television or towed diver) to detect and classify mines or minelike objects on or protruding from the seabed.

optimum height — (*) The height of an explosion which will produce the maximum effect against a given target.

optimum height of burst — (*) For nuclear weapons and for a particular target (or area), the height at which it is estimated a weapon of a specified energy yield will produce a certain desired effect over the maximum possible area.

orbital injection — The process of providing a space vehicle with sufficient velocity to establish an orbit.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

orbit determination — The process of describing the past, present, or predicted position of a satellite in terms of orbital parameters.

orbit point — (*) A geographically or electronically defined location used in stationing aircraft in flight during tactical operations when a predetermined pattern is not established. See also holding point.

order — (*) A communication, written, oral, or by signal, which conveys instructions from a superior to a subordinate. (DOD only) In a broad sense, the terms “order” and “command” are synonymous. However, an order implies discretion as to the details of execution whereas a command does not.

order and shipping time — The time elapsing between the initiation of stock replenishment action for a specific activity and the receipt by that activity of the materiel resulting from such action. Order and shipping time is applicable only to materiel within the supply system, and it is composed of the distinct elements, order time, and shipping time. See also level of supply.

order of battle — (*) The identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the personnel, units, and equipment of any military force. Also called OB; OOB. (JP 2-01.3)

order time — 1. The time elapsing between the initiation of stock replenishment action and submittal of requisition or order. 2. The time elapsing between the submittal of requisition or order and shipment of materiel by the supplying activity. See also order and shipping time.

ordinary transport — (*) In railway terminology, transport of a load whose size, weight, or preparation does not entail special difficulties vis-à-vis the facilities or equipment of the railway systems to be used. See also exceptional transport.

ordnance — Explosives, chemicals, pyrotechnics, and similar stores, e.g., bombs, guns and ammunition, flares, smoke, or napalm.

organic — Assigned to and forming an essential part of a military organization. Organic parts of a unit are those listed in its table of organization for the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and are assigned to the administrative organizations of the operating forces for the Navy.

organizational equipment — Referring to method of use: signifies that equipment (other than individual equipment) used in furtherance of the common mission of an organization or unit. See also equipment.

organizational maintenance — That maintenance that is the responsibility of and performed by a using organization on its assigned equipment. Its phases normally consist of inspecting,

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

servicing, lubricating, and adjusting, as well as the replacing of parts, minor assemblies, and subassemblies.

organization for combat — In amphibious operations, task organization of landing force units for combat, involving combinations of command, ground and aviation combat, combat support, and combat service support units for accomplishment of missions ashore. See also amphibious operation; task organization. (JP 3-02)

organization for embarkation — In amphibious operations, the organization for embarkation consisting of temporary landing force task organizations established by the commander, landing force and a temporary organization of Navy forces established by the commander, amphibious task force for the purpose of simplifying planning and facilitating the execution of embarkation. See also amphibious operation; embarkation; landing force; task organization. (JP 3-02)

organization for landing — In amphibious operations, the specific tactical grouping of the landing force for the assault. (JP 3-02)

organization of the ground — (*) The development of a defensive position by strengthening the natural defenses of the terrain and by assignment of the occupying troops to specific localities.

Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force — A network of 13 regional organized crime drug enforcement task forces designed to coordinate Federal law enforcement efforts to combat the national and international organizations that cultivate, process, and distribute illicit drugs. Also called OCDETF. (JP 3-07.4)

origin — Beginning point of a deployment where unit or non-unit-related cargo or personnel are located.

original destination — (*) In naval control of shipping, the original final destination of a convoy or an individual ship (whether in convoy or independent). This is particularly applicable to the original destination of a voyage begun in peacetime.

original negative — See generation (photography). original positive — See generation (photography).

originating medical facility — (*) A medical facility that initially transfers a patient to another medical facility.

originator — The command by whose authority a message is sent. The responsibility of the originator includes the responsibility for the functions of the drafter and the releasing officer. See also releasing officer.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

oropesa sweep — (*) In naval mine warfare, a form of sweep in which a length of sweep wire is towed by a single ship, lateral displacement being caused by an otter and depth being controlled at the ship end by a kite and at the other end by a float and float wire.

orthomorphic projection — (*) A projection in which the scale, although varying throughout the map, is the same in all directions at any point, so that very small areas are represented by correct shape and bearings are correct.

oscillating mine — (*) A mine, hydrostatically controlled, which maintains a pre-set depth below the surface of the water independently of the rise and fall of the tide. See also mine.

other detainee — Person in the custody of the US Armed Forces who has not been classified as an enemy prisoner of war (article 4, Geneva Convention of 1949 Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (GPW)), retained personnel (article 33, GPW), or civilian internee (article 78, Geneva Convention). Also called OD. See also civilian internee; custody; detainee; prisoner of war; retained personnel. (JP 1-0)

other war reserve materiel requirement — War reserve materiel requirement less the pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement.

other war reserve materiel requirement, balance — That portion of the other war reserve materiel requirement that has not been acquired or funded. This level consists of the other war reserve materiel requirement less the other war reserve materiel requirement protectable.

other war reserve materiel requirement, protectable — The portion of the other war reserve materiel requirement that is protected for purposes of procurement, funding, and inventory management.

other war reserve stock — The quantity of an item acquired and placed in stock against the other war reserve materiel requirement.

otter — (*) In naval mine warfare, a device which, when towed, displaces itself sideways to a predetermined distance.

outbound traffic — Traffic originating in the continental United States destined for overseas or overseas traffic moving in a general direction away from the continental United States.

outer fix — A fix in the destination terminal area, other than the approach fix, to which aircraft are normally cleared by an air route traffic control center or a terminal area traffic control facility, and from which aircraft are cleared to the approach fix or final approach course.

outer landing ship areas — In amphibious operations, areas to which landing ships proceed initially after their arrival in the objective area. They are usually located on the flanks of the outer transport areas. (JP 3-02)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

outer transport area — In amphibious operations, an area inside the antisubmarine screen to which assault transports proceed initially after arrival in the objective area. See also inner transport area; transport area.

outline map — (*) A map which represents just sufficient geographic information to permit the correlation of additional data placed upon it.

outline plan — (*) A preliminary plan which outlines the salient features or principles of a course of action prior to the initiation of detailed planning.

outsized cargo — Cargo which exceeds the dimensions of oversized cargo and requires the use of a C-5 or C-17 aircraft or surface transportation. A single item that exceeds 1,000 inches long by 117 inches wide by 105 inches high in any one dimension. See also oversized cargo. (JP 3-17)

overhaul — The restoration of an item to a completely serviceable condition as prescribed by maintenance serviceability standards. See also rebuild; repair.

overhead clearance — The vertical distance between the route surface and any obstruction above it.

overlap — 1. In photography, the amount by which one photograph includes the same area covered by another, customarily expressed as a percentage. The overlap between successive air photographs on a flight line is called “forward overlap.” The overlap between photographs in adjacent parallel flight lines is called “side overlap.” 2. In cartography, that portion of a map or chart that overlaps the area covered by another of the same series. 3. In naval mine warfare, the width of that part of the swept path of a ship or formation that is also swept by an adjacent sweeper or formation or is reswept on the next adjacent lap.

overlay — A printing or drawing on a transparent or semi-transparent medium at the same scale as a map, chart, etc., to show details not appearing or requiring special emphasis on the original.

overpressure — (*) The pressure resulting from the blast wave of an explosion. It is referred to as “positive” when it exceeds atmospheric pressure and “negative” during the passage of the wave when resulting pressures are less than atmospheric pressure.

overprint — (*) Information printed or stamped upon a map or chart, in addition to that originally printed, to show data of importance or special use.

overseas — All locations, including Alaska and Hawaii, outside the continental United States.

Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document — A set of objective criteria and management practices developed by the Department of Defense to protect human health and the environment. Also called OEBGD. (JP 4-04)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

overseas search and rescue region — Overseas unified command areas (or portions thereof not included within the inland region or the maritime region). See also search and rescue region.

oversized cargo — 1. Large items of specific equipment such as a barge, side loadable warping tug, causeway section, powered, or causeway section, nonpowered. Requires transport by sea. 2. Air cargo exceeding the usable dimension of a 463L pallet loaded to the design height of 96 inches, but equal to or less than 1,000 inches in length, 117 inches in width, and 105 inches in height. This cargo is air transportable on the C-5, C-17, C-141, C-130, KC-10 and most civilian contract cargo carriers. See also outsized cargo. (JP 3-17)

over the beach operations — See logistics over-the-shore operations.

over-the-horizon amphibious operations — An operational initiative launched from beyond visual and radar range of the shoreline. (JP 3-02)

over-the-horizon radar — A radar system that makes use of the atmospheric reflection and refraction phenomena to extend its range of detection beyond line of sight. Over-the-horizon radars may be either forward scatter or back scatter systems.

overt operation — An operation conducted openly, without concealment. See also clandestine operation; covert operation. (JP 3-05.1)

overt peacetime psychological operations programs — Those programs developed by combatant commands, in coordination with the chiefs of US diplomatic missions, that plan, support, and provide for the conduct of psychological operations, during military operations other than war, in support of US regional objectives, policies, interests, and theater military missions. Also called OP3. See also consolidation psychological operations; psychological operations. (JP 3-53)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

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