Fiji: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use

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Disputes—international:

because anticipated offshore hydrocarbon resources have not been realized, earlier Faroese proposals for full independence have been deferred; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark’s claim that the Faroe Islands’ continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm

image

Background: Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a

century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo- Fijian, but a civilian-led coup in 2000

ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government led by Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE. Reelected in May 2006, QARASE was ousted in a December 2006 military coup led by Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA, who initially appointed himself acting president but in January 2007 became interim prime minister. Following years of political turmoil, long-delayed legislative elections were held in September 2014 that were deemed “credible” by international observers and that resulted in BAINIMARAMA

being reelected.

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two- thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18

00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania Area: total: 18,274 sq km land: 18,274 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 157

Area—comparative: slightly

smaller than New Jersey Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation: mean elevation: NA

elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower

Land use:

agricultural land: 23.3%

arable land: 9%

permanent crops: 4.7%

permanent pasture: 9.6%

forest: 55.7%

other: 21% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water

resources: 28.55 cu km (2011) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricult

total: 0.08 cu km/yr (30%/11%/59%)

per capita: 100.1 cu m/yr (2005) Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment—current issues: deforestation; soil erosion Environment— international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change,

Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life

Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography—note: includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited

Nationality: noun: Fijian(s)

adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: iTaukei 56.8% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 37.5%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 4.5% (European, part European, other Pacific Islanders,

Chinese)

note: a 2010 law replaces ‘Fijian’ with ‘iTuakei’ when referring to the original and native settlers of Fiji (2007 est.) Languages: English (official), Fijian (official), Hindustani

Religions: Protestant 45% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, and

Anglican 0.8%), Hindu 27.9%, other

Christian 10.4%, Roman Catholic 9.1%,

Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other 0.3%,

none 0.8% (2007 est.)

Population: 909,389 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Age structure: 0–14 years:

28.03% (male 130,251/female 124,633)

15–24 years: 16.73% (male

77,716/female 74,449)

25–54 years: 41.12% (male

191,393/female 182,571)

55–64 years: 8.04% (male

37,019/female 36,141)

65 years and over: 6.07% (male 25,386/female 29,830) (2015 est.) Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.8%

youth dependency ratio: 43.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 8.9% potential support ratio: 11.2% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 28.2 years

male: 28 years

female: 28.4 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Population growth rate:

0.67% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149 Birth rate: 19.43 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88 Death rate: 6.04 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163 Net migration rate: -6.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203 Urbanization: urban population: 53.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: SUVA (capital) 176,000 (2014)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 30 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 129 Infant mortality rate: total:

9.94 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 10.97 deaths/1,000 live births female: 8.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.43 years

male: 69.79 years

female: 75.2 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141 Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81 Health expenditures: 4.1% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 160

Physicians density: 0.43

physicians/1,000 population (2009) Hospital bed density: 2 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 91.2% of population

total: 95.7% of population unimproved:

urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 8.8% of population

total: 4.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 93.4% of population rural: 88.4% of population total: 91.1% of population unimproved:

urban: 6.6% of population

rural: 11.6% of population

total: 8.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult

prevalence rate: 0.13% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS: 700 (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 122

HIV/AIDS—deaths: fewer than 100 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 35.9% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 25

Education expenditures: 3.9%

of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 102

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24: total: 18.7%

male: 14.8%

female: 25.4% (2007 est.)

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Fiji conventional short form: Fiji

local long form: Republic of Fiji/Matanitu ko Viti

local short form: Fiji/Viti

etymology: the Fijians called their home Viti, but the neighboring Tongans called it Fisi, and in the Anglicized spelling of

the Tongan pronunciation—promulgated by explorer Captain James COOK—the designation became Fiji

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: name: Suva (on Viti Levu)

Geographic coordinates: 18

08 S, 178 25 E

time difference: UTC + 12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins fourth Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in January

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces and 1 dependency*; Ba, Bua,

Cakaudrove, Kadavu, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Nadroga and Navosa, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ra, Rewa, Rotuma*, Serua, Tailevu

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from the UK)

National holiday: Fiji Independence Day, 10 October (1970) Constitution: several previous;

latest signed into law September 2013

(2016)

Legal system: common law system based on the English model

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction Citizenship: citizenship by birth:

no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Fiji

dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Jioji Konousi KONROTE (since 12 November 2015)

head of

governme

nt: Prime

Minister

Voreqe

“Frank”

BAINIMARAMA (since 22 September 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: under the constitution, president elected by the Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Jioji Konousi KONROTE elected 12 Ocotber 2015 defeating Ratu Epeli GANILAU 31 to 14 Legislative branch: description:

unicameral Parliament (50 seats;

members directly elected in a

nationwide, multi-seat constituency by open-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms; the new constitution of 2013 restructured Parliament from bicameral to unicameral

elections: last held on 17 September 2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party

—Fiji First 59.2%, SDL 28.2%,

National Federation Party 5.5%, other 7.1%; seats by party—Fiji First 32, SDL 15, National Federation Party 3 Judicial branch: highest

court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the

chief justice, all justices of the Court of Appeal, and judges appointed specifically as Supreme Court judges);

Court of Appeal (consists of the court president, all puisne judges of the High Court, and judges specifically appointed to the Court of Appeal); High Court (chaired by the chief justice and includes a minimum of 10 puisne judges; High Court organized into civil, criminal, family, employment, and tax divisions); note—in 1987, the Supreme Court assumed functions formerly performed by the J udicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition;

judges of the Supreme Court, the president of the Court of Appeal, the justices of the Court of Appeal, and puisne judges of the High Court appointed by the president of Fiji upon the nomination of the J udicial Service Commission after consulting with the cabinet minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice, Supreme Court judges and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70 but may be waived for one or more sessions of the court; puisne judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years with mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Magistrates’ Court (organized into civil, criminal, juvenile, and small claims divisions)

Political parties and leaders: FijiFirst [Aiyaz SAYED- KHAIYUM]

Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]

Fiji United Freedon Party or FUFP [Jagath KARUNARATNE]

National Federation Party or NFP [Dalip KUMAR] (primarily Indian)

Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Adi Sivia QORO]

Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Pio TABAIWALU]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (suports restoration of a democratic government)

Viti Landowners Association

International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, I FAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IO , ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA,

OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca (suspended), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO,

WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Solo MARA (since 28 January 2016)

chancery: 2000 M Street NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 466-8320

FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Judith CEFKIN (since 3 February 2015); note—also accredited to Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu

embassy: 158 Princes Rd, Tamavua

mailing address: P.O. Box 218, Suva

telephone: [679] 331-4466

FAX: [679] 330-8685

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the blue symbolizes the Pacific ocean and the Union Jack reflects the links with Great Britain; the shield—taken from Fiji’s coat of arms—depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George; the four quarters depict stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

National symbol(s): Fijian

canoe; national color: light blue National anthem: name: “God Bless Fiji”

lyrics/music: Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT/C. Austin MILES (adapted by Michael Francis Alexander PR ESCO TT)

note: adopted 1970; known in Fijian as “Meda Dau Doka” (Let US Show Pride); adapted from the hymn, “Dwelling in Beulah Land, “ the anthem’s English lyrics are generally sung, although they differ in meaning from the official Fijian lyrics

Economy—overview: Fiji,

endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed and connected of the Pacific island economies. Earnings from the tourism industry, with an estimated 755,000 tourists visiting in 2015, and remittances from Fijian’s working abroad are the country’s largest foreign exchange earners. Fiji’s sugar remains a significant industry and a major export. The sugar industry reforms since 2010 have improved productivity and returns, but the industry faces the complete withdrawal of European Union preferential prices by 2017. Fiji’s trade imbalance continues to widen with increased imports and sluggish

performan ce of dom estic exports.

The return to parliamentary democracy and successful elections in September 2014 have boosted investor confidence. Private sector investment in 2015 exceeded 20% of GDP, compared to 13% in 2013.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $8.048 billion (2015 est.)

$7.716 billion (2014 est.)

$7.329 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 163

GDP (official exchange rate): $4.782 billion (2015 est.)

GDP—real growth rate: 4.3% (2015 est.)

5.3% (2014 est.)

4.7% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$9,000 (2015 est.)

$8,700 (2014 est.)

$8,300 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars country comparison to the world: 139 Gross national saving: 13.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

10.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

7.6% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 72%

government consumption: 13.5% investment in fixed capital: 20.4% investment in inventories: -0.1% exports of goods and services: 56.7% imports of goods and services: -62.5% (2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 11.9%

industry: 19.6%

services: 68.4% (2015 est.)

Agriculture—products:

sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish Industries: tourism, sugar, clothing,

copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage

industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 109 Labor force: 347,700 (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 162

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 70%

industry and services: 30% (2001 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.8%

(2014 est.)

8.7% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Population below poverty line: 31% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest: 10%: 2.6%

highest: 10%: 34.9% (2009 est.) Budget: revenues: $1.087 billion expenditures: $1.182 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 24% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): -2.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79 Public debt: 49.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

51.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82 Fiscal year: calendar year Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.8% (2015 est.)

0.5% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (31 December 2010)

3% (31 December 2009)

country comparison to the world: 117

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

6.1% (31 December 2015 est.)

5.76% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Stock of narrow money:

$1.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.823 billion (31 D ecember 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

Stock of broad money:

$3.165 billion (31 D ecember 2015 est.)

$3.118 billion (31 D ecember 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Stock of domestic credit:

$2.979 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.896 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$452.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)

$392.2 million (31 December 2011)

$418.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Current account balance:

-$257 million (2015 est.)

-$326 million (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Exports: $1.244 billion (2015 est.)

$1.152 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153 Exports—commodities: sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses,

coconut oil, mineral water

Exports—partners: US 13.4%,

Australia 10.2%, Samoa 6.7%, Tonga

5.9% (2015)

Imports: $2.283 billion (2015 est.)

$2.403 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158 Imports—commodities: manu factured goods, machinery and transport

equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals

Imports—partners: China 16.2%, South Korea 15.7%, NZ 14%,

Australia 13.4%, Singapore 8.7%,

France 7% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$903 million (31 December 2015 est.)

$916.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Debt—external:

$769.1 million (31 D ecember 2014 est.)

$797.5 million (31 D ecember 2013

est.)

country comparison to the world: 169

Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:

$4.193 billion (31 D ecember 2015 est.)

$3.893 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:

$50.08 million (31 December 2014 est.)

$50.2 million (31 December 2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 98 Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar—

2.115 (2015 est.)

1.8874 (2014 est.)

1.8874 (2013 est.)

1.79 (2012 est.)

1.7932 (2011 est.)

Electricity—production:

857.5 million kWh (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Electricity—consumption:

777.6 million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Electricity—exports: 0 kWh

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Electricity—imports: 0 kWh

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 259,000

kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity—from fossil fuels: 46.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 90

Electricity—from hydroelectric plants: 48.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51

Electricity—from other renewable sources: 5.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Crude oil—production: 0

bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134 Crude oil—exports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Crude oil—imports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 188

Crude oil—proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Refined petroleum products

—production: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 9,400 bbl/day

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Refined petroleum products

—exports: 690.3 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Refined petroleum products

—imports: 10,130 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136 Natural gas—production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 185

Natural gas—consumption:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

Natural gas—exports: 0 cu m

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98 Natural gas—imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 195

Natural gas—proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.543 million Mt (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 157

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 74,700

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 876,200

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 97

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161 Telephone system: general assessment: modern local, interisland,

and international (wire/radio integrated)

public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center

domestic: telephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 100 per 100 persons

international: country code—679; access to important cable links between US and Canada, as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations—2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2011) Broadcast media: Fiji TV, a publicly traded company, operates a free-to-air channel, as well as Sky Fiji and Sky Pacific multichannel pay-TV services; state-owned commercial

company, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Ltd, operates 6 radio stations—2 public broadcasters and 4 commercial broadcasters with multiple repeaters; 5 radio stations with repeaters operated by Communications Fiji, Ltd; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2009)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations: NA Internet country code: .fj Internet hosts: 21,739 (2012) country comparison to the world: 115 Internet users: total: 331,700

percent of population: 36.7% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Airports: 28 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 121

Airports—with paved runways: total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 19 (2013)

Railways: total: 597 km

narrow gauge: 597 km 0.600-m gauge note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during the harvest season, which runs from May to December

(2008)

country comparison to the world: 110 Roadways: total: 3,440 km paved: 1,686 km

unpaved: 1,754 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 163 Waterways: 203 km (122 km are navigable by motorized craft and 200-

metric-ton barges) (2012)

country comparison to the world: 97

Merchant marine: total: 11

by type: passenger 4, passenger/cargo 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2 foreign-owned: 2 (Australia 2) (2010) country comparison to the world: 108 Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Lautoka, Levuka, Suva

Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF): Land Forces, Naval Forces (2011)

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for

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