Intel Overclocking – how to Tweak Your PC to Unleash Its Power

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Chapter 6: Intel Overclocking

Pentium II Background

The Pentium II processor was Intel’s first commercial P6 (also called 686 or 80686) core architecture offered to the general public. The P6 has internal RISC architecture and a CISC-RISC translator. Its design is based on the earlier, moderately successful, Pentium Pro processor. The most significant extension to the original design was the introduction of MMX (multimedia extensions) instruction support.

Updates included the introduction of a slot interconnect interface, an integrated 512 KB Level 2 (L2) cache memory mounted directly on the slot circuit board, and various refinements for better cooling and heat dissipation.

The most controversial feature introduced in the Pentium II is full clock-multiplier locking, which severely limits overclocking potential. The earliest Pentium II chips lacked this locked design, but Intel integrated the needed circuitry within a few months. The locked multiplier forced enthusiasts to adopt front-side bus manipulation as a means of overclocking the Pentium II. The disadvantage of this approach is that any changes to the front-side bus speed lead to the subsequent overclocking of nearly all other system and subsystem components, ranging from memory to peripheral component interconnect (PCI) devices and accelerated graphics port (AGP) video cards.

The first Pentium II chips were manufactured with .28-micron circuit pathways. They require a core voltage of 2.8 volts and generate tremendous heat. These factors place intense demands on the power supply and motherboard voltage regulators; therefore, any increase above 3.0 core volts means that a heavy-duty cooling system must first be installed.

The extreme temperatures produced by .28-micron chips, combined with limited bus frequencies in the popular Intel LX motherboard chipset, lowered overclocking potential. The LX chipset was designed for 66 MHz front-side bus (FSB) operation; the maximum unofficial supported frequency is 83 MHz. This frequency can be useful for lower multiplier chips, such as the Pentium II 266 (83 □ 4.0 = ~333 MHz), but the danger of damaging system components becomes significant when other system bus rates change substantially.

The Intel BX chipset became the most popular motherboard choice after the release of 100-MHz front-side bus Pentium II models. Other 100-MHz chipsets, such as VIA’s Apollo Pro133, debuted shortly thereafter. These new designs offered improved overclock flexibility, for both 66- and 100-MHz chip owners. The BX and Pro133 both ventured front-side bus support up to 133 MHz. Some companies extended the unofficial specifications to 166 MHz and beyond. The potential for overclocking became clearer as the new 100-MHz Pentium II models incorporated a much cooler and more efficient .25-micron circuit design. The ability to scale successfully above 400 MHz brought the Pentium II to the attention of the overclocking community.

When the .25-micron Pentium II was released, the primary concern became the bus limitations inherent in Intel’s popular BX chipset. The BX design could effectively scale to 133 MHz while maintaining the proper FSB-to-PCI ratio, but the AGP bus suffered from a 2/3 divider. It would be overclocked to approximately 88.6 MHz, leading to a high failure rate for most early AGP video cards. (PCI video solutions were unaffected.) Competing chipsets from VIA, SIS, and ALI bypassed this limitation by adding a ½ AGP divider, though the early revision of these boards offered other minor compatibility and performance problems compared to Intel’s architecture.

Front-side bus speeds near 124 MHz create a problem analogous to the 83-MHz issue. The standard divider of 1/3 generates a PCI bus frequency of approximately

41.3 MHz, thus threatening the stability of various PCI devices, especially hard drives. Some retail motherboards, designed specifically for overclocking, offered the ability to adjust the PCI divider manually at these “problem” frequency ranges. For example, with a ¼ divider at 124 MHz, the PCI bus reverts to ~31 MHz, a “safe” value, close to the default PCI v2.x specification of 33 MHz.

Restrictions on the processor heatsink’s size and orientation also come into play, due to the Slot 1 processor-to-motherboard interface. The heatsink extends parallel to the surface of the motherboard, which imposes a size limit, as the heatsink surface must clear not only the socket, but all other motherboard components as well. Worse yet, many manufacturers have placed the processor slot close enough to the memory slots to block some of them. This factor clearly influences the size and type of heatsink you can use with the Pentium II.

Intel’s standard cooling solution proves adequate for default operation, but this small heatsink often fails to deliver the dissipation needed to sustain successful overclocking at extended operating speeds. A more efficient aftermarket cooling solution is needed for any real return. The size of any replacement cooler should be considered carefully. As mentioned, some motherboards simply do not offer enough space for the larger coolers.

Pentium II Klamath Overclocking

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Table 6-1: Pentium II Klamath Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Klamath

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Performance Rating 233 MHz

Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32 Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 0.5× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 3.5× – 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Die Size .28 micron, 203 mm2 Transistor Count 7.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 2.8 volts

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 23 – 28 watts

Maximum Power 34.8 – 43 watts

Architectural

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit

Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC

Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache 512 KB Unified

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch 512 Entry 4-way

Table 6-1: Pentium II Klamath Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Klamath

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Prediction

RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX

Pentium II Klamath 233

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Table 6-2: Pentium II Klamath 233 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Klamath

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Performance Rating 233 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 3.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Die Size .28 micron, 203 mm2

Transistor Count 7.5 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 2.8 volts Power Consumption 23 watts

Maximum Power 34.8 watts

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Table 6-3: Pentium II Klamath 233 Overclocking

Pentium II Klamath Model Rating 233 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C Up to 4.0× Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 75 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 266 – 300 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 300 – 333 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

3.0 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

Table 6-3: Pentium II Klamath 233 Overclocking

Pentium II Klamath Model Rating 233 MHz

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3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 72° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium II 233 is Intel’s first entry in the series. As you might expect, overclocking potential for this processor is limited. The majority of the P2 233 chips in circulation are not multiplier locked. The lack of multiplier locking with the P2 233 is helpful, as most of early Slot I motherboards lack support for frontside bus speeds above 66 MHz. Overclocking can therefore be accomplished by changing the clock multiplier alone.

The simplest way to overclock the Pentium II 233 is to increase the core multiplier value from the default of 3.5× to 4.0×, and thus achieve 266 MHz. Higher speeds may be possible with some configurations, but limitations in the 0.5× cache architecture will maximize returns at 337.5 MHz (83-MHz front-side bus × 4.5 multiplier). The external Level 2 cache chips found with the P2 233 often fail at speeds above 166 MHz. Some users may be tempted to disable the L2 cache to reach higher core speeds, but removing this important buffer will result in serious performance losses, outweighing any benefits.

Pentium II Klamath 266

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Table 6-4: Pentium II Klamath 266 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Klamath

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Performance Rating 266 MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 0.5× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Die Size .28 micron, 203 mm2

Transistor Count 7.5 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 2.8 volts Power Consumption 25 watts

Maximum Power 38.2 watts

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Table 6-5: Pentium II Klamath 266 Overclocking

Pentium II Klamath Model Rating 266 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C Up to 4.5× Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 75 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 300 – 333 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 333 – 350 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

3.0 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 73° Celsius

The Pentium II Klamath 266 offers overclocking capabilities similar to those of the

233. As the family’s second generation, the 266 offers overclocking potential upwards of 350 MHz. Any additional gains are probably attributable to variations in the Level 2 cache memory chips. Intel used various brands and types of these chips in its Klamath series.

Pentium II Klamath 300

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Table 6-6: Pentium II Klamath 300 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Klamath

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Performance Rating 300 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.8 volts

Power Consumption 28 watts

Table 6-6: Pentium II Klamath 300 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Klamath

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Maximum Power 43.0 watts

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Table 6-7: Pentium II Klamath 300 Overclocking

Pentium II Klamath Model Rating 300 MHz

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Potentially Unlocked Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C Up to 4.5× Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 75 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 333 – 350 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 350 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

3.0 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 75° Celsius

The Pentium II 300 MHz offers moderate overclocking potential for those lucky enough to possess a model that is not multiplier locked. Reports have varied over the years since this Klamath model was introduced, but it appears that some units did ship with multiplier-locked cores. Overclocking potential for locked Klamath 300-MHz processors will be limited; increasing the front-side bus beyond 75 MHz is nearly impossible. A front-side bus speed of 83 MHz will result in a core rate of approximately 374 MHz (83 MHz □ 4.5), a speed often beyond the capability of the

.28-micron Klamath core.

Owners of unlocked Pentium II Klamath 300 processors may benefit if an 83 MHz front-side bus speed is supported by the system’s motherboard. Increasing the front- side bus rate to 83 MHz, while decreasing the processor multiplier value to 4.0×, often yields a stable 333 MHz. The increase in frontside bus speed will boost performance significantly: memory and PCI bus rates will also be overclocked. The half-speed Level 2 cache architecture of the P2 limits bandwidth between the

processor and memory subsystems. Therefore, additional bandwidth obtained by overclocking the front-side bus can greatly improve memory performance.

Pentium II Deschutes Overclocking

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Table 6-8: Pentium II Deschutes Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Performance Rating 300 – 450 MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 0.5× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 66 – 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 3.5× – 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 118 mm2 Transistor Count 7.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 2.0 volts

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 11 – 24 watts

Maximum Power 16.8 – 36.4 watts

Architectural

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit

Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC

Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache 512 KB Unified

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Table 6-8: Pentium II Deschutes Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch

Prediction 512 Entry 4-way RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry

Floating-Point Processor Integrated Multimedia Extensions MMX

Pentium II Deschutes 266

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Table 6-9: Pentium II Deschutes 266 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Performance Rating 266 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 11 watts Maximum Power 16.8 watts

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Table 6-10: Pentium II Deschutes 266 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 266 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 83 MHz Typical O/C Potential 333 – 350 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 400 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

Table 6-10: Pentium II Deschutes 266 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 266 MHz

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3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 65° Celsius

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Strategy

The improved .25-micron Deschutes core arrived for the Pentium II family at the 266- MHz production point. The Deschutes revision offers significantly improved overclocking potential compared to its older Klamath sibling. At 266 MHz, the Deschutes requires substantially less maximum power demand than its Klamath counterpart. Voltage demand is reduced to 2.0 volts, while wattage draw is up to 50% more efficient than previous P2 models.

The Deschutes revision officially introduced full multiplier locking into the majority of Pentium II processors shipped to retail markets. Lack of user-definable multiplier support is a roadblock to overclocking; however, Deschutes’ .03-micron core die-size reduction, along with its improved motherboard chipset technology, can boost overclocking potential. Motherboards offering 100+-MHz front-side bus speed appeared along with this updated Pentium II processor.

Overclocking the Pentium II Deschutes 266 falls in the 350-MHz range for most samples. For those with older motherboards, a front-side bus rate of 83 MHz yields a core operating speed near 333 MHz. Systems featuring 100-MHz-capable motherboards can reach 400 MHz (100-MHz front-side bus × 4.0 multiplier) for a few select 266-MHz models. Core voltage rates must rise to 2.2 volts to reach such levels. Good cooling is a must for overclocking this processor; its maximum core rating is 65° Celsius.

Pentium II Deschutes 300

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Table 6-11: Pentium II Deschutes 300 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Performance Rating 300 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 12 watts Maximum Power 18.7 watts

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Table 6-12: Pentium II Deschutes 300 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 300 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 83 MHz Typical O/C Potential 338 – 374 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 450 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 65° Celsius

The Pentium II Deschutes 300 MHz offers great potential for those with 100-MHz front-side-bus-capable motherboards. The 4.5× multiplier of this processor can overclock to a phenomenal 450 MHz under the right conditions. In any case, 374 MHz should be possible for systems featuring older 83-MHz-capable motherboards.

Successful 450-MHz operation requires substantial cooling. A voltage increase to 2.2 volts (from the core default of 2.0 volts) is needed to attain a stable overclock. A 65° Celsius temperature limitation was imposed by the early Deschutes revisions; thus proper thermal regulation is a dominant concern when pushing core speeds beyond the 400-MHz level. Using radical cooling technologies, like Peltier or forced liquid, in conjunction with increased core voltage levels can produce overclocks of more than 500 MHz for Pentium II Deschutes 300-MHz processors featuring quality Level 2 cache memory.

Pentium II Deschutes 333

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Table 6-13: Pentium II Deschutes 333 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Performance Rating 333 MHz

Table 6-13: Pentium II Deschutes 333 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz Multiplier Ratio 5.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts Power Consumption 14 watts

Maximum Power 20.6 watts

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Table 6-14: Pentium II Deschutes 333 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 333 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 83 MHz Typical O/C Potential 375 – 415 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 450 – 500 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 65° Celsius

The Pentium II Deschutes 333 MHz is the last of the 66-MHz front-side bus Pentium II processors. With a 5.0× multiplier, the P2 333 is well suited for overclocking upwards of 500 MHz, with the installation of a quality aftermarket cooling solution.

Peltier-based cooling presents a good alternative to traditional forced-air heatsink cooling under these conditions.

Systems with older motherboards are generally assured a stable overclock to 375 MHz using the 75-MHz front-side bus rate. The Level 2 cache chips employed in the P2 333-MHz series are often capable of 200+ MHz; thus overclocking beyond 400 MHz is generally successful. Those attempting overclocks upwards of 500 MHz should implement a cooling solution for the Level 2 cache chips in order to ensure stable operation. Some quality Slot 1 coolers feature a special base designed to contact both the processor core and cache SRAM chips to optimize thermal regulation.

Pentium II Deschutes 350

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Table 6-15: Pentium II Deschutes 350 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Performance Rating 350 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 3.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 20 watts Maximum Power 29.5 watts

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Table 6-16: Pentium II Deschutes 350 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 350 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 392 – 434 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 450 – 500 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 75° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium II 350 MHz was the first 100-Hz front-side-bus-compatible processor in the Deschutes processor family. Featuring a 3.5× multiplier, the P3 350 is a good candidate for front-side bus overclocking up to 124 MHz, resulting in a core operating speed of 434 MHz. While cooling remains an important concern, the P2 350 offers an improved maximum thermal rating of 75° Celsius.

Remember, take care with system motherboards featuring the popular Intel BX chipset, as this controller lacks support for the highly desirable ½ AGP bus divider. Systems featuring PCI video cards should be fine, though systems with AGP graphics accelerators may suffer instability at front-side bus rates exceeding 112 MHz. The majority of Intel-compatible chipsets from ALI, SIS, and VIA do not have this limitation, as they support the ½ AGP divider at extended bus frequencies.

Pentium II Deschutes 400

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Table 6-17: Pentium II Deschutes 400 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Performance Rating 400 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 22 watts Maximum Power 32.7 watts

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Table 6-18: Pentium II Deschutes 400 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 400 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 448 – 496 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 500 – 532 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Table 6-18: Pentium II Deschutes 400 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 400 MHz

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Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 75° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium II Deschutes 400 MHz offers moderate overclocking potential. Most systems featuring this processor reach their potential around 500 MHz, with good cooling. Those users hoping to reach the 133-MHz front-side bus speed in order to attain 532-MHz operation will likely fail unless extreme cooling is implemented. The

.25-micron core die size, combined with the external cache of the Pentium II processor, limits overclocking to the 500 to 550 MHz range for most P2 400 units. Successful overclocking with the P2 400 will most likely require activating the 112- MHz front-side bus speed.

Pentium II Deschutes 450

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Table 6-19: Pentium II Deschutes 450 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium II Deschutes

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Performance Rating 450 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 24 watts Maximum Power 36.4 watts

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Table 6-20: Pentium II Deschutes 450 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 450 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 112 MHz

Table 6-20: Pentium II Deschutes 450 Overclocking

Pentium II Deschutes Model Rating 450 MHz

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Overclocking

Typical O/C Potential 500 – 550 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 550 – 575 MHz

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

The Pentium II 450 MHz is the last of the Deschutes line and closes the Pentium II family as a whole. This 4.5× multiplier processor offers little more overclocking potential than its 400 MHz sibling; the average overclock is 504 MHz using the 112- MHz front-side bus speed. Some rare models may reach upwards of 550 MHz, but nearly all P2 450 chips will fail to boot at the 600-MHz level.

Note the lower maximum temperature rating of 70° Celsius for the P2 450, down from 75° for the P2 400. Cooling is a serious concern when overclocking this processor, especially at operating speeds exceeding 500 MHz. The Intel retail heatsink cooler will prove inadequate for any serious attempts; owners should closely examine their system’s cooling capabilities before proceeding with overclocking.

Celeron Background

The Celeron processor was originally introduced as a budget variant of the Pentium II, though many overclocking enthusiasts quickly discovered its hidden potential. The

.25-micron Celeron is designed for 66-MHz front-side bus operation. The first Celeron models lacked an L2 cache, which means that any increase in clock speeds would affect performance results. The Celeron is available in both 370-pin PGA socket and Slot 1 motherboard interfaces for the broadest range of compatibility.

Of more interest is the Celeron A series. At 100-MHz front-side bus speeds, the 128- KB full-speed on-die L2 cache often allowed this revision to perform better than the more expensive Pentium II with its half-speed 512-KB off-die L2 cache. The average overclock for these Celeron A models extends 50 MHz, and often extends well beyond 200 MHz for some highly desired models.

The Celeron 300 produces the best results due to its low 4.5× multiplier. The most common overclock for this chip is between 450 and 500 MHz with decent cooling and a minimal increase in core voltage. Overclocking the lower range of Celeron speed grades, under more extreme cooling and voltage implementations, can yield results in the 550 to 650 MHz range for most users. Performance results slowly diminish at higher multiplier levels due to the comparative loss in front-side bus speeds, but most Celeron A series processors can reach 500 to 600 MHz with moderate effort.

Celeron Covington Overclocking

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Table 6-21: Celeron Covington Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Covington

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Performance Rating 266 – 300 MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed N/A Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.0 – 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

370-Pin PPGA Socket Core Die Size .25 micron, 118 mm2

Transistor Count 7.5 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 2.0 volts I/O Voltage 3.3 volts

Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption Slot 1 = 11 – 12 watts

PPGA = 11 – 12 watts

Maximum Power Slot 1 = 16.6 – 18.4 watts

PPGA = 15.6 – 17.5 Watts

Architectural

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit

Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte

Table 6-21: Celeron Covington Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Covington

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Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC

Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache N/A

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch

Prediction 512 Entry 4-way RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry

Floating-Point Processor Integrated Multimedia Extensions MMX

Celeron Covington 266

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Table 6-22: Celeron Covington 266 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Covington

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Performance Rating 266 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts I/O Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption Slot 1 = 11 watts

PPGA = 11 watts Maximum Power Slot 1 = 16.6 watts

PPGA = 15.6 watts

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Table 6-23: Celeron Covington 266 Overclocking

Celeron Covington Model Rating 266 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Table 6-23: Celeron Covington 266 Overclocking

Celeron Covington Model Rating 266 MHz

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Overclocking

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 300 – 333 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 400+ MHz

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Globalwin CAK-38

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

The Covington series in the Intel Celeron family debuted at 266 MHz. The Covington lacks a Level 2 cache memory, and thus it was marketed as an entry-level processor. The Covington also introduced the 370-pin socket PPGA format (PGA 370) in hopes of lowering production costs. Being a socketed processor, the Celeron does not require the expensive Slot 1 interface board as does the Pentium II. A traditional Slot 1 design was retained to ensure legacy support among Intel’s OEM partners.

The internal core matches the Pentium II, so this chip retains the powerful processing capabilities of its larger brother. All but the earliest Celeron models feature locked multipliers. Front-side bus overclocking offers the best performance return for the Covington: the increase in memory bandwidth can compensate, to some extent, for the absence of an L2 cache.

The Celeron Covington generally offers better overclocking potential than the Pentium II. The lack of a Level 2 cache eliminates the possibility of cache memory chips failing due to extended overclocking attempts. The Celeron C266 offers great potential for front-side bus overclocking at 100 MHz, yielding a 400-MHz core operating speed. Systems with motherboards lacking 100-MHz support will be limited to 333 MHz, though any increase in front-side bus speed will improve the Covington’s performance.

The Intel retail series heatsink cooler should prove acceptable for moderate overclocking in the 300 to 333 MHz range. All Covington models up to 433 MHz

feature a maximum thermal rating of 85° Celsius; thus, extra cooling is only required when overclocking is above 400 MHz.

Celeron Covington 300

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Table 6-24: Celeron Covington 300 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Covington

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Performance Rating 300 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts I/O Voltage 3.3 volts

Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption Slot 1 = 12 watts

PPGA = 12 watts Maximum Power Slot 1 = 18.4 watts

PPGA = 17.5 watts

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Table 6-25: Celeron Covington 300 Overclocking

Celeron Covington Model Rating 300 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 338 – 374 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 450+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Globalwin CAK-38

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Table 6-25: Celeron Covington 300 Overclocking

Celeron Covington Model Rating 300 MHz

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Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

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Strategy

The Celeron Covington 300 MHz offers great potential for systems featuring 100- MHz front-side-bus-capable motherboards. The C300 features a 4.5× multiplier that corresponds well to the 100 MHz-bus speed, yielding 450-MHz overclocking. Most systems will require an increase in core voltage levels to 2.2 volts in order to maintain stability at 450 MHz and beyond. A small percentage of Celeron C300 processors have been known to attain operating speeds in excess of 500 MHz, though only by risking dangerous core voltage increases, which are often mitigated by alternative cooling methods, such as Peltier or forced liquid.

Celeron Mendocino Overclocking

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Table 6-26: Celeron Mendocino Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 300 – 533 MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5 – 8.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

370-Pin PPGA Socket Core Die Size .25 micron, 154 mm2

Transistor Count 19 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 2.0 volts

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 12 – 19 watts

Maximum Power 18.4 – 28.3 watts

Architectural

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit

Table 6-26: Celeron Mendocino Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC

Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache 128 KB Unified

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch

Prediction 512 Entry 4-way RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry

Floating-Point Processor Integrated Multimedia Extensions MMX

Celeron Mendocino 300

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Table 6-27: Celeron Mendocino 300 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 300 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts Power Consumption 12 watts

Maximum Power 18.4 watts

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Table 6-28: Celeron Mendocino 300 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 300 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 338 – 374 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 450+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

The Celeron Mendocino introduced a 128-KB Level 2 cache embedded directly in the processor core. The earlier cacheless Celeron Covington series could not compete in desktop application performance, even for the entry-level market. The addition of the Level 2 cache boosted the performance of nearly all software running on the Celeron Mendocino.

This performance increase actually bumped the Mendocino into a competitive position against Intel’s own flagship desktop processor, the Pentium II Deschutes. While featuring only one-quarter the Level 2 cache of the P2, the Celeron Mendocino, with its full-speed cache architecture, offered nearly equivalent performance. Intel quickly transitioned the Pentium II to a 100-MHz front-side bus speed, leaving the Celeron dependant on the older 66-MHz standard. This generated a marketable performance difference between the two processor families.

The overclocking community quickly took notice of the performance potential of the new Celeron A series. By overclocking the front-side bus to 100 MHz, users could make the inexpensive Celeron A perform within a few percentage points of the costly Pentium II in nearly all benchmark tests. The embedded cache architecture also removed the limitation of external cache memory chips, thus allowing the internal P2- derived core to excel.

The Celeron 300A offers an 80+% success rate when overclocking to 450 MHz with a 100-MHz front-side bus. Many chips will require an increase in core voltage to 2.2

volts to maintain stability, but a small percentage of the best chips can scale beyond 450 MHz without voltage or cooling modifications. As usual, any increase in voltage levels will require the addition of a cooling system, though the retail Intel heatsink should be adequate for overclocking in the 338 to 374 MHz ranges.

Celeron Mendocino 333

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Table 6-29: Celeron Mendocino 333 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 333 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts Power Consumption 14 watts

Maximum Power 20.2 watts

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Table 6-30: Celeron Mendocino 333 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 333 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 375 – 415 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 450 – 500+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

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Strategy

The Celeron 333A is able to scale overclocking speeds upwards of 500 MHz, with little more than a quality aftermarket cooler and a slight 0.1 to 0.2-volt bump in the core voltage rating. Otherwise, the Celeron 333A resembles the 300A in most aspects. For those with 100-MHz-capable motherboards, the 333A offers great overclocking potential and minimal effort. Overclocks in the 375 or 415 MHz range often require nothing more than increasing the front-side bus rate to 75 or 83 MHz, respectively.

Celeron Mendocino 366

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Table 6-31: Celeron Mendocino 366 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 366 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts Power Consumption 14 watts

Maximum Power 22.2 watts

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Table 6-32: Celeron Mendocino 366 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 366 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 413 – 457 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 550 + MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

Maximum Core Voltage 2.2 volts with Heatsink

Table 6-32: Celeron Mendocino 366 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 366 MHz

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Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

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Strategy

The Celeron 366A is perhaps the most popular Mendocino processor model for overclocking enthusiasts. This chip features a 5.5× multiplier that responds well to 100-MHz front-side bus overclocking, yielding an impressive 550-MHz core operating speed. With this third model in the Mendocino family, Intel had nearly perfected the Celeron core for high-frequency operation in hopes of extending the Celeron line beyond 500 MHz.

The Celeron 366A is so well crafted that many units can scale easily beyond 600 MHz with the help of a quality cooling solution. The 366A attracted the attention of many professional users, as this chip was often used to build overclockable dual processor systems. According to most surveys, more than 90% of all Celeron 366A units can attain a stable overclock to 550 MHz with minimal intervention.

Celeron Mendocino 400

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Table 6-33: Celeron Mendocino 400 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 400 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 6.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts Power Consumption 15 watts

Maximum Power 23.4 watts

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Table 6-34: Celeron Mendocino 400 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 400 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Table 6-34: Celeron Mendocino 400 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 400 MHz

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Overclocking

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 450 – 498 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 600 MHz

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

The Celeron 400A is the last of the highly overclockable processors in the Mendocino family. The 400A operates with a 6× multiplier; thus overclocking the 100-MHz front- side bus speed yields a core operational speed of 600 MHz. A .25-micron design, the Celeron A cannot scale successfully beyond 550 or 600 MHz without using radical cooling technologies.

The majority of Celeron 400A processors will reach their maximum overclocked speed near 500 MHz. Only a small number of these chips will ever be stable at 600 MHz. Those who successfully overclock to this extended frequency will need to monitor core temperatures closely, as the .25-micron core of the Celeron A can reach damaging thermal loads in seconds. Quality forced-air heatsink coolers should prove adequate, but overclocking beyond 500 MHz with the retail Intel cooler should not be attempted.

Celeron Mendocino 433

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Table 6-35: Celeron Mendocino 433 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 433 MHz

Table 6-35: Celeron Mendocino 433 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz Multiplier Ratio 6.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts Power Consumption 16 watts

Maximum Power 24.6 watts

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Table 6-36: Celeron Mendocino 433 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 433 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 83 MHz Typical O/C Potential 488 – 540 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 550 – 600 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

The Celeron 433A allows little headroom for successful scaling beyond 540 MHz. Its 6.5× core multiplier will limit successful overclocks near 500 MHz with traditional heatsink cooling. Considering the lack of effective frequency scaling, the retail Intel heatsink should prove more than adequate for overclocking at speeds approaching 500 MHz. Otherwise, the Celeron 433A offers only moderate overclocking returns, because the 100-MHz front-side bus speed cannot be realized with this processor.

Celeron Mendocino 466

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Table 6-37: Celeron Mendocino 466 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 466 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 7.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts Power Consumption 17 watts

Maximum Power 25.6 watts

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Table 6-38: Celeron Mendocino 466 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 466 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 75 MHz Typical O/C Potential 525 – 550 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 581 – 600 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

The Celeron 466A offers limited overclocking support. The internal 7.0× core multiplier, combined with an aging .25-micron core design, max out at 525 MHz (75-

MHz front-side bus) for most of these chips. Even reaching an 83-MHz front-side bus speed will prove difficult, as the 466A model carries a maximum thermal rating of 70° Celsius. Any increase in the core voltage rate will require an aftermarket cooling solution.

Celeron Mendocino 500

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Table 6-39: Celeron Mendocino 500 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 500 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 7.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge 370-Pin PPGA Socket

Core Voltage 2.0 volts Power Consumption 18 watts Maximum Power 27 watts

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Table 6-40: Celeron Mendocino 500 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 500 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 75 MHz Typical O/C Potential 563 – 575 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 600 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Celeron 500A is a minimal overclocking model in most configurations. The 7.5× multiplier restricts successful overclocking to a 75-MHz front-side bus speed. In addition, a poor thermal rating for the 25-micron core will void most overclocking attempts beyond 550 MHz.

Celeron Mendocino 533

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Table 6-41: Celeron Mendocino 533 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron Mendocino

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Performance Rating 533 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.0× Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 19 watts Maximum Power 28.3 watts

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Table 6-42: Celeron Mendocino 533 Overclocking

Celeron Mendocino Model Rating 533 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 66 – 75 MHz Typical O/C Potential 550 – 575 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 600 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VEK 16

Vantec PIID-4535H Thermalright SK6 Globalwin CAK-38

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler STEP-UP-53X2

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Mendocino 533-MHz model is the final generation in the .25-micron Celeron family. Featuring an 8.0× multiplier, this processor is not well suited to overclocking. A few 533A units may reach 600 MHz with a 75-MHz front-side bus, but attempts at higher returns will usually result in a processor unable to boot the system.

Considering this limitation, the retail Intel heatsink should prove efficient enough for stable operation at 600 MHz if proper case cooling is applied.

Pentium III Katmai Background

The Pentium III Katmai represents an evolutionary step for the Pentium II design. The design includes the SSE multimedia instruction set, which differentiates Katmai from its earlier cousins. Increased efficiency in Intel’s design allowed the Katmai to scale up to 600 MHz; thus the demand for these chips was quite high during the early stages of Intel’s P3 marketing initiative.

The most promising Katmai overclock lies in the Pentium III 450-MHz processor. A 100-MHz front-side bus chip with a 4.5× multiplier, this processor was well suited to the 133+-MHz front-side bus capabilities of many popular motherboards. Overclocks to 600 MHz are usually stable with only a slight increase in the core voltage and the use of a quality cooling solution.

Early overclocking returns were so positive that Intel quickly introduced a Pentium III 600b MHz Katmai. The b identifier signifies 133-MHz front-side bus support. Even so, do not expect much overclocking potential beyond 600 MHz with the Katmai cooled by traditional forced-air techniques. The Katmai was Intel’s last processor to be built atop the .25-micron fabrication process, which limits MHz scalability.

Pentium III Katmai Overclocking

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Table 6-43: Pentium III Katmai Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Performance Rating 600 MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 0.5× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 100 – 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5× – 6.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 128mm2 Transistor Count ~ 9.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 2.00 − 2.05 volts

Table 6-43: Pentium III Katmai Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Architectural

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 17 – 23 watts

Maximum Power 25.3 – 34.5 watts

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit SSE = 128 bit

Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX/SSE

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC

Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache 512 KB Unified

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch

Prediction 512 Entry 4-way RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry

Floating-Point Processor Integrated Multimedia Extensions MMX, SSE

Pentium III Katmai 450

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Table 6-44: Pentium III Katmai 450 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Performance Rating 450 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Table 6-44: Pentium III Katmai 450 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 17 watts Maximum Power 25.3 watts

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Table 6-45: Pentium III Katmai 450 Overclocking

Pentium III Katmai Model Rating 450 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 112 – 124 MHz Typical O/C Potential 504 – 558 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 600+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VES20

Alpha P3125

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler Swiftech MC1000 PC-10a Cooler

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80 – 85° Celsius

The Katmai 450 MHz introduced the new Pentium III core. This chip is solid for overclocking due to its highly refined .25-micron core, coupled with a low 4.5× multiplier and 100-MHz front-side bus support. The Katmai shares many attributes with its Pentium II sibling, though the higher-quality cache memory chips allow the Katmai 450 to scale up to 600 MHz efficiently, given sufficient cooling.

The 4.5× multiplier is well suited for 124-MHz front-side bus overclocking, yielding a respectable 558 MHz. A small number of these chips will reach 600 MHz with quality cooling, but be prepared to bump the core voltage to 2.2 volts for stability. The

Katmai does demand power; alternative cooling methods based on Peltier or liquid technologies are desirable.

Pentium III Katmai 500

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Table 6-46: Pentium III Katmai 500 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Performance Rating 500 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 voltage

Power Consumption 19 watts Maximum Power 28 watts

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Table 6-47: Pentium III Katmai 500 Overclocking

Pentium III Katmai Model Rating 500 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 112 – 124 MHz Typical O/C Potential 560 – 600 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 600+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VES20

Alpha P3125

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler Swiftech MC1000 PC-10a Cooler

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80 – 85° Celsius

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Strategy

Overclocking the Pentium III Katmai 500 MHz works best with the 112-MHz front-side bus rate. Unlike the Katmai 450, this model is not suitable for 133-MHz bus overclocking due to its higher 5.0× internal multiplier. Most Katmai 500 processors will reach maximum overclocking potential around 600 MHz, though many units will never see returns beyond the 560-MHz level.

Pentium III Katmai 550

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Table 6-48: Pentium III Katmai 550 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Performance Rating 550 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.5× Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 21 watts Maximum Power 30.8 watts

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Table 6-49: Pentium III Katmai 550 Overclocking

Pentium III Katmai Model Rating 550 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C Up to 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 575 – 616 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 650 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VES20

Alpha P3125

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler Swiftech MC1000 PC-10a Cooler

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80 – 85° Celsius

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Strategy

The Katmai 550-MHz processor also offers minimal overclocking potential due to its 5.5× internal multiplier. Most Katmai 550 models will reach their maximum overclocking rate around 575 MHz, just beyond the default core rate of this chip.

Accordingly, the retail Intel heatsink cooler should prove adequate for overclocking this processor.

Pentium III Katmai 600

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Table 6-50: Pentium III Katmai 600 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Performance Rating 600 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 6.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 23 watts Maximum Power 34.5 watts

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Table 6-51: Pentium III Katmai 600 Overclocking

Pentium III Katmai Model Rating 600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 105 – 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 630 – 672 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 700 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VES20

Alpha P3125

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler Swiftech MC1000 PC-10a Cooler

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80 – 85° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium III 600 brought an end to the 100-MHz front-side-bus-compatible Katmai series of processors. The final model in this series, the Katmai 600, lacks overclocking potential beyond the 112-MHz front-side bus rate, leading to a theoretical maximum near 672 MHz. Earlier Katmai models offer better performance; lower ranges of the Katmai series can often overclock to a speedier 133-MHz front- side bus rate.

Pentium III Katmai 533B

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Table 6-52: Pentium III Katmai 533B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Performance Rating 533 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.0 volts

Power Consumption 20 watts Maximum Power 29.7 watts

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Table 6-53: Pentium III Katmai 533B Overclocking

Pentium III Katmai Model Rating 533 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential ~ 560 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 600+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VES20

Alpha P3125

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler Swiftech MC1000 PC-10a Cooler

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

Table 6-53: Pentium III Katmai 533B Overclocking

Pentium III Katmai Model Rating 533 MHz

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3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80 – 85° Celsius

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Strategy

The Katmai 600 finished the 100-MHz front-side bus series. Taking a cue from the overclocking community, Intel slid the Katmai to a 133-MHz front-side bus rating. This new series is marked by the addition of a B modifier to each model’s speed rating.

Still suffering from the .25-micron core design, the Katmai 533B provides modest overclocking potential. Perhaps worse than the processor’s core limitation is the lack of support for extended front-side bus speeds in the popular 133-MHz-capable Slot 1 boards. After VIA introduced its Apollo Pro133A chipset, support for motherboard rates beyond 133 MHz began to appear in the mainstream markets. Intel released its own i815 and i820 chipsets and the latter of these offered RAMBUS memory support.

Most Katmai 533B chips can successfully overclock to 560 MHz. The retail Intel heatsink should be adequate; a core voltage increase of 0.1 volts is usually all that is required. Any increase in the front-side bus rate can offer significant performance returns through increased memory bandwidth when the memory subsystem is operating at or above the processor bus rate. The popular VIA Pro133A chipset introduced support for down-clocking memory, using asynchronous signaling.

Benchmarking will measure the performance gains, assuming memory down-clocking is employed to attain a higher front-side bus speed.

Pentium III Katmai 600B

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Table 6-54: Pentium III Katmai 450 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Katmai

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Performance Rating 600 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 2.05 volts

Power Consumption 23 watts Maximum Power 34.5 watts

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Table 6-55: Pentium III Katmai 450 Overclocking

Pentium III Katmai Model Rating 600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C ~ 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 630 – 650 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 675+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Globalwin VES20

Alpha P3125

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler Swiftech MC1000 PC-10a Cooler

2.2 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80 – 85° Celsius

The Pentium III Katmai 600B offers overclocking potential similar to its 533-MHz counterpart. Notice the increase to 2.05 volts for the core voltage rating compared to

2.0 volts for older Katmai models. Intel must have recognized the limitations of its

.25-micron fabrication process. A 0.05 volt increase appears minimal, but the reality is that Intel needed the bump in voltage to sustain its sales model at this higher frequency.

The Katmai 600B marked the end of a generation. It was the last .25-micron processor offered by Intel’s desktop computing division. Overclocking this model proves difficult beyond 650 MHz; many chips never reach beyond the factory default of 600 MHz at a 2.05 volts core. Due to a peak power demand of 34.5 watts, the Katmai 600B will require massive cooling if overclocking returns exceeding 650 MHz are to be attained. Peltier cooling is a popular solution for this model, but the costs can be prohibitive given the small potential performance gains.

Pentium III Coppermine Background

After noting the limits of its .25-micron fabrication process, Intel shifted to a new .18- micron core for the Pentium III Coppermine. Intel also made its Level 2 cache internal to the core die, thus improving performance compared to the Katmai’s external cache architecture. The “Coppermine” name created confusion, however, and many users upgraded to this architecture believing that its internal circuitry featured a copper

interconnect design. In truth, the Coppermine still used the aluminum standard. Even so, upon its release the Coppermine became the best overclocking option available.

The desktop Coppermine is available in two distinct forms. Overclocking techniques remained consistent for the Slot 1 interface (a long, skinny card-edge socket) for Coppermine. The newer model, featuring a 370-pin FCPGA socket (a flat, square socket), extended overclocking potential by allowing the use of vertical heatsink coolers for greater thermal dissipation and efficiency. Combined with a new .18- micron core and lower operating voltage, the Coppermine allows overclocks in the hundreds of MHz, some even exceeding default operating frequencies by more than 50%!

Those possessing type eb processors will have less headroom for overclocking. The 133-MHz front-side bus of this series, combined with motherboard chipset limitations, prevents achieving higher speeds. A higher multiplier value is desirable in this series, especially for those interested in overclocking to 1+ GHz for maximum performance.

The most promising models are in the e series. These chips feature a base 100-MHz front-side bus design. The lower multiplier ranges (5.5× to 7.5×) offer overclocking returns of 200 to 300 MHz, requiring only a slight bump in core voltage levels and the addition of an aftermarket cooler. Even the retail cooler provided by Intel can often provide satisfactory cooling for overclocking by 100 to 150 MHz.

Pentium III Coppermine Overclocking

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Table 6-56: Pentium III Coppermine Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 500 – 1133 MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 100 – 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.0× – 8.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Die Size .18 micron

Core Size by Stepping A2 = 106 mm2

B0 = 104 mm2 CO = 90 mm2 D0 = 95 mm2

Transistor Count 28.1 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.65 – 1.75 volts

Table 6-56: Pentium III Coppermine Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Architectural

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 11 – 22 watts

Maximum Power 16 – 33 watts

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit SSE = 128 bit

Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX/SSE

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC

Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache 256 KB Unified

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch

Prediction 512 Entry 4-way RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry

Floating-Point Processor Integrated Multimedia Extensions MMX, SSE

Pentium III Coppermine 500E

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Table 6-57: Pentium III Coppermine 500E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 500 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Table 6-57: Pentium III Coppermine 500E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Multiplier Ratio 5.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 11 watts

Maximum Power 16 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-58: Pentium III Coppermine 500E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 500 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 124 – 133 MHz Typical O/C Potential 620 – 665 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 700+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

The E series Pentium III Coppermine offers great overclocking potential for systems featuring chips with low multiplier values. Being a 100-MHz front-side-compatible processor, the 500E is a superb candidate for overclocking to 665 MHz, with its 5× internal multiplier, via a jump to the 133-MHz front-side bus rate. Relatively low wattage demands, combined with a high thermal tolerance, often allow overclocking of this processor using the retail Intel heatsink cooler. Systems offering 133 MHz

motherboard bus support require little user intervention because core voltage values increase only 5 to 10%.

Pentium III Coppermine 550E

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Table 6-59: Pentium III Coppermine 550E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 550 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 12 watts

Maximum Power 17.6 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-60: Pentium III Coppermine 550E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 550 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 124 – 133 MHz Typical O/C Potential 682 – 732 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 800+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium III Coppermine 550E MHz processor offers superb overclocking potential. The vast majority of these processors can overclock upwards of 700 MHz with no additional cooling or increase in core voltage. Factoring in a high thermal tolerance rating and a low failure rate, the 550E represented Intel’s first quality overclocking solution since the original Celeron series. For hardcore overclockers, the P3 550E offers immense possibilities; a significant number of processors of this type can scale toward 900 MHz, assuming that quality cooling is properly applied.

Pentium III Coppermine 600E

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Table 6-61: Pentium III Coppermine 600E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 600 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 6.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 13 watts

Maximum Power 19.8 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-62: Pentium III Coppermine 600E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 124 – 133 MHz Typical O/C Potential 744 – 798 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 800+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

Pentium III

Table 6-62: Pentium III Coppermine 600E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 600 MHz

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1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

While not as popular as its 550 MHz counterpart, the Pentium III Coppermine 600E does offer a respectable overclocking return. Most 600E chips can effectively scale to frequencies above 750 MHz with nothing more than a modest increase in the motherboard front-side bus speed. A slight increase in core voltage will often net a positive overclocking return beyond 800 MHz, using only the retail Intel heatsink.

Pentium III Coppermine 650E

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Table 6-63: Pentium III Coppermine 650E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 650 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 6.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 14 watts

Maximum Power 21.5 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-64: Pentium III Coppermine 650E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 650 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 112 – 124 MHz Typical O/C Potential 728 – 806 MHz

Pentium III

Table 6-64: Pentium III Coppermine 650E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 650 MHz

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Overclocking

Maximum O/C Potential 850+ MHz

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

The Pentium III 650E represents a good option for systems with motherboards lacking official 133-MHz front-side bus support. Even when operating with the limited Intel BX chipset, the 650E can offer easy scalability to 800 MHz with only a moderate increase in core voltage rates. The comparatively high 6.5× internal multiplier of this processor presents real potential for scaling up to 865 MHz with boards supporting the 133-MHz front-side bus rate. Considering the increased electrical demand of the 650E, additional cooling will usually be required when increasing core voltage values beyond a marginal 5% threshold.

Pentium III Coppermine 700E

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Table 6-65: Pentium III Coppermine 700E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 700 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 7.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 15 watts

Table 6-65: Pentium III Coppermine 700E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Maximum Power 23.1 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-66: Pentium III Coppermine 700E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 700 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 112 – 120 MHz Typical O/C Potential 784 – 840 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 850 – 900+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

Given increasing multiplier values in the E series of Coppermine processors, the P3 700E represents the point at which 133-MHz front-side bus overclocking will prove limited for most system configurations. A 931-MHz core frequency can be attained from such an overclock, but be prepared to upgrade to a quality aftermarket forced- air heatsink cooler in order to maintain stability. The cooler bundled with most 700E models is insufficient for overclocking at 900+ MHz. It cannot cope with increased temperatures at the 1.85 core voltage level.

Pentium III Coppermine 750E

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Table 6-67: Pentium III Coppermine 750E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 750 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 7.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 16 watts

Maximum Power 24.7 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-68: Pentium III Coppermine 750E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 750 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 112 – 115 MHz Typical O/C Potential 840 – 863 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 900+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

The Pentium III Coppermine 750E MHz processor offers marginal scalability, due to its relatively high 7.0× internal multiplier. Overclocking via the 133-MHz front-side bus rate will prove limited in most tweaking scenarios. The resulting 1000 MHz clock rate will often fail, assuming that the processor does boot at all, due to the massive increase in core voltage required to sustain such an overclock. A quality Peltier

cooler, or something equally powerful, is definitely required if you hope to push the performance envelope.

Pentium III Coppermine 800E

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Table 6-69: Pentium III Coppermine 800E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 800 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 18 watts

Maximum Power 26.4 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-70: Pentium III Coppermine 800E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 800 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 112 – 115 MHz Typical O/C Potential 896 – 920 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 950+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The 800E MHz model of the Pentium III Coppermine series lacks the overclocking potential of its siblings. Attempts to reach the 133-MHz front-side bus rate will generally fail. Only the rare processor will offer scalability to the 1064-MHz range. Even then, expect to use the largest heatsink or Peltier cooler to properly dissipate the excessive thermal loads produced with core voltages approaching 1.85 volts.

Pentium III Coppermine 850E

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Table 6-71: Pentium III Coppermine 850E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 850 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 18 watts

Maximum Power 26.7 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-72: Pentium III Coppermine 850E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 850 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 105 – 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 893 – 952 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 975 – 1000+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

Pentium III

Table 6-72: Pentium III Coppermine 850E Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 850 MHz

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3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium III 850E MHz is best suited for moderate overclocking via the 112 MHz front-side bus rate. The resulting 952 MHz core operating speed is generally in the range of the 850E’s overclocking capabilities. Attempts at higher frequency ranges approaching 1000 MHz will be difficult, even for the best system configurations. The increased efficiency offered by a Peltier or liquid cooling solution will be important if you hope to push your 850E system into the 1 GHz arena.

Pentium III Coppermine 533EB

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Table 6-73: Pentium III Coppermine 533EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 533 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 9 watts

Maximum Power 17.5 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-74: Pentium III Coppermine 533EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 533 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 560 MHz Maximum O/C Potential ~ 600 MHz

Pentium III

Table 6-74: Pentium III Coppermine 533EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 533 MHz

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Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

In stark contrast to the E series of Coppermine processors, the 133-MHz frontside bus Pentium III EB offers poor overclocking potential. The internal multiplier value of the processor decreases in the series. Even the best Pentium III motherboards commonly lack the ability for stable operation beyond the 150-MHz front-side bus speed. Some boards claim support exceeding 166 MHz, though this is more a selling feature than a practical solution for Pentium III overclocking.

Even at the 140-MHz front-side bus speed, the 533EB allows processor overclocking to only 560 MHz. Even under the best conditions, the 533EB will prove troublesome at core operating speeds exceeding 600 MHz. Cooling and voltage will be minimal concerns. The motherboard will present a greater challenge than will the processor.

Pentium III Coppermine 600EB

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Table 6-75: Pentium III Coppermine 600EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 600 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 4.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts

Table 6-75: Pentium III Coppermine 600EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Power Consumption 11 watts Maximum Power 19.8 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-76: Pentium III Coppermine 600EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 630 MHz Maximum O/C Potential ~ 675 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

Overclocking potential of the Pentium III EB series improves as core multiplier values increase, though most 600EB systems will never realize returns beyond 675 MHz.

The lower-spectrum EB models bar successful overclocking, even at modest frequency ranges. Both the 533EB and the 600EB are poor choices for overclocking enthusiasts.

Pentium III Coppermine 667EB

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Table 6-77: Pentium III Coppermine 667EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 667 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 15 watts

Maximum Power 22 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-78: Pentium III Coppermine 667EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 667 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 700 MHz Maximum O/C Potential ~ 750 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

Assuming overclocking via a 150-MHz front-side bus rate, a significant portion of Pentium III 667EB chips can effectively scale to 750 MHz. Otherwise, expect overclocking returns under 700 MHz, as this chip still suffers from a low multiplier. One note of interest is the change in Intel’s model designation scheme to avoid any

public relations fallout from marketing a 666 processor (the biblical “number of the beast”).

Pentium III Coppermine 733EB

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Table 6-79: Pentium III Coppermine 733EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 733 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 16 watts

Maximum Power 24.1 watts

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image

Pentium III

Table 6-80: Pentium III Coppermine 733EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 733 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 700 MHz Maximum O/C Potential ~ 825 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium III 733EB MHz is the first EB series processor to feature an internal multiplier value capable of sustaining overclocked operation beyond the 800-MHz range. As with previous EB processors, cooling and voltage levels will require little user intervention for most configurations. The Pentium III core is well suited to maximize overclocking potential for this model. Even so, a 5.5× multiplier limits its appeal in the overclocking community.

Pentium III Coppermine 800EB

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Table 6-81: Pentium III Coppermine 800EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 800 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 6.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 18 watts

Maximum Power 24.5 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-82: Pentium III Coppermine 800EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 800 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 850 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 900+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Pentium III

Table 6-82: Pentium III Coppermine 800EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 800 MHz

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Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium III 800EB MHz processor marks a shift in the EB series toward overclocking potential. Designed atop a 6.0× core multiplier, the 800EB is a good candidate for overclocking at 900 MHz and beyond. Unlike its earlier siblings, it requires a moderate increase in core voltage for successful operation beyond 900 MHz. Install an aftermarket cooling system to maintain stability.

Pentium III Coppermine 866EB

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Table 6-83: Pentium III Coppermine 866EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 866 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 6.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 18 watts

Maximum Power 26.9 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-84: Pentium III Coppermine 866EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 866 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz Typical O/C Potential 910 – 975 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Pentium III

Table 6-84: Pentium III Coppermine 866EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 866 MHz

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Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

Equipped with its 6.5× multiplier, the Pentium III Coppermine 866EB MHz is a contender for successful 1000+-MHz overclocking when paired with a quality motherboard. The 866EB demands a serious supply of wattage, so overclocking will require a massive forced-air heatsink cooler. The retail Intel heatsink will offer a minimal return at best; most configurations will reach 910 MHz before the system fails to boot.

Pentium III Coppermine 933EB

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Table 6-85: Pentium III Coppermine 933EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 933 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 7.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 19 watts

Maximum Power 27.5 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-86: Pentium III Coppermine 933EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 933 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 980 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.75 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 60 – 70° Celsius

The Pentium III 933EB MHz processor is available in two different models, each featuring a slightly different core design. The earliest 933EB chips reach a maximum thermal load of 60° Celsius before core failure, while some later models can scale upwards to the 70 to 75° range due to improved core stepping. Older models will be of the 0686h family, while the latest chips show a 068Ah designator. All the models produce serious thermal loads that require massive cooling for any overclocking potential beyond 1000 MHz.

Pentium III Coppermine 1000EB

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Table 6-87: Pentium III Coppermine 1000EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 1000 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 7.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket

Table 6-87: Pentium III Coppermine 1000EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge Core Voltage 1.65 – 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 20 watts Maximum Power 29.8 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-88: Pentium III Coppermine 1000EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 1000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1050 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1100+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 60 – 70° Celsius

As with the 933EB, the Pentium III 1000EB MHz processor shipped in several architectural configurations during its lifespan. The earliest chips featured a maximum thermal load of 60° Celsius, while later processors were rated at 70°. Voltage ratings also varied across different revisions of the processor; units shipped at the 1.65, 1.7, and 1.75 volt levels. The .18-micron Pentium III design was nearing the end of its viability with the 1000EB. As a result, overclocking the 1000EB beyond 1100 MHz will prove difficult.

Pentium III Coppermine 1130EB

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Table 6-89: Pentium III Coppermine 1130EB Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium III Coppermine

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Performance Rating 1130 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket 242-Pin Slot 1 Cartridge

Core Voltage 1.65 volts Power Consumption 25 watts

Maximum Power 37.5 watts

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Pentium III

Table 6-90: Pentium III Coppermine 1130EB Overclocking

Coppermine Model Rating 1130 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C Minimal

Typical O/C Potential Minimal Maximum O/C Potential ~ 1200 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045 Globalwin VOS32

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

MC1000 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium III Coppermine 1130EB actually appeared, disappeared, and then reappeared in limited qualities during its ill-fated lifespan. Some of the earliest versions suffered stability and compatibility problems, resulting in suspended production. After a long delay, the 1130EB experienced a short renaissance before Intel released its next flagship production, the Pentium 4.

Issues surrounding the P3 1130EB likely resulted from its enormous peak power demand—37.5 watts at full load (almost 8 watts more than its 1000EB sibling). The 1130EB requires serious cooling to dissipate such a thermal load; overclocking is limited to a few MHz for most configurations. Increasing the core voltage to 1.85 volts should only be attempted with an active cooling solution, such as a Peltier-based heatsink or radical vapor-phase technology.

Celeron II Background

The .18-micron Celeron II is basically the Pentium III Coppermine upgrade to the Celeron marketing Strategy. Most users simply discard the II designation; even Intel marketing refers to this processor simply as Celeron. The Level 2 cache is scaled back to 128 KB, though all other Pentium III features are supported. The newer FCPGA socket format is also carried over, as is the 100-MHz bus speed for upper frequency ranges of the product line. Overclocking returns parallel those of the Coppermine family, with higher-end chips approaching their limits at 800 to 1100 MHz.

Celeron II Overclocking

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Table 6-91: Celeron II Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 533 – 1300+ MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate Level 2 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 66 – 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 5.0× – 13.0+x

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Die Size .18 micron

Core Size by Stepping A2 = 106 mm2

B0 = 104 mm2 CO = 90 mm2 D0 = 95 mm2

Transistor Count 28.1 Million Total

½ Cache Disabled

Table 6-91: Celeron II Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.5 volts

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 9 – 22 watts

Maximum Power 14 – 33 watts

Architectural Design Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit SSE = 128 bit

Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX/SSE

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit

Maximum Memory Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC

Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache 128 KB Unified

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch Prediction 512 Entry 4-way RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry

Floating-Point Processor Integrated Multimedia Extensions MMX, SSE

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Celeron II 533

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Table 6-92: Celeron II 533 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 533 MHz

Table 6-92: Celeron II 533 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz Multiplier Ratio 8.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 9 watts Maximum Power 14 watts

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Table 6-93: Celeron II 533 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 533 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 83 – 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 664 – 800 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 800+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

The Celeron II 533-MHz processor can be confused with its older Celeron 533 counterpart due to the similarity in model name. However, the newer .18-micron Celeron II 533-MHz processor offers overclocking potential unparalleled by any model in the original Celeron family. Most chips from this particular speed grade will overclock easily upwards of 700 MHz, with no changes in voltage or cooling requirements. The best chips can scale beyond 800 MHz.

Celeron II 566

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Table 6-94: Celeron II 566 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 566 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 10 watts Maximum Power 14.9 watts

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Table 6-95: Celeron II 566 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 566 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 83 – 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 706 – 850 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 900+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

The Celeron II 566 is a popular choice among overclockers due to its 8.5× internal multiplier. With a 100-MHz front-side bus rate, this chip offers an appealing overclock to 850 MHz with little effort outside the addition of a good-quality heatsink cooler.

Some users have reported overclocking returns beyond 900 MHz with active Peltier or liquid cooling, thus rivaling the performance of the best Pentium III Coppermine models.

Celeron II 600

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Table 6-96: Celeron II 600 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 600 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 9.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 12 watts Maximum Power 19.6 watts

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Table 6-97: Celeron II 600 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 83 – 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 747 – 900 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 900 – 950 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

A successful overclocker, the Celeron II 600-MHz processor never quite reached the acclaim awarded to its 566-MHz counterpart. The slightly higher 9.0× internal multiplier can prove limiting for chips not capable of sustaining 900-MHz. Many popular motherboards lack front-side bus speeds between 83 and 100 MHz; thus overclocking enthusiasts are shut down at 747 MHz.

Celeron II 633

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Table 6-98: Celeron II 633 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 633 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 9.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 13 watts Maximum Power 20.2 watts

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Table 6-99: Celeron II 633 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 633 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 83 – 100 MHz Typical O/C Potential 789 – 950 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 950 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 82° Celsius

The Celeron II 633-MHz processor carries the same faults as its 600-MHz sibling. While a small percentage of these units can successfully operate at 100 MHz, many users are forced into operating at 789 MHz due to the 83 MHz front-side bus limitation. Also note the lower thermal threshold for this chip: Intel decreased the maximum core temperature fail rate to 82° Celsius, compared to 90° Celsius for the

earlier Celeron II models. Overclocking the 633 will require improved cooling to achieve significant returns.

Celeron II 667

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Table 6-100: Celeron II 667 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 667 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 10.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 14 watts Maximum Power 21.1 watts

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Table 6-101: Celeron II 667 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 667 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 75 – 83 MHz Typical O/C Potential 750 – 830 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 850 – 950 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 82° Celsius

The Celeron II 667 shares the naming quirk of its Pentium III counterpart. Once again, Intel avoided marketing a processor numbered 666. Sadly, the C2 667 also

brought an end to successful 100-MHz front-side motherboard overclocking, due to its high 10.0× multiplier. Average overclocking for this unit falls in the 750 to 850 MHz range.

Celeron II 700

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Table 6-102: Celeron II 700 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 700 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 10.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 12 watts Maximum Power 21.9 watts

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Table 6-103: Celeron II 700 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 700 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 75 – 83 MHz Typical O/C Potential 788 – 872 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 900+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.5 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The Celeron II 700-MHz processor brought a definitive end to 100-MHz frontside bus overclocking. Only a few rare units of this speed grade can successfully operate at 1050 MHz, due to the 10.5× multiplier. Also note the ever-decreasing maximum core temperature rating of this speed grade compared to earlier Celeron II models. Any overclocking of this processor will usually require the addition of an aftermarket cooling solution. At a minimum, real-time active thermal monitoring is recommended for overclocking attempts.

Celeron II 733

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Table 6-104: Celeron II 733 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 733 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 11.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 15 watts Maximum Power 22.8 watts

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Table 6-105: Celeron II 733 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 733 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 75 – 83 MHz Typical O/C Potential 825 – 913 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 950 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Table 6-105: Celeron II 733 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 733 MHz

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Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The Celeron II 733 is the last truly overclockable 66-MHz bus-based processor in the family. Even the best models in this speed grade will reach their maximum overclocking potential around 950 MHz without the addition of nontraditional cooling technologies. This model signaled the end of overclocking attempts beyond the 83- MHz front-side bus rate for this family.

Celeron II 766

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Table 6-106: Celeron II 766 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 766 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 11.50×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 16 watts Maximum Power 23.6 watts

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Table 6-107: Celeron II 766 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 766 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 70 – 75 MHz Typical O/C Potential 805 – 863 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 950 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

Table 6-107: Celeron II 766 Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 766 MHz

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1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

Overclocking with the Celeron II 766 will be limited beyond the 75-MHz frontside bus rate. Some rare samples may reach 83 MHz, but the success rate for such overclocks is extremely low compared to those on lower-clocked Celeron II models. The C2 766 is not a good choice for overclocking enthusiasts, due to its debilitating 11.5× multiplier.

Celeron II 800E

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Table 6-108: Celeron II 800E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 800 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 16 watts Maximum Power 24.5 watts

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Table 6-109: Celeron II 800E Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 766 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 105 – 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 840 – 896 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 950+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Table 6-109: Celeron II 800E Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 766 MHz

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Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 82° Celsius

The Celeron II 800 marked the debut of the E series designation in the C2 family. As with the Pentium III Coppermine, any unit bearing the E modifier is a 100-MHz front- side-bus-compatible processor. Overclocking these chips is moderately successful; most samples offer returns similar to their P3E counterparts. Note the increase in maximum core thermal ratings, a clear indication of Intel’s introduction of new core stepping for the C2 architecture.

Celeron II 850E

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Table 6-110: Celeron II 850E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 850 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 17 watts Maximum Power 25.7 watts

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Table 6-111: Celeron II 850E Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 850 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Table 6-111: Celeron II 850E Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 850 MHz

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Overclocking

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 105 – 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 893 – 952 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 85 ° Celsius

Due to its 8.5× internal multiplier, the Celeron II 850 MHz processor is a great candidate for overclocking via the 112-MHz front-side bus. Given the improved thermal efficiency of the C2E core, the 850E can offer scalability beyond 1000 MHz for many configurations.

Celeron II 900E

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Table 6-112: Celeron II 900E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 900 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 66 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 9.5×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 18 watts Maximum Power 26.7 watts

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Table 6-113: Celeron II 900E Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 900 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 105 – 112 MHz Typical O/C Potential 945 – 1008 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1025 – 1100 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

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Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

The Celeron II 900E offers modest overclocking potential in the 945 to 1008 MHz range. At this point in its evolution, this processor family was limited to its .18-micron core architecture. Most configurations featuring this processor will reach a maximum overclock of around 1050 MHz. Only two additional speed grades were released after the 900E, as Intel moved rapidly to new core architecture.

Celeron II 1000E

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Table 6-114: Celeron II 1000E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 1000 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 10.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 20 watts Maximum Power 29 watts

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Table 6-115: Celeron II 1000E Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 1000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 105 – 110 MHz Typical O/C Potential 1050 – 1100 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1100+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

image

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

The specifications of the Celeron II 1000E indicate a decrease in maximum core temperature ratings. Accordingly, overclocking this processor will prove limited beyond 1100 MHz. Worse yet, most chips from this speed grade will fail to operate successfully at speeds beyond 1050 MHz, only a 5% increase for the risk.

Celeron II 1100E

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Table 6-116: Celeron II 1100E Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Celeron II

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Performance Rating 1100 MHz Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 11.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA Socket Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 22 watts Maximum Power 33 watts

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Table 6-117: Celeron II 1100E Overclocking

Celeron II Model Rating 1100 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 105 MHz Typical O/C Potential 1133 – 1155 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1175 – 1200 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink Coolers Swiftech MCX370

Alpha PAL8045

Strategy

Recommended Peltier Active

Cooler MCX370 Peltier

1.85 volts with Heatsink Maximum Core Voltage Cooler

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

image

Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

At 1100 MHz the Celeron II family came to an end. The 1100E model offers minimal overclocking return for most configurations, though a few underground reports have indicated marginal scalability beyond 1200 MHz with high core voltages and the application of quality cooling. However, most Celeron II 1100E systems will fail to boot around 1150 MHz, due to limitations built in by the .18-micron fabrication.

Pentium III/Celeron Tualatin Background

The Tualatin was a stopgap in Intel’s midrange product line. This rather unusual processor appeared after the release of the Pentium 4 flagship product series. The Tualatin built on the Coppermine design by introducing a streamlined .13-micron core architecture and adding a hardware data prefetch mechanism to maximize efficient instructions per clock. Intel also chose to adapt its socket interface with the Tualatin by introducing a new socket standard called FCPGA2, which is incompatible with the huge number of traditional Socket 370 FCPGA motherboards still in use around the world. While the different socket standards may start to get a bit confusing, you should simply keep in mind which socket type you have on your motherboard and which processors work with that particular socket type, rather than trying to understand why Intel chose to complicate our lives with so many socket standards.

The latest 1.2+-GHz Celeron features a core-die reduction to .13 micron, plus a migration to Intel’s new FCPGA2 socket format. Its base design closely resembles the Tualatin, though the feature set has been scaled back to a 128-KB Level 2 cache, 100-MHz front-side bus support, and no advanced hardware data prefetch mechanism. This new breed of Celeron T series chips offers overclocking results

similar to the Tualatin chips. Most will reach 1400+ MHz with good cooling and a minor bump in core voltage.

Pentium III Tualatin Overclocking

While the Tualatin requires a new socket format, it represents the most overclockable Pentium III design to date. Many users report overclocks upwards of 2 GHz with radical cooling. Traditional forced-air heatsink cooling techniques usually peak between 1400 and 1600 MHz. Unlike previous designs, the new .13-micron architecture is not tolerant of changes in core voltages. Take great care when pushing the safety limit of 10% beyond default specifications.

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Table 6-118: Pentium III Tualatin Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Talatin

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Performance Rating 1130 – 1260+ MHz Generation Sixth: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 100 – 133 MHz

Multiplier Ratio 8.5× – 13+x

Physical Design Interface Packing 370-Pin FCPGA2 Socket

Core Die Size .13 micron Core Size by Stepping 80 mm2

Transistor Count 256 KB = 28.1 Million

512 KB = 44 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.45 – 1.475 volts I/O Voltage 3.3 volts

Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 15 – 21 watts

Maximum Power 12.8 – 31.2 watts

Architectural

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit SSE = 128 bit

Execution Units 2 × ALU/MMX/SSE

1 × Pipelined FPU Maximum Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle

Data Bus Width 64 bit

Table 6-118: Pentium III Tualatin Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Talatin

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Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte Virtual = 64 Terabyte

Multi-Processor Support 2-way SMP via APIC Level 1 Code Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 1 Data Cache 16 KB 4-way

Level 2 Cache 256 – 512 KB Unified

Read Buffer 4 × 32 Byte Write Buffer 32 Byte

Pre-fetch Queue 32 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch

Prediction 512 Entry 4-way RSB Branch Prediction 4 Entry

Floating-Point Processor Integrated Multimedia Extensions MMX, SSE

Disassembling Slot 1 Processors

1. You must disassemble the factory-installed casing in order to install aftermarket cooling devices in Slot 1 processors. The case is secured in place with four interlocking pins. Begin by laying the processor on its side, with the thermal plate facing up. Eight pins will be visible, but only the four pins near the outer edge of the casing require manipulation.

2. Insert a flathead screwdriver into the region between the thermal plate and the casing’s edge. You may wish to cover the head of the screwdriver with a thin cloth to avoid scratching the case. Simply rotate the screwdriver until you hear a clicking sound. This click signifies release of the upper pins. Use the same method for removing the two lower pins, but take care not to insert the screwdriver tip too far into the processor assembly, as this could damage the internal circuit board.

3. You must also disassemble the inner thermal plate once the casing has been removed. First flip the processor over so that the thermal plate is facing away. A series of small teeth embedded in a spring system, secured against four interconnecting pins, holds the thermal plate in position. Using a small punch or jeweler’s screwdriver, carefully apply pressure around the toothed regions until the catches bend away.

4. The processing unit can now be removed from the casing by gently lifting the printed circuit board away from the four interconnecting pins. Installation of the aftermarket heatsink, waterblock, or Peltier cooler varies according to model, though most coolers are secured by plastic strips or other simple mounting techniques. The best solutions use dual heatsinks for each side of the printed

circuit board. Mounting screws secure the cooler to the circuit board by applying pressure from both sides of the processing unit.

Take care to note the shape of the Intel thermal plate, as some Pentium II models feature a specialized plate designed to contact both the processor core and the cache memory chips. If a comparable heatsink design is not available, installing a shim between the chips and heatsink can achieve the cooling needed for proper operation. Alternatively, a fan can be mounted to blow across the cache chips.

Socket to Slot Converters

Socket 370 to Slot 1 “Slotket” converter cards offer a popular upgrade path to move from older Slot 1-based systems to the latest Socket 370-based Pentium III Coppermine and Celeron II processors. The best of these Slotket cards offer great overclocking support. Many models allow users to configure the values for core voltage and front-side bus speeds directly on the Slotket card itself, assuming the motherboard supports custom values.

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Figure 6-1: I will Slotket II

The Slot 1 interface uses certain pins for automatic configuration of frontside bus and voltage levels. A Slot 1 motherboard equipped with a quality Slotket converter (Abit or Iwill recommended) and a highly overclockable Pentium III Coppermine processor can offer superb overclocking potential. A Slotket also allows installation of 370-pin socket cooling solutions, thus increasing the efficiency of the thermal exchange while decreasing overall user effort.

Hacking the Slot 1 Interface

Using the same techniques discussed for a Slotket converter card, a true Slot 1 processor can be modified by altering the electrical states of various pins along the printed circuit board interface’s connection to the motherboard. Blocking electrical inputs on certain pins can facilitate overclocking for motherboards with limited configuration support.

Many methods have been developed for the isolation of pins from an electrical connector. The most extreme process involves actually severing the pin with a sharp razor blade. This action is irreversible without intricate knowledge of advanced soldering techniques. The simplest process is to use dielectric paint to insulate the

pin. The risk is that these paints can be abrasive to the motherboard connector and may decompose under extended thermal load.

The best solution comes in the form of Teflon electrical tape. The basic idea is to prevent the pin from making an electrical connection to the motherboard by covering it with the Teflon tape. A standard 2-millimeter-thick tape possesses dielectric properties upwards of 8000 volts, thus ensuring no electron migration across the insulating material. Teflon is also extremely resilient. It can withstand great temperatures and stress loads. The tape can easily be cut with a razor blade to fit across the desired pin(s). Take care to ensure that the tape covers the entire lower region of the pin, with no overlapping onto surrounding pin or circuit junctions.

The most popular hardware hack is found with pin B21. When you isolate this pin, a Slot 1 processor designed for 66-MHz front-side bus operation can be forced to identify itself to the motherboard as a 100-MHz bus chip. Remember that locked chips will implement the same multiplier, regardless of the front-side bus rate; thus any bus speed increases will overclock the core processing unit. Systems featuring unlocked chips can implement a lower multiplier, if overclocking the processor core is not desired, while retaining the performance advantage of the 100-MHz bus speed.

Pin B21 can be located by placing the processor on its side, with the longest row of connecting pins oriented to the right-hand side. The position of pin B21 can now be found by counting 21 pins from the right-hand side of the processor.

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Figure 6-2: Slot 1 processor (back side, bottom right) pin B21, covered

Core voltage modifications are also possible for most Slot 1 models. Again, this assumes that the system’s motherboard actually supports the values assigned after the pins are modified. A motherboard without proper voltage support might give erroneous voltage values, thus damaging the processor core circuitry. Any voltage hacking techniques require extreme care and patience.

Covering pins A121, A119, and B119 will set the core voltage to 2.2 volts for .25- micron processor models. Be careful to examine all connection points closely with a magnifying glass before proceeding to install the processor. If the junction point at A119 allows any connection, the chip will be autodetected as requiring a core voltage of 2.6 volts, a level that will destroy nearly all .25-micron Intel processors.

Newer .18-micron Slot 1 models can be modified to 1.85 volts using a similar technique. Only pin A119 needs to be covered to force the autodetection of 1.85 volts for the core processor voltage. Any increases in core voltage values can lead to processor failure due to increased thermal loads, so be sure to install a cooling system capable of dissipating the increased temperatures caused by these techniques.

Pentium 4 Willamette Background

With the P6 core reaching its final days of mass production, Intel ushered in the redesigned Pentium 4 as its new midrange flagship product. The Pentium 4 is an entirely new core built atop technologies never before implemented for an ×86 class processor, such as a double-speed integer execution unit, SSE2 streaming multimedia instructions, and a trace cache architecture. These new features yielded the highest performance processor available for most multimedia applications.

Despite these advanced technologies, the Pentium 4 platform has its shortcomings, due to its extremely long pipeline. The older Pentium 3 and AMD Athlon designs achieve better results for the broadest range of applications, at least as measured in per-MHz efficiency. The Pentium 4 must run at 2 GHz before it can outperform its competitors; even then, the difference is negligible for most desktop applications and games.

Considering this lack of per-MHz effectiveness, overclocking the Pentium 4 will help maximize performance. As with previous Intel designs, the P4 is multiplier locked.

Worse, the Willamette is fabricated through a .18-micron process, which does not respond well to overclocking at the default core voltage. A 10% core voltage increase, combined with a massive cooling unit, can usually offer improvements in the 200 to 400 MHz range.

Actual performance returns across a variety of applications and benchmarks also need to be examined when overclocking the Pentium 4. Intel introduced a clock- throttling mechanism that can effectively power down segments of the processor’s core during times of intense thermal load. This new feature is engineered to ensure stability for OEM systems that lack quality cooling configurations, though it can adversely affect overclocking performance for systems with inadequate cooling properties.

It should be noted that the Pentium 4 uses the 100-MHz Quad Data Rate bus, or QDR, which results in a 400-MHz FSB speed.

Pentium 4 Willamette Overclocking

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Table 6-119: Pentium 4 Willamette Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1300 – 2000 MHz

Table 6-119: Pentium 4 Willamette Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Generation Seventh: 80786 IA-32 Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Level 2 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Front-side Bus Speed 400 MHz (4 * 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 13.0× – 20.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Die Size .18 micron Core Size by Stepping 217 mm2

Transistor Count 42 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 51.8 – 75.3 watts

Maximum Power 71 – 100 watts

Architectural

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit

SSE/SSE2 = 128 bit

Maximum Execution Rate 6 Micro-Ops per Cycle Data Bus Width 64 bit

Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte Virtual = 64 Terabyte

Level 2 Cache 256 KB Unified Pre-fetch Queue 256 Byte

Static Branch Prediction Supported Dynamic Branch

Prediction 4,096 Entry

RSB Branch Prediction 16 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, SSE, SSE2

Pentium 4 Willamette 1300

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Table 6-120: Pentium 4 Willamette 1300 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1300 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 13.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 51.6 watts

Maximum Power 74 watts

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Table 6-121: Pentium 4 Willamette 1300 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1300 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 460 QDR

(110 – 115 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 1430 – 1495 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1500 – 1600 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 80° Celsius

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Strategy

The Willamette 1300-MHz processor marked Intel’s entry-level push into the Pentium 4 marketing campaign. One of the first P4-derived chips available to consumers, the P4 1300 lacks the performance to compete with older Pentium III and Athlon designs. As a result, this chip realized only marginal success with overclocking; many units failed to overclock successfully past 1500 MHz in testing with prerelease P3 1300 processors.

Pentium 4 Willamette 1400

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Table 6-122: Pentium 4 Willamette 1400 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1400 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 14.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 55.3 watts

Maximum Power 74 watts

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Table 6-123: Pentium 4 Willamette 1400 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1400 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 480 QDR

(110 – 120 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 1540 – 1680 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1700 – 1800 MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478

2.1 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium 4 1400-MHz processor suffered a fate similar to its 1300-MHz sibling in the overclocking community. Again, Intel failed to deliver significant performance gains over existing Pentium III and Athlon models in most consumer-oriented software performance testing. Overclocking returns did improve, but the imposed

thermal limitation of 70° Celsius mandates installation of a quality cooling solution for those seeking returns in excess of 1700 MHz.

Pentium 4 Willamette 1500

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Table 6-124: Pentium 4 Willamette 1500 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1500 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 15.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 57.9 watts

Maximum Power 79 watts

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Table 6-125: Pentium 4 Willamette 1500 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1500 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 480 QDR

(110 – 120 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 1650 – 1800 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2000+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478

2.1 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 72° Celsius

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Strategy

The Willamette 1500 MHz was the best-selling Intel processor in the early months of the P4 marketing initiative, due to its impressive performance-to-price ratio. Most

units in this speed grade can attain stable overclocks exceeding 1700 MHz with installation of a decent heatsink cooler and a slight core voltage increase. As the P4 1500 design imposes a relatively low thermal limit of 72° Celsius, any attempts at overclocking beyond 1900 MHz should include high-quality forced-air heatsink cooling.

Pentium 4 Willamette 1600

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Table 6-126: Pentium 4 Willamette 1600 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1600 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 16.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 61 watts

Maximum Power 83 watts

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Table 6-127: Pentium 4 Willamette 1600 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 480 QDR

(110 – 120 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 1760 – 1920 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2100+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478

2.1 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 75° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium 4 Willamette 1600-MHz processor offers great overclocking potential with minimal concern for system instability. Nearly all P4 1600 models can reach 1900 MHz straight from the retail box, without any significant increases in core voltage rates. However, cooling becomes a dominant concern beyond 2000 MHz, as this chip features a maximum core temperature threshold of 75° Celsius.

Pentium 4 Willamette 1700

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Table 6-128: Pentium 4 Willamette 1700 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1700 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 17.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 64 watts

Maximum Power 87 watts

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Table 6-129: Pentium 4 Willamette 1700 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1700 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 480 QDR

(110 – 120 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 1870 – 2040 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2100+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478

2.1 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 76° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium 4 Willamette 1700-MHz processor is well respected in the overclocking community. The internal 17× multiplier is well suited to operation with processor speeds in excess of 120 MHz (480 QDR). Given a quality cooling solution, most P4 1700 units should scale up to 2100 MHz with minimal fuss and no major concerns.

Pentium 4 Willamette 1800

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Table 6-130: Pentium 4 Willamette 1800 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1800 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 18.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 66.7 watts

Maximum Power 88 watts

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Table 6-131: Pentium 4 Willamette 1800 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1800 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 460 QDR

(110 – 115 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 1980 – 2070 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2100+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478

2.1 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 77° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium 4 Willamette 1800-MHz processor offers a good balance in its 18× core- to-processor bus multiplier ratio. Overclocking returns approaching 2100 MHz should be realized with minimal effort. However, the P4 1800 represents a transition phase in the Willamette architecture for overclocking enthusiasts; models featuring higher multipliers will offer less performance return, due to restrictions in processor bus speeds. The P4 1800 displays evidence of this shift when speed grades of the Willamette design are closely compared.

Pentium 4 Willamette 1900

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Table 6-132: Pentium 4 Willamette 1900 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 1900 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 19.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.7 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 72.8 watts

Maximum Power 92 watts

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Table 6-133: Pentium 4 Willamette 1900 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1900 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 460 QDR

(110 – 115 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 2090 – 2185 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2200+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478

2.1 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler

Table 6-133: Pentium 4 Willamette 1900 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1900 MHz

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Maximum Core Temperature 73° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium 4 Willamette 1900-MHz processor will offer moderate scalability upwards to the 2100 to 2200 MHz range for most system configurations. The .18- micron design of this chip stifles successful overclocking beyond 2200 MHz, regardless of the cooling or voltage levels involved.

Pentium 4 Willamette 2000

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Table 6-134: Pentium 4 Willamette 2000 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Willamette

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Performance Rating 2000 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 20.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 423-Pin PGA 478-Pin PGA

Core Voltage 1.70 – 1.75 volts Power Consumption 71.8 Watts

Maximum Power 96 Watts

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Table 6-135: Pentium 4 Willamette 2000 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 2000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 420 – 440 QDR

(105 – 110 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 2100 – 2200 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2200+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Zalman CNPS-5000

Swiftech MCX-478

Table 6-135: Pentium 4 Willamette 2000 Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 2000 MHz

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2.1 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 74° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium 4 Willamette family of processors saw its supposedly final incarnation with the release of the P4 2000. This chip offers marginal overclocking capabilities, with most users realizing maximum return in the 2100 to 2200 MHz range. Improved cooling or increases in core voltage will do little to push the Willamette any further; the .18-micron design hinders overclocking beyond 2200 MHz for most traditional system configurations.

Pentium 4 Northwood Background

The Pentium 4 Northwood is the latest commercial offering in the P4 architecture for desktop users. The Northwood extends the base Willamette architecture by adding a 256-KB Level 2 cache, bringing the total to an impressive 512 KB. Design enhancements include a .13-micron core fabrication process. This smaller die size, combined with additional production revisions, allows the Pentium 4 Northwood to attain impressive overclocking results compared to its Willamette siblings.

Overclocking potential for the P4 Northwood can extend above 500 to 800 MHz with traditional forced-air heatsink cooling and a minimal increase in core voltage levels. Those willing to undertake extreme cooling measures will witness the greatest returns. Recent liquid gas cooling experiments have yielded short-term overclocking results above the 4-GHz range for the latest Northwood revisions. Otherwise, less radical Peltier or vapor-phase cooling technologies should allow operation near the 3- GHz level for most higherclocked Northwood models.

Intel demonstrated an impressive 3.5-GHz Pentium 4 system in 2001, thus revealing the potential for real P4 overclocking.

Pentium 4 Northwood Overclocking

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Table 6-136: Pentium 4 Northwood Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Performance Rating 1600 – 3000+ MHz Generation Seventh: 80786 IA-32

Operational Rates Level 1 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Table 6-136: Pentium 4 Northwood Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Level 2 Cache Speed 1.0× Core Rate

Front-side Bus Speed 400 MHz (4 × 100 MHz) Multiplier Ratio 16.0× – 13.0+x

Physical Design Interface Packing 478-Pin PGA Core Die Size .13 micron

Core Size by Stepping 131 – 146 mm2

Transistor Count 55 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.50 volts

I/O Voltage 3.3 volts Level 2 Cache Voltage 3.3 volts

Power Consumption 52.4 – 57.8 watts

Maximum Power 66 – 74 watts

Architectural

OOO and Speculative Execution

Design Core Technology RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

FPU = 80 bit MMX = 64 bit

SSE/SSE2 = 128 bit

Maximum Execution Rate 6 Micro-Ops per Cycle Data Bus Width 64 bit

Maximum Memory

Support Physical = 64 Gigabyte Virtual = 64 Terabyte

Level 2 Cache 512 KB Unified Pre-fetch Queue 256 Byte

Static Branch Prediction Supported Dynamic Branch

Prediction 4,096 Entry

RSB Branch Prediction 16 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, SSE, SSE2

Pentium 4 Northwood 1600A

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Table 6-137: Pentium 4 Northwood 1600A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Table 6-137: Pentium 4 Northwood 1600A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Performance Rating 1600 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 16.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 478 Pin PGA Core Voltage 1.5v

Power Consumption 38.7 watts Maximum Power 49 watts

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Table 6-138: Pentium 4 Northwood 1600A Overclocking

Pentium 4 Northwood Model Rating 2000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical FSB O/C 532–600 QDR

(133–150 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 2128–2400 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2800+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Swiftech MCX-478

1.75v with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5v with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 66° Celsius

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Strategy

The P4 1600A offers incredible overclocking potential due to its highly refined .13- micron copper core fabrication process. Most units can attain stable operation at 2400 MHz (that’s an 800-MHz overclock) with nothing more than an increase in bus speed, though you may need to increase to 1.60v or 1.65v for improved stability. The P4 1600A is one of the most often overclocked processors out there. With a whopping 275 entries in the Overclockers.com CPU database, the P4 1600A is often compared to the old Celeron 300A for its overclocking potential to price ratio.

Pentium 4 Northwood 1800A

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Table 6-139: Pentium 4 Northwood 1800A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Performance Rating 1800 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 18.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 478-Pin PGA Core Voltage 1.5v

Power Consumption 41.6 watts Maximum Power 54 watts

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Table 6-140: Pentium 4 Northwood 1800A Overclocking

Pentium 4 Willamette Model Rating 1800 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A Typical Front-side Bus O/C 532 QDR

(133 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 2400 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2800+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Swiftech MCX-478

1.75v with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5v with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 67° Celsius

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Strategy

The P4 1800A tends to be less popular than the 1600A (157 overclocking submissions at Overclockers.com, for comparison sake) since it is slightly more expensive than the 1600A without offering many additional advantages. Stock cooling and the default 1.50v voltage will likely get you to 2400 MHz with a 133-MHz bus speed, though once again you may need 1.60v or 1.65v to improve stability.

There is one advantage that the 1800A offers over the 1600A: you can run at 2400 MHz with a lower 133-MHz bus rather than a 150-MHz bus, thanks to the 18.0× multiplier on the 1800A.

Pentium 4 Northwood 2000A

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Table 6-141: Pentium 4 Northwood 2000A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Performance Rating 2000 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 20.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 478-Pin PGA Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 52.4 watts Maximum Power 66 watts

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Table 6-142: Pentium 4 Northwood 2000A Overclocking

Pentium 4 Northwood Model Rating 2000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 440 – 480 QDR

(110 – 120 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 2200 – 2400 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2400+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Swiftech MCX-478

Maximum Core Voltage 1.75 volts with Extreme

Cooling

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 68° Celsius

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Strategy

The P4 2000A features a 20.0× multiplier, once again enabling a higher core operating speed with a lower front side bus. That’s good if you’re trying to push the core speed to the max, without stressing subsystems that are driven by the FSB, but it may offer lower overall system performance as compared to using a slightly higher FSB and a slightly lower processor core operating speed. If you’re aiming for 2400 MHz, the 1600A or 1800A will therefore yield greater overall performance due to their

higher FSBs, along with comparable stability, depending on voltage, cooling, and your particular processor sample.

Pentium 4 Northwood 2200A

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Table 6-143: Pentium 4 Northwood 2200A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Performance Rating 2200 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 22.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 478-Pin PGA Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 55.1 watts Maximum Power 71 watts

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Table 6-144: Pentium 4 Northwood 2200A Overclocking

Pentium 4 Northwood Model Rating 2200 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 423 – 440 QDR

(105 – 110 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 2310 – 2420 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2500+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Swiftech MCX-478

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts

3.5 volts with Chipset Maximum I/O Voltage Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature 69° Celsius

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Strategy

The Pentium 4 Northwood 2200 processor extends good overclocking balance by means of its 22.0× multiplier-to-processor bus ratio. Many chips in this speed grade can effectively scale past 2500 MHz with a minimal increase in core voltage levels. Otherwise, nearly all P4 2200A processors should attain a stable overclock near the

2400-MHz frequency level with little more than a quick adjustment to the motherboard’s processor bus speed.

Pentium 4 Northwood 2400A

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Table 6-145: Pentium 4 Northwood 2400A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name Intel Pentium 4 Northwood

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Performance Rating 2400 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 400 QDR (4 × 100 MHz)

Multiplier Ratio 24.0×

Physical Design Interface Packing 478-Pin PGA Core Voltage 1.5 volts

Power Consumption 55.1 watts Maximum Power 74 watts

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Table 6-146: Pentium 4 Northwood 2400A Overclocking

Pentium 4 Northwood Model Rating 2400 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Locked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C N/A

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 420 – 440 QDR

(105 – 110 MHz)

Typical O/C Potential 2520 – 2640 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2700+ MHz

Overclocking

Tolerances Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink

Coolers Swiftech MCX-478

1.75 volts with Extreme Maximum Core Voltage Cooling

Maximum I/O Voltage 3.5 volts with Chipset Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

In terms of raw MHz scalability, the Pentium 4 Northwood 2400-MHz processor represents the pinnacle of current overclocking potential. Early reports with the chip have indicated overclocking returns in the 2700 to 2800 MHz range, with standard forced-air heatsink cooling. Subzero active cooling technologies have produced

yields exceeding 3000 MHz with this impressive processor. The .13-micron P4 core is in its infancy, so expect future designs to offer scalability approaching 4000 MHz in real-world configurations.

Pentium 4 Northwood “B”

In mid-2002, Intel released a 133 MHz FSB (533 QDR) version of the Pentium 4 Northwood, designated as “B.” It is available in speeds ranging from 2.26 GHz to 2.80+ GHz. If you have no interest in overclocking (which may make reading this book somewhat counterproductive), the Northwood “B” is an attractive chip given its ability to offer higher overall system performance due to its higher FSB. But for overclocking, the Northwood “B” offers a lower price to performance ratio than the cheaper Northwood “A,” and is therefore not recommended for overclockers.

Pentium Xeon Series

The Xeon series of Pentium processors is the server and workstation variant of the Intel line. Most models can be overclocked using techniques similar to the ones that work with their desktop cousins, though motherboard manufacturers do not always support the options required for success. Xeon parts are designed for maximum stability and reliability, which minimizes the need for multiplier or bus manipulation beyond the standard autodetect routines.

All Pentium II and many Pentium III Xeon chips are based on Intel’s Slot 2 processor- to-motherboard interconnect. The comparative advantages of the Slot 2 Xeon over the Slot 1 desktop offerings include better support for multiple processor configurations and the presence of massive Level 2 caches for increased symmetric multiprocessing performance. Most Slot 2 motherboards are designed to accommodate only the Intel retail heatsink cooler; problems can be caused by the introduction of aftermarket cooling solutions. Some Slot 1 coolers can be used, as long as modifications are made so that components mounted near the motherboard- to-processor interface can clear properly.

Later Pentium III Xeon chips adopted the 370-pin FCPGA socket interface for compatibility across the widest range of motherboard designs. In single- or dual- processor systems, these chips exhibit the same overclocking characteristics as the standard Pentium III Coppermine. Demand for Pentium III Xeons in the desktop sector is minimal. The majority of PC users are not willing to pay more to obtain the extended reliability and stability these chips can offer.

The Pentium 4 Xeon is Intel’s current flagship ×86 processor, though its high price, combined with the need to pair it with a costly motherboard design, does little to attract the overclocking crowd. Symmetric multithreading (SMT), recently added in 2+-GHz models, allows the P4 Xeon to emulate a dual-core processor, thus maximizing performance in multithreaded operating systems like Windows XP Professional. Even so, overclocking potential is generally considered to be limited, due to Intel’s rigorous design specifications for its i860 motherboard chipset. Such specifications ensure maximum reliability for critical applications, but also limit flexibility for enthusiasts.

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