Netherlands: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use


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point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West


Background: The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence

from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830, Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, but suffered German invasion and occupation in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU) and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999. In October 2010, the

former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands

—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba— became special municipalities in the Netherlands administrative structure. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao joined the Netherlands and Aruba as constituent countries forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52

30 N, 5 45 E

Map references: Europe Area: total: 41,543 sq km land: 33,893 sq km

water: 7,650 sq km

country comparison to the world: 135 Area—comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: total: 1,053 km

border countries (2): Belgium 478 km,

Germany 575 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast

Elevation: mean elevation: 30 m elevation extremes: lowest point: Zuidplaspolder -7 m

highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m (on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, now considered an integral part of the Netherlands following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)

note: the highest point on continental

Netherlands is Vaalserberg at 322 m Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand

and gravel, arable land

Land use: agricultural land: 55.1%

arable land: 29.8%

permanent crops: 1.1%

permanent pasture: 24.2%

forest: 10.8%

other: 34.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,860 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources: 91 cu km (2011) Freshwater withdrawal


total: 10.61 cu km/yr (12%/88%/1%) per capita: 636.7 cu m/yr (2008) Natural hazards: flooding Environment—current issues: water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain

Environment— international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution- Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution- Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air

Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography—note: located at mouths of three major European rivers

(Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)

Nationality: noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman (women)

adjective: Dutch

Ethnic groups: Dutch 78.6%, EU 5.8%, Turkish 2.4%, Indonesian 2.2%,

Moroccan 2.2%, Surinamese 2.1%, Bonairian, Saba Islander, Sint Eustatian 0.8%, other 5.9% (2014 est.) Languages: Dutch (official)

note: Frisian is an official language in Fryslan province; Frisian, Low Saxon, Limburgish, Romani, and Yiddish have protected status under the European

Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; Dutch is the official language of the three special municipalities of the Caribbean Netherlands, while English is a recognized regional language on Sint Eustatius and Saba and Papiamento is a recognized regional language on Bonaire

Religions: Roman Catholic 28%, Protestant 19% (includes Dutch Reformed 9%, Protestant Church of The Netherlands, 7%, Calvinist 3%), other

11% (includes about 5% Muslim and lesser numbers of Hindu, Buddhist, Jehovah’s Witness, and Orthodox), none 42% (2009 est.)

Population: 16,947,904 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67 Age structure: 0–14 years: 16.73% (male 1,450,957/female


15–24 years: 12.15% (male

1,049,802/female 1,009,250)

25–54 years: 40.12% (male

3,412,016/female 3,388,119)

55–64 years: 13.02% (male

1,099,594/female 1,107,401)

65 years and over: 17.97% (male 1,373,111/female 1,673,078) (2015 est.) Dependency ratios: total

dependency ratio: 53.3%

youth dependency ratio: 25.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 27.9%

potential support ratio: 3.6% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 42.3 years

male: 41.3 years

female: 43.2 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

Population growth rate:

0.41% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164 Birth rate: 10.83 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181 Death rate: 8.66 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Net migration rate: 1.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 Urbanization: urban population: 90.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: AMSTERDAM (capital) 1.091 million; Rotterdam 993,000; The Hague (seat of government) 650,000 (2015)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth: 29.4 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 171 Infant mortality rate: total:

3.62 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.91 deaths/1,000 live births

female:3.32 deaths/1,000 live births

(2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 201 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.23 years

male: 79.11 years

female: 83.47 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24 Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 69%

note: percent of women aged 18–45 (2008)

Health expenditures: 12.9% of

GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 7 Hospital bed density: 4.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:


urban: 100% of population rural: 100% of population total: 100% of population unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:


urban: 97.5% of population rural: 99.9% of population total: 97.7% of population unimproved:

urban: 2.5% of population

rural: 0.1% of population

total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate: NA HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS: NA HIV/AIDS—deaths: NA Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 21.9% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 103

Education expenditures: 5.6%

of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 45

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 18 years

male: 18 years

female: 18 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24: total: 11%

male: 10.8%

female: 11.2% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands conventional short form: Netherlands local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

local short form: Nederland

etymology: the country name literally means “the lowlands” and refers to the geographic features of the land being both flat and down river from higher areas (i.e., at the estuaries of the Scheldt, Meuse, and Rhine Rivers; only about half of the Netherlands is more than 1 meter above sea level) Government type: parliamentary

constitutional monarchy; part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Capital: name: Amsterdam; note— The Hague is the seat of government Geographic coordinates: 52

21 N, 4 55 E

time difference: UTC + 1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only, not to the Caribbean components Administrative divisions: 12

provinces (provincies, singular— provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Fryslan (Friesland), Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant (North Brabant), Noord-Holland (North Holland), Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (Zealand), Zuid-Holland (South Holland)

note 1: the Netherlands is one of four constituent parts (countries) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the other three parts, Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten, are all islands in the Caribbean; while all four parts are considered equal partners, in practice, most of the Kingdom’s affairs are administered by the Netherlands, which

makes up about 98% of the Kingdom’s total land area and population

note 2: three other Caribbean islands, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius, and Saba, are considered to be special municipalities of the Netherlands proper Dependent areas: Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten

Independence: 23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)

National holiday: King’s Day (the King’s birthday of 27 April (1967); celebrated on 26 April if 27 April is a Sunday)

Constitution: previous 1597,

1798; latest adopted 24 August 1815 (substantially revised in 1848); amended many times,

last in 2010 (2016)

Legal system: civil law system based on the French system; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship: citizenship by birth:


citizenship by descent only:

at least one parent must be a citizen of the Netherlands

dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013); Heir Apparent Princess Catharina-Amalia (since 30 April 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Minister Lodewijk ASSCHER (since 5 November 2012); note—Mark RUTTE heads his second cabinet since 5 November 2012

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch; note—there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides advice to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policy elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually

appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch Legislative branch: description:

bicameral States General or Staten

Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country’s 12 provincial council members by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members directly elected in multi- seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve up to 4-year terms)

elections: First Chamber—last held on

26 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2019); Second Chamber -last held on 12 September 2012 (next to be held no later than 15 March 2017)

election results: First Chamber— percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—VVD 13, CDA 12, D66 10, PVV

9, SP 9, PvdA 8, GL 4, CU 3, other 7;

Second Chamber—percent of vote by party—VVD 26.6%, PvdA 24.8%, PVV,

10.1%, SP 9.7%, CDA 8.5%, D66 8.0%,

CU 3.1%, GL 2.3%, other 6.9%; seats

by party—VVD 41, PvdA 38, PVV 15,

SP 15, CDA 13, D66 12, CU 5, GL 4,

other 7

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoge Raad

(consists of 41 judges: the president, 6 vice-presidents, 31 justices or raadsheren, and 3 justices in exceptional service, referred to as buitengewone dienst); the court is divided into criminal, civil, tax, and ombuds chambers

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch from a list provided by the Second Chamber of the States General; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; district courts, each with up to 5 subdistrict courts

Political parties and

leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA]

Christian Union or CU [Gert-Jan SEGERS]

Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]

50 Plus [Jan NAGEL]

Green Left or GL [Jesse KLAVER] Labor Party or PvdA [Diederik SAMSOM]

Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]

Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]

People’s Party for Freedom and

Democracy or VVD [Mark RUTTE] Reformed Political Party or SGP [Kees VANDERSTAAIJ]

Socialist Party or SP [Emile ROEMER] plus a few minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Maurice LIMMEN] Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Hans DE BOER]

Federation for Small and Medium-sized Businesses or MKB [Michael VAN STRAALEN]

Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Ton HEERTS]

Social Economic Council or SER [Mariette HAMER]

Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Reginald VISSER]

International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB,

EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national

committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol,


OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Henne SCHUWER (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW,

Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300, [1]


FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires

Adam H. STERLING (since 12 February 2016)

embassy: Lange Voorhout 102,2514 EJ,

The Hague

mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000,

APO AE 09715

telephone: [31] (70) 310-2209

FAX: [31] (70) 310-2207

consulate(s) general: Amsterdam

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; the colors were those of WILLIAM I, Prince of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century; originally the upper band was orange, but because it tended to fade to red over time, the red shade was eventually made the permanent color; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolor in continuous use

National symbol(s): lion, tulip; national color: orange

National anthem: name: “Het Wilhelmus” (The William)

lyrics/music: Philips VAN MARNIX van Sint Aldegonde (presumed)/unknown

note: adopted 1932, in use since the 17th century, making it the oldest national anthem in the world; also known as “Wilhelmus van Nassouwe” (William of Nassau), it is in the form of an acrostic, where the first letter of each stanza spells the name of the leader of the Dutch Revolt

Economy—overview: The Netherlands, the sixth-largest economy

in the European Union, plays an important role as a European transportation hub, with a persistently high trade surplus, stable industrial relations, and moderate unemployment. Industry focuses on food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 2% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for food-processing and underpins the country’s status as the world’s second largest agricultural exporter.

The Netherlands is part of the eurozone, and as such, its monetary policy is controlled by the European Central

Bank. The Dutch financial sector is highly concentrated, with four commercial banks possessing over 90% of bankingassets. The sector suffered as a result of the global financial crisis and required billions of dollars of government support, but the European Banking Authority completed stringent reviews in 2014 and deemed Dutch banks to be well-capitalized. To address the 2009 and 2010 economic downturns, the government sought to stimulate the domestic economy by accelerating infrastructure programs, offering corporate tax breaks for employers to retain workers, and expanding export credits. The stimulus programs and bank

bailouts, however, resulted in a government budget deficit of 5.3% of GDP in 2010 that contrasted sharply with a surplus of 0.7% in 2008.

The government of Prime Minister Mark RUTTE has since implemented significant austerity measures to improve public finances and has instituted broad structural reforms in key policy areas, in cluding the labor market, the housing sector, the energy market, and the pension system. As a result, the government budget deficit at the end of 2015 dropped to 2% of GDP. Following a protracted recession during which unemployment doubled to 7.4% and household consumption contracted for

nearly three consecutive years, 2014 saw fragile GDP growth of 1% and a rise in most economic indicators. Growth picked up in 2015 as households boosted purchases through reduced saving. Drivers of growth included increased exports and business investments, as well as newly invigorated household consumption.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $832.6 billion (2015 est.)

$816.9 billion (2014 est.)

$808.7 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 28

GDP (official exchange

rate): $738.4 billion (2015 est.) GDP—real growth rate: 1.9% (2015 est.)

1% (2014 est.)

-0.5% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$49,200 (2015 est.)

$48,400 (2014 est.)

$48,100 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars country comparison to the world: 25 Gross national saving: 28.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

28.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

29% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 45%

government consumption: 25.3% investment in fixed capital: 19% investment in inventories: -0.1% exports of goods and services: 83.6% imports of goods and services: -72.8% (2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 1.6%

industry: 18.8%

services: 79.6% (2015 est.) Agriculture—products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables;


Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 145 Labor force: 7.884 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 1.8%

industry: 17%

services: 81.2% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.9%

(2015 est.)

7.4% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Population below poverty line: 9.1% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest: 10%: 2.1%

highest: 10%: 24.5% (2012 est.)

Distribution of family income—Gini index: 25.1

(2013 est.)

32.6 (1994 est.)

country comparison to the world: 140 Budget: revenues: $336.5 billion expenditures: $351.8 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 44.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): -2% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73 Public debt: 68.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

68.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra- governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 47

Fiscal year: calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (2015 est.) 0.3% (2014


country comparison to the world: 54

Central bank discount rate:

0.05% (31 December 2013)

0.3% (31 December 2010)

note: this is the European Central Bank’s rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

country comparison to the world: 149

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 2% (31 December

2015 est.)

2.27% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 179

Stock of narrow money:

$357.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$388.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.) note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18

members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

country comparison to the world: 15

Stock of broad money: $1.119

trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$1.158 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Stock of domestic credit:

$1.712 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.853 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Market value of publicly traded shares: $671.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$698.6 billion (31 December 2013)

$578.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 20

Current account balance:

$80.99 billion (2015 est.)

$93.4 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 6

Exports: $488.3 billion (2015 est.)

$571.8 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9


machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs Exports—partners: Germany

24.5%, Belgium 11.1%, UK 9.3%,

France 8.4%, Italy 4.2% (2015)

Imports: $404.6 billion (2015 est.)

$469 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13


machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing Imports—partners: Germany

14.7%, China 14.5%, Belgium 8.2%, US

8.1%, UK 5.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $42.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$46.25 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 Debt—external: $4.154 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)

$4.524 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Stock of direct foreign

investment—at home: $561.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$540.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad: $1.029 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

$930.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 12 Exchange rates: euros (EU R) per US dollar—

0.885 (2015 est.)

0.7525 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

0.78 (2012 est.)

0.7185 (2011 est.)


98.57 billion kWh (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34


116.8 billion kWh (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31 Electricity—exports: 15.02 billion kWh (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13 Electricity—imports: 33.25 billion kWh (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 6

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 29.85 million kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Electricity—from fossil fuels: 83.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 91

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 1.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity—from hydroelectric plants: 0.1% of

total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Electricity—from other renewable sources: 14.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Crude oil—production:

28,120 bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Crude oil—exports: 48,820

bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46 Crude oil—imports: 1.204 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Crude oil—proved reserves:

144.7 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Refined petroleum products


1.186 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 960,600 bbl/day

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Refined petroleum products


2.089 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 4

Refined petroleum products


1.838 million bbl/day (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 3

Natural gas—production:

70.25 billion cu m

note: the Netherlands has curbed gas production due to seismic activity in the province of Groningen, largest source of gas reserves (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Natural gas—consumption:

39.98 billion cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas—exports: 59.3 billion cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7 Natural gas—imports: 29.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 12

Natural gas—proved reserves: 1.044 trillion cu m (1

January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 239.6 million Mt (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 7.13 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 19.6 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58 Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed and well


domestic: extensive fixed-line fiber-

optic network; large cellular telephone system with 5 major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) services

international: country code—31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations—

5 (3 Intelsat—1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (2011)

Broadcast media: more than 90% of households are connected to cable or satellite TV systems that provide a wide range of domestic and foreign channels;

public service broadcast system includes multiple broadcasters, 3 with a national reach and the remainder operating in regional and local markets;

2 major nationwide commercial television companies, each with 3 or more stations, and many commercial TV stations in regional and local markets; nearly 600 radio stations with a mix of public and private stations providing national or regional coverage (2008)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 567, shortwave 1 (2009)

Television broadcast stations: 342 (2009)

Internet country code: .nl

Internet hosts: 13.699 million (2012)

country comparison to the world: 11 Internet users: total: 16.2 million percent of population: 96.1% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Airports: 29 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 120

Airports—with paved runways: total: 23

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Heliports: 1 (2013)

Pipelines: condensate 81 km; gas 8,531 km; oil 578 km; refined products 716 km (2013)

Railways: total: 3,223 km

standard gauge: 3,223 km 1.435-m gauge (2,321 km electrified) (2014) country comparison to the world: 56

Roadways: total: 138,641 km (includes 3,530 km of expressways) (2014)

country comparison to the world: 36 Waterways: 6,237 km (navigable by ships up to 50 tons) (2012)

country comparison to the world: 21

Merchant marine: total: 744

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 514, carrier 15, chemical tanker 56, container

67, liquefied gas 21, passenger 17,

passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 19, specialized tanker 3

foreign-owned: 196 (Australia 1,

Bermuda 1, Denmark 27, Finland 13,

France 2, Germany 86, Ireland 8, Italy 6,

Japan 1, Norway 19, Sweden 12, UAE

4, US 16)

registered in other countries: 233 (Antigua and Barbuda 17, Bahamas 23,

Belize 1, Canada 1, Curacao 43, Cyprus

23, Germany 1, Gibraltar 34, Italy 2,

Liberia 31, Luxembourg 3, Malta 3,

Marshall Islands 21, Panama 6,

Paraguay 1, Philippines 17, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 1, UK 1, unknown 1) (2010) country comparison to the world: 15 Ports and terminals: major

seaport(s): I Jmuiden, Vlissingen

river port(s): Amsterdam (Nordsee Kanaal); Moerdijk (Hollands Diep

River); Rotterdam (Rhine River); Terneuzen (Western Scheldt River) container port(s) (TEUs): Rotterdam (11,876,920)

LNG terminal(s) (import): Rotterdam

Military branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force (Koninklijke Luchtmacht, KLu), Royal Marechaussee (Military Police) (2015)

Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for an

all-volunteer force (2014)

Military expenditures:

1.15% of GDP (2014)

1.16% of GDP (2013)

1.23% of GDP (2012)

1.26% of GDP (2011)

1.34% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 79

Disputes—international: none Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 18,687 (Somalia); 14,396 (Iraq); 8,692 (Syria); 6,294


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