Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power
Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power

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As Amended Through 9 June 2004


land control operations — The employment of ground forces, supported by naval and air forces (as appropriate) to achieve military objectives in vital land areas. Such operations include destruction of opposing ground forces, securing key terrain, protection of vital land lines of communications, and establishment of local military superiority in areas of land operations. See also sea control operations.

land forces — Personnel, weapon systems, vehicles, and support elements operating on land to accomplish assigned missions and tasks.

landing aid — (*) Any illuminating light, radio beacon, radar device, communicating device, or any system of such devices for aiding aircraft in an approach and landing.

landing approach — (*) The continuously changing position of an aircraft in space directed toward effecting a landing on a predetermined area.

landing area — 1. That part of the operational area within which are conducted the landing operations of an amphibious force. It includes the beach, the approaches to the beach, the transport areas, the fire support areas, the airspace occupied by close supporting aircraft, and the land included in the advance inland to the initial objective. 2. (Airborne) The general area used for landing troops and materiel either by airdrop or air landing. This area includes one or more drop zones or landing strips. 3. Any specially prepared or selected surface of land, water, or deck designated or used for takeoff and landing of aircraft. See also airfield; amphibious force; landing beach; landing force. (JP 3-02)

landing attack — An attack against enemy defenses by troops landed from ships, aircraft, boats, or amphibious vehicles. See also assault.

landing beach — That portion of a shoreline usually required for the landing of a battalion landing team. However, it may also be that portion of a shoreline constituting a tactical locality (such as the shore of a bay) over which a force larger or smaller than a battalion landing team may be landed.

landing craft — (*) A craft employed in amphibious operations, specifically designed for carrying troops and their equipment and for beaching, unloading, and retracting. It is also used for resupply operations.

landing craft and amphibious vehicle assignment table — A table showing the assignment of personnel and materiel to each landing craft and amphibious vehicle and the assignment of the landing craft and amphibious vehicles to waves for the ship-to-shore movement.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

landing craft availability table — A tabulation of the type and number of landing craft that will be available from each ship of the transport group. The table is the basis for the assignment of landing craft to the boat groups for the ship-to-shore movement.

landing diagram — (*) Agraphic means of illustrating the plan for the ship-to-shore movement.

landing force — A Marine Corps or Army task organization formed to conduct amphibious operations. The landing force, together with the amphibious task force and other forces, constitute the amphibious force. Also called LF. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; amphibious task force; task organization. (JP 3-02)

landing force supplies — Those supplies remaining in assault shipping after initial combat supplies and floating dumps have been unloaded. They are landed selectively in accordance with the requirements of the landing force until the situation ashore permits the inception of general unloading. (JP 3-02.2)

landing force support party — A temporary landing force organization composed of Navy and landing force elements, that facilitates the ship-to-shore movement and provides initial combat support and combat service support to the landing force. The landing force support party is brought into existence by a formal activation order issued by the commander, landing force. Also called LFSP. See also combat service support; combat support; landing force; ship-to-shore movement. (JP 3-02)

landing group — In amphibious operations, a subordinate task organization of the landing force capable of conducting landing operations, under a single tactical command, against a position or group of positions. (JP 3-02)

landing group commander — In amphibious operations, the officer designated by the commander, landing force as the single tactical commander of a subordinate task organization capable of conducting landing operations against a position or group of positions. See also amphibious operation; commander, landing force. (JP 3-02)

landing mat — (*) Aprefabricated, portable mat so designed that any number of planks (sections) may be rapidly fastened together to form surfacing for emergency runways, landing beaches, etc.

landing plan — 1. In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually prepared naval and landing force documents that, taken together, present in detail all instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement. 2. In airlift operations, the sequence, method of delivery, and place of arrival of troops and materiel. (JP 3-17)

landing point — (*) A point within a landing site where one helicopter or vertical takeoff and landing aircraft can land. See also airfield.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

landing roll — (*) The movement of an aircraft from touchdown through deceleration to taxi speed or full stop.

landing schedule — In an amphibious operation, a schedule that shows the beach, hour, and priorities of landing of assault units, and which coordinates the movements of landing craft from the transports to the beach in order to execute the scheme of maneuver ashore.

landing sequence table — A document that incorporates the detailed plans for ship-to-shore movement of nonscheduled units. (JP 3-02.2)

landing ship — (*) An assault ship which is designed for long sea voyages and for rapid unloading over and on to a beach.

landing ship dock — (*) A ship designed to transport and launch loaded amphibious craft and/ or amphibian vehicles with their crews and embarked personnel and/or equipment and to render limited docking and repair services to small ships and craft. Also called LSD. (JP 3-02.2)

landing signal officer — Officer responsible for the visual control of aircraft in the terminal phase of the approach immediately prior to landing. Also called LSO. See also terminal phase. (JP 3-04.1)

landing site — (*) 1. A site within a landing zone containing one or more landing points. See also airfield. 2. In amphibious operations, a continuous segment of coastline over which troops, equipment and supplies can be landed by surface means.

landing threshold — The beginning of that portion of a runway usable for landing.

landing zone — (*) Any specified zone used for the landing of aircraft. Also called LZ. See also airfield.

landing zone control — See pathfinder drop zone control.

landing zone control party — (*) Personnel specially trained and equipped to establish and operate communications devices from the ground for traffic control of aircraft/helicopters for a specific landing zone.

landmark — (*) A feature, either natural or artificial, that can be accurately determined on the ground from a grid reference.

land mine warfare — See mine warfare.

land search — The search of terrain by Earth-bound personnel.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

lane marker — (*) In land mine warfare, sign used to mark a minefield lane. Lane markers, at the entrance to and exit from the lane, may be referenced to a landmark or intermediate marker. See also marker; minefield lane.

lap — (*) In naval mine warfare, that section or strip of an area assigned to a single sweeper or formation of sweepers for a run through the area.

lap course — (*) In naval mine warfare, the true course desired to be made good during a run along a lap.

lap track — (*) In naval mine warfare, the center line of a lap; ideally, the track to be followed by the sweep or detecting gear.

lap turn — (*) In naval mine warfare, the maneuver a minesweeper carries out during the period between the completion of one run and the commencement of the run immediately following.

lap width — (*) In naval mine warfare, the swept path of the ship or formation divided by the percentage coverage being swept to.

large-lot storage — A quantity of material that will require four or more pallet columns stored to maximum height. Usually accepted as stock stored in carload or greater quantities. See also storage.

large-scale map — A map having a scale of 1:75,000 or larger. See also map.

large spread — A report by an observer or a spotter to the ship to indicate that the distance between the bursts of a salvo is excessive.

laser — Any device that can produce or amplify optical radiation primarily by the process of controlled stimulated emission. A laser may emit electromagnetic radiation from the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum through the infrared portion. Also, an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” (JP 3-09.1)

laser footprint — The projection of the laser beam and buffer zone on the ground or target area. The laser footprint may be part of the laser surface danger zone if that footprint lies within the nominal visual hazard distance of the laser. See also buffer zone; laser. (JP 3-09.1)

laser guidance unit — Adevice which incorporates a laser seeker to provide guidance commands to the control system of a missile, projectile or bomb.

laser guided weapon — (*) A weapon which uses a seeker to detect laser energy reflected from a laser marked/designated target and through signal processing provides guidance commands to a control system which guides the weapon to the point from which the laser energy is being reflected. Also called LGW. See also laser. (JP 3-09.1)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

laser illuminator — A device for enhancing the illumination in a zone of action by irradiating with a laser beam.

laser intelligence — Technical and geo-location intelligence derived from laser systems; a subcategory of electro-optical intelligence. Also called LASINT. See also electro-optical intelligence; intelligence. (JP 2-0)

laser linescan system — (*) An active airborne imagery recording system which uses a laser as the primary source of illumination to scan the ground beneath the flight path, adding successive across-track lines to the record as the vehicle advances. See also infrared linescan system.

laser pulse duration — (*) The time during which the laser output pulse power remains continuously above half its maximum value.

laser rangefinder — (*) A device which uses laser energy for determining the distance from the device to a place or object.

laser seeker — (*) A device based on a direction sensitive receiver which detects the energy reflected from a laser designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to the receiver. See also laser guided weapon.

laser spot — The area on a surface illuminated by a laser. See also laser; spot. (JP 3-09.1)

laser spot tracker — A device that locks on to the reflected energy from a laser-marked or designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to itself. Also called LST.

laser target designating system — (*) A system which is used to direct (aim or point) laser energy at a target. The system consists of the laser designator or laser target marker with its display and control components necessary to acquire the target and direct the beam of laser energy thereon.

laser target designator — A device that emits a beam of laser energy which is used to mark a specific place or object. Also called LTD. See also laser; target. (JP 3-09.1)

laser-target/gun-target angle — The angle between the laser-to-target line and the laser guided weapon/gun-target line at the point where they cross the target. See also laser; laser guided weapon; target. (JP 3-09.1)

laser-target line — An imaginary straight line from the laser designator to the target with respect to magnetic north. See also laser; laser target designator; target. (JP 3-09.1)

laser target marker — See laser designator.

laser target marking system — See laser target designating system.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

lashing — (*) See tie down. (DOD only) See restraint of loads. lashing point — See tie down point.

late — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a report made to the observer or spotter, whenever there is a delay in reporting “shot” by coupling a time in seconds with the report.

lateral gain — (*) The amount of new ground covered laterally by successive photographic runs over an area.

lateral route — (*) A route generally parallel to the forward edge of the battle area, which crosses, or feeds into, axial routes. See also route.

lateral spread — A technique used to place the mean point of impact of two or more units 100 meters apart on a line perpendicular to the gun-target line.

lateral tell — See track telling.

latest arrival date — A day, relative to C-Day, that is specified by the supported combatant commander as the latest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can arrive at the port of debarkation and support the concept of operations. Used with the earliest arrival date, it defines a delivery window for transportation planning. Also called LAD.

late time — See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment), Part 3. latitude band — (*) Any latitudinal strip, designated by accepted units of linear or angular

measurement, which circumscribes the Earth. Also called latitudinal band.

lattice — (*) A network of intersecting positional lines printed on a map or chart from which a fix may be obtained.

launch pad — (*) Aconcrete or other hard surface area on which a missile launcher is positioned.

launch time — The time at which an aircraft or missile is scheduled to be airborne. See also

airborne order.

launch under attack — Execution by National Command Authorities of Single Integrated Operational Plan forces subsequent to tactical warning of strategic nuclear attack against the United States and prior to first impact. Also called LUA.

launch window — The earliest and latest time a rocket may launch.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

laundering — In counterdrug operations, the process of transforming drug money into a more manageable form while concealing its illicit origin. Foreign bank accounts and dummy corporations are used as shelters. See also counterdrug operations. (JP 3-07.4)

law enforcement agency — Any of a number of agencies (outside the Department of Defense) chartered and empowered to enforce US laws in the following jurisdictions: The United States, a state (or political subdivision) of the United States, a territory or possession (or political subdivision) of the United States, or within the borders of a host nation. Also called LEA. (JP 3-07.4)

law of armed conflict — See law of war.

law of war — That part of international law that regulates the conduct of armed hostilities. Also called the law of armed conflict. See also rules of engagement.

lay — 1. Direct or adjust the aim of a weapon. 2. Setting of a weapon for a given range, a given direction, or both. 3. To drop one or more aerial bombs or aerial mines onto the surface from an aircraft. 4. To spread a smoke screen on the ground from an aircraft. 5. To calculate or project a course. 6. To lay on: a. to execute a bomber strike; b. to set up a mission.

laydown bombing — (*) A very low level bombing technique wherein delay fuzes and/or devices are used to allow the attacker to escape the effects of the bomb.

layer depth — The depth from the surface of the sea to the point above the first major negative thermocline at which sound velocity is maximum.

lay leader — A volunteer appointed by the commanding officer and supervised and trained by the command chaplain to serve for a period of time to meet the needs of a particular religious faith group when their military chaplains are not available. The lay leader may conduct services, but may not exercise any other activities usually reserved for the ordained clergy. See also command chaplain; combatant command chaplain; religious support; religious support plan; religious support team. (JP 1-05)

lay reference number — (*) In naval mine warfare, a number allocated to an individual mine by the minefield planning authority to provide a simple means of referring to it.

lead agency — Designated among US Government agencies to coordinate the interagency oversight of the day-to-day conduct of an ongoing operation. The lead agency is to chair the interagency working group established to coordinate policy related to a particular operation. The lead agency determines the agenda, ensures cohesion among the agencies, and is responsible for implementing decisions. (JP 3-08)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

lead agent — Individual Services, combatant commands, or Joint Staff directorates may be assigned as lead agents for developing and maintaining joint doctrine, joint tactics, techniques, and procedures (JTTP) publications. The lead agent is responsible for developing, coordinating, reviewing, and maintaining an assigned doctrine or JTTP. Also called LA. See also coordinating review authority; joint doctrine; joint publication; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures; joint test publication; primary review authority. (JP 1-01)

lead aircraft — 1. The airborne aircraft designated to exercise command of other aircraft within the flight. 2. An aircraft in the van of two or more aircraft.

lead mobility wing — An Air Mobility Command unit designated to provide an on-call 32- member cross-functional initial response team (IRT) for short-notice deployment in response to humanitarian crises. When requested by a supported geographic combatant commander, this IRT arrives at an airfield in the disaster area to provide mobility expertise and leadership, assess the requirements for follow-on relief forces, and establish a reception base to serve as a conduit for relief supplies or the repatriation of noncombatants. The IRT is attached to the joint task force established by the supported geographic combatant commander. Also called LMW. See also Air Mobility Command; mobility; wing. (JP 3-57)

lead nation — One nation assumes the responsibility for procuring and providing a broad spectrum of logistic support for all or a part of the multinational force and/or headquarters. Compensation and/or reimbursement will then be subject to agreements between the parties involved. The lead nation may also assume the responsibility to coordinate logistics of the other nations within its functional and regional area of responsibility. See also logistic support; multinational force. (JP 4-0)

lead Service or agency for common-user logistics — A Service component or Department of Defense agency that is responsible for execution of common-user item or service support in a specific combatant command or multinational operation as defined in the combatant or subordinate joint force commander’s operation plan, operation order, and/or directives. See also common-user logistics. (JP 4-07)

leapfrog — (*) Form of movement in which like supporting elements are moved successively through or by one another along the axis of movement of supported forces.

leaver — (*) Amerchant ship which breaks off from a convoy to proceed to a different destination and becomes independent. Also called convoy leaver. See also leaver convoy; leaver section.

leaver convoy — (*) A convoy which has broken off from the main convoy and is proceeding to a different destination. See also leaver; leaver section.

leaver section — (*) A group of ships forming part of the main convoy which will subsequently break off to become leavers or a leaver convoy. See also leaver; leaver convoy.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

left (or right) — (*) 1. Terms used to establish the relative position of a body of troops. The person using the terms “left” or “right” is assumed to be facing in the direction of the enemy regardless of whether the troops are advancing towards or withdrawing from the enemy. 2. Correction used in adjusting fire to indicate that a lateral shift of the mean point of impact perpendicular to the reference line or spotting line is desired.

left (right) bank — That bank of a stream or river on the left (right) of the observer when facing in the direction of flow or downstream.

letter of assist — A contractual document issued by the United Nations (UN) to a government authorizing it to provide goods or services to a peacekeeping operation; the UN agrees either to purchase the goods or services or authorizes the government to supply them subject to reimbursement by the UN. A letter of assist typically details specifically what is to be provided by the contributing government and establishes a funding limit that cannot be exceeded. Also called LOA. See also peacekeeping. (JP 1-06)

letter of offer and acceptance — Standard Department of Defense form on which the US Government documents its offer to transfer to a foreign government or international organization US defense articles and services via foreign military sales pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act. Also called LOA. See also foreign military sales. (JP 4-08)

level of detail — Within the current joint planning and execution systems, movement characteristics are described at five distinct levels of detail. a. level I-aggregated level — Expressed as total number of passengers and total short tons, total measurement tons, total square feet, and/or total hundreds of barrels by unit line number (ULN), cargo increment number (CIN), and personnel increment number (PIN). b. level II-summary level — Expressed as total number of passengers by ULN and PIN and short tons, measurement tons (including barrels), total square feet of bulk, oversize, outsize, and non-air-transportable cargo by ULN and CIN. c. level III-detail by cargo category — Expressed as total number of passengers by ULN and PIN and short tons and/or measurement tons (including barrels) as well as total square feet of cargo as identified by the ULN or CIN three-position cargo category code. d. level IV-detail expressed as number of passengers and individual dimensional data (expressed in length, width, and height in number of inches) of cargo by equipment type by ULN. e. level V-detail by priority of shipment — Expressed as total number of passengers by Service specialty code in deployment sequence by ULN, individual weight (in pounds), and dimensional data (expressed in length, width, and height in number of inches) of equipment in deployment sequence by ULN.

level-of-effort munitions — (*) In stockpile planning, munitions stocked on the basis of expected daily expenditure rate, the number of combat days, and the attrition rate assumed, to counter targets the number of which is unknown. See also threat-oriented munitions.

level of effort-oriented items — Items for which requirements computations are based on such factors as equipment and personnel density and time and rate of use. See also combination mission/level of effort-oriented items; mission-oriented items.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

level of supply — (*) The quantity of supplies or materiel authorized or directed to be held in anticipation of future demands. See also operating level of supply; order and shipping time; procurement lead time; requisitioning objective; safety level of supply; stockage objective.

leveraging — In information operations, the effective use of information, information systems, and technology to increase the means and synergy in accomplishing information operations strategy. See also information; information operations; information system; operation. (JP 3-13)

L-hour — See times.

liaison — That contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military forces or other agencies to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action. (JP 3-08)

liberated territory — (*) Any area, domestic, neutral, or friendly, which, having been occupied by an enemy, is retaken by friendly forces.

licensed production — A direct commercial arrangement between a US company and a foreign government, international organization, or foreign company, providing for the transfer of production information which enables the foreign government, international organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of US defense equipment. A typical license production arrangement would include the functions of production engineering, controlling, quality assurance and determining of resource requirements. It may or may not include design engineering information and critical materials production and design information. A licensed production arrangement is accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license agreement per the US International Traffic in Arms Regulation.

life cycle — The total phases through which an item passes from the time it is initially developed until the time it is either consumed in use or disposed of as being excess to all known materiel requirements.

lifeguard submarine — (*) A submarine employed for rescue in an area which cannot be adequately covered by air or surface rescue facilities because of enemy opposition, distance from friendly bases, or other reasons. It is stationed near the objective and sometimes along the route to be flown by the strike aircraft.

life support equipment — Equipment designed to sustain aircrew members and passengers throughout the flight environment, optimizing their mission effectiveness and affording a means of safe and reliable escape, descent, survival, and recovery in emergency situations.

light artillery — See field artillery.

light damage — See nuclear damage, Part 1.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

lightening — (*) The operation (normally carried out at anchor) of transferring crude oil cargo from a large tanker to a smaller tanker, so reducing the draft of the larger tanker to enable it to enter port.

lighterage — Asmall craft designed to transport cargo or personnel from ship to shore. Lighterage includes amphibians, landing craft, discharge lighters, causeways, and barges. (JP 3-02)

light filter — (*) An optical element such as a sheet of glass, gelatine, or plastic dyed in a specific manner to absorb selectively light of certain colors.

light line — (*) A designated line forward of which vehicles are required to use black-out lights at night.

lightweight amphibious container handler — AUnited States Marine Corps piece of equipment usually maneuvered by a bulldozer and used to retrieve 20-foot equivalent containers from landing craft in the surf and place them on flatbed truck trailers. See also container. (JP 4-01.6)

limited production-type item — An item under development, commercially available or available from other Government agencies, for which an urgent operational requirement exists and for which no other existing item is suitable. Such an item appears to fulfill an approved materiel requirement or other Military Department-approved requirements and to be promising enough operationally to warrant initiating procurement and/or production for service issue prior to completion of development and/or test or adoption as a standard item.

limited standard item — An item of supply determined by standardization action as authorized for procurement only to support in-service military materiel requirements.

limited war — Armed conflict short of general war, exclusive of incidents, involving the overt engagement of the military forces of two or more nations.

limiting factor — A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment. Illustrative examples are transportation network deficiencies, lack of in-place facilities, malpositioned forces or materiel, extreme climatic conditions, distance, transit or overflight rights, political conditions, etc.

limit of fire — (*) 1. The boundary marking off the area on which gunfire can be delivered. 2.

Safe angular limits for firing at aerial targets.

linear scale — See graphic scale; scale.

line of communications — A route, either land, water, and/or air, that connects an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and military forces move. Also called LOC. See also base of operations; route.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

line of demarcation — A line defining the boundary of a buffer zone or area of limitation. A line of demarcation may also be used to define the forward limits of disputing or belligerent forces after each phase of disengagement or withdrawal has been completed. See also area of limitation; buffer zone; disengagement; peace operations. (JP 3-07.3)

line of departure — (*) 1. In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements. 2. In amphibious warfare, a suitably marked offshore coordinating line to assist assault craft to land on designated beaches at scheduled times. Also called LD.

line overlap — See overlap, Part 1.

line-route map — A map or overlay for signal communications operations that shows the actual routes and types of construction of wire circuits in the field. It also gives the locations of switchboards and telegraph stations. See also map.

line search — (*) Reconnaissance along a specific line of communications, such as a road, railway or waterway, to detect fleeting targets and activities in general.

lines of operations — Lines that define the directional orientation of the force in time and space in relation to the enemy. They connect the force with its base of operations and its objectives. (JP 5-0)

link — (*) 1. In communications, a general term used to indicate the existence of communications facilities between two points. 2. A maritime route, other than a coastal or transit route, which links any two or more routes.

link element — The means (electromagnetic energy) used to convey data and information between the space element and the terrestrial element of a space system. See also link. (JP 3-14)

link encryption — The application of online crypto-operation to a link of a communications system so that all information passing over the link is encrypted in its entirety.

link-lift vehicle — The conveyance, together with its operating personnel, used to satisfy a movement requirement between nodes.

link-route segments — Route segments that connect nodes wherein link-lift vehicles perform the movement function.

liquid explosive — (*) Explosive which is fluid at normal temperatures.

liquid propellant — Any liquid combustible fed to the combustion chamber of a rocket engine.

listening watch — A continuous receiver watch established for the reception of traffic addressed to, or of interest to, the unit maintaining the watch, with complete log optional.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

list of targets — A tabulation of confirmed or suspect targets maintained by any echelon for informational and fire support planning purposes. See also target list.

litter — A basket or frame utilized for the transport of injured persons.

litter patient — A patient requiring litter accommodations while in transit.

load — (*) The total weight of passengers and/or freight carried on board a ship, aircraft, train, road vehicle, or other means of conveyance. See also airlift capability; airlift requirement; allowable load.

load control group — (*) Personnel who are concerned with organization and control of loading within the pick-up zone.

loading — (*) The process of putting personnel, materiel, supplies and other freight on board ships, aircraft, trains, road vehicles, or other means of conveyance. See also embarkation.

loading chart (aircraft) — Any one of a series of charts carried in an aircraft that shows the proper location for loads to be transported and that pertains to check-lists, balance records, and clearances for weight and balance.

loading (ordnance) — An operation that installs airborne weapons and stores on or in an aircraft and may include fuzing of bombs and stray voltage checks. See also loading; ordnance. (JP 3-04.1)

loading plan — (*) All of the individually prepared documents which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for the arrangement of personnel, and the loading of equipment for one or more units or other special grouping of personnel or material moving by highway, water, rail, or air transportation. See also ocean manifest.

loading point — (*) A point where one aircraft can be loaded or unloaded.

loading site — (*) An area containing a number of loading points.

loading time — In airlift operations, a specified time, established jointly by the airlift and airborne commanders concerned, when aircraft and loads are available and loading is to begin. (JP 3-17)

loadmaster — An Air Force technician qualified to plan loads, to operate auxiliary materials handling equipment, and to supervise loading and unloading of aircraft. (JP 3-17)

load signal — In evasion and recovery operations, a visual signal displayed in a covert manner to indicate the presence of an individual or object at a given location. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations; signal. (JP 3-50.3)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

load spreader — (*) Material used to distribute the weight of a load over a given area to avoid exceeding designed stress.

localizer — (*) A directional radio beacon which provides to an aircraft an indication of its lateral position relative to a predetermined final approach course. See also instrument landing system.

local mean time — (*) The time interval elapsed since the mean sun’s transit of the observer’s anti-meridian.

local procurement — The process of obtaining personnel, services, supplies, and equipment from local or indigenous sources.

local purchase — The function of acquiring a decentralized item of supply from sources outside the Department of Defense.

lock on — Signifies that a tracking or target-seeking system is continuously and automatically tracking a target in one or more coordinates (e.g., range, bearing, elevation).

lodgment — A designated area in a hostile or potentially hostile territory that, when seized and held, makes the continuous landing of troops and materiel possible and provides maneuver space for subsequent operations. See also hostile. (JP 3-18)

lodgment area — See airhead, Part 1; beachhead.

loft bombing — A method of bombing in which the delivery plane approaches the target at a very low altitude, makes a definite pullup at a given point, releases the bomb at a predetermined point during the pullup, and tosses the bomb onto the target. See also toss bombing.

logistic assessment — An evaluation of: a. the logistic support required to support particular military operations in a theater, country, or area; and b. the actual and/or potential logistic support available for the conduct of military operations either within the theater, country, or area, or located elsewhere.

logistic estimate of the situation — An appraisal resulting from an orderly examination of the logistic factors influencing contemplated courses of action in order to provide conclusions concerning the degree and manner of that influence.

logistic implications test — An analysis of the major logistic aspects of a joint strategic war plan and the consideration of the logistic implications resultant therefrom as they may limit the acceptability of the plan. The logistic analysis and consideration are conducted concurrently with the development of the strategic plan. The objective is to establish whether the logistic requirements generated by the plan are in balance with availabilities, and to set

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

forth those logistic implications that should be weighed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in their consideration of the plan. See also feasibility test.

logistic and movement control center — A center organized from service support elements (or the supporting establishment) in the geographic proximity of the marshaling units. It is tasked by the force movement control center to provide organic and commercial transportation, transportation scheduling, materials handling equipment, and all other logistic support required by parent commands during marshaling and embarkation. Also called LMCC. See also control center; embarkation; force movement; marshalling. (JP 4-01.8)

logistic marking and reading symbology — A system designed to improve the flow of cargo through the seaport of embarkation and debarkation using bar code technology. See also logistics. (JP 4-01.6)

logistic routes — See line of communications.

logistics — The science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of forces. In its most comprehensive sense, those aspects of military operations that deal with: a. design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel; b. movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel; c. acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities; and d. acquisition or furnishing of services.

logistics over-the-shore operation area — That geographic area required to successfully conduct a logistics over-the-shore operation. Also called LOA. See also logistics over-the-shore operations. (JP 4-01.6)

logistics over-the-shore operations — The loading and unloading of ships without the benefit of deep draft-capable, fixed port facilities in friendly or nondefended territory and, in time of war, during phases of theater development in which there is no opposition by the enemy; or as a means of moving forces closer to tactical assembly areas dependent on threat force capabilities. Also called LOTS operations. See also joint logistics over-the-shore operations. (JP 4-01.8)

logistic sourcing — The identification of the origin and determination of the availability of the time-phased force and deployment data nonunit logistic requirements.

logistic support — Logistic support encompasses the logistic services, materiel, and transportation required to support the continental United States-based and worldwide deployed forces.

logistic support (medical) — Medical care, treatment, hospitalization, and evacuation as well as the furnishing of medical services, supplies, materiel, and adjuncts thereto.

long-range bomber aircraft — A bomber designed for a tactical operating radius over 2,500 nautical miles at design gross weight and design bomb load.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

long-range transport aircraft — See transport aircraft.

long ton — 2,240 pounds. Also called LT; L/T; or LTON. (JP 4-01.7)

look — (*) In mine warfare, a period during which a mine circuit is receptive of an influence.

loran — (*) A long-range radio navigation position fixing system using the time difference of reception of pulse type transmissions from two or more fixed stations. This term is derived from the words long-range electronic navigation.

lot — Specifically, a quantity of material all of which was manufactured under identical conditions and assigned an identifying lot number.

low airburst — (*) The fallout safe height of burst for a nuclear weapon which maximizes damage to or casualties on surface targets. See also types of burst.

low-altitude missile engagement zone — See weapon engagement zone. (JP 3-52)

low-altitude parachute extraction system — A low-level, self-contained system capable of delivering heavy loads into an area where air landing is not feasible from an optimum aircraft wheel altitude of 5 to 10 feet above ground level. One or more platforms may be dropped. Also called LAPES. (JP 3-17)

low angle — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, an order or request to obtain low angle fire.

low angle fire — (*) Fire delivered at angles of elevation below the elevation that corresponds to the maximum range of the gun and ammunition concerned.

low angle loft bombing — (*) Type of loft bombing of free fall bombs wherein weapon release occurs at an angle less than 35 degrees above the horizontal. See also loft bombing.

low dollar value item — An item that normally requires considerably less management effort than those in the other management intensity groupings.

low level flight — See terrain flight.

low level transit route — (*) A temporary corridor of defined dimensions established in the forward area to minimize the risk to friendly aircraft from friendly air defenses or surface forces. Also called LLTR.

low oblique — See oblique air photograph.

low velocity drop — (*) A drop procedure in which the drop velocity does not exceed 30 feet per second.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

low visibility operations — Sensitive operations wherein the political-military restrictions inherent in covert and clandestine operations are either not necessary or not feasible; actions are taken as required to limit exposure of those involved and/or their activities. Execution of these operations is undertaken with the knowledge that the action and/or sponsorship of the operation may preclude plausible denial by the initiating power.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

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