Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power
Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power

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As Amended Through 9 June 2004


fabricator — Individuals or groups who, without genuine resources, invent information or inflate or embroider over news for personal gain or for political purposes.

facility — A real property entity consisting of one or more of the following: a building, a structure, a utility system, pavement, and underlying land. See also air facility.

facility substitutes — Items such as tents and prepackaged structures requisitioned through the supply system that may be used to substitute for constructed facilities. (JP 4-04)

fairway — A channel either from offshore, in a river, or in a harbor that has enough depth to accommodate the draft of large vessels. See also draft; watercraft. (JP 4-01.6)

fallout — The precipitation to Earth of radioactive particulate matter from a nuclear cloud; also applied to the particulate matter itself.

fallout contours — (*) Lines joining points which have the same radiation intensity that define a fallout pattern, represented in terms of roentgens per hour.

fallout pattern — (*) The distribution of fallout as portrayed by fallout contours.

fallout prediction — An estimate, made before and immediately after a nuclear detonation, of the location and intensity of militarily significant quantities of radioactive fallout.

fallout safe height of burst — The height of burst at or above which no militarily significant fallout will be reproduced as a result of a nuclear weapon detonation. See also types of burst.

fallout wind vector plot — (*) A wind vector diagram based on the wind structure from the surface of the Earth to the highest altitude of interest.

false origin — (*) A fixed point to the south and west of a grid zone from which grid distances are measured eastward and northward.

fan camera photography — (*) Photography taken simultaneously by an assembly of three or more cameras systematically installed at fixed angles relative to each other so as to provide wide lateral coverage with overlapping images. See also tri-camera photography.

fan cameras — (*) An assembly of three or more cameras systematically disposed at fixed angles relative to each other so as to provide wide lateral coverage with overlapping images. See also split cameras.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

fan marker beacon — (*) A type of radio beacon, the emissions of which radiate in a vertical, fan-shaped pattern. The signal can be keyed for identification purposes. See also radio beacon.

farm gate type operations — Operational assistance and specialized tactical training provided to a friendly foreign air force by the Armed Forces of the United States to include, under certain specified conditions, the flying of operational missions in combat by combined United States and foreign aircrews as a part of the training being given when such missions are beyond the capability of the foreign air force.

feasibility — Operation plan review criterion. The determination as to whether the assigned tasks could be accomplished by using available resources. See also acceptability; adequacy.

feasibility assessment — A basic target analysis that provides an initial determination of the viability of a proposed target for special operations forces employment. Also called FA. (JP 3-05.2)

feasibility test — An operation plan review criteria to determine whether or not a plan is within the capacity of the resources that can be made available. See also logistic implications test.

federal coordinating officer — Appointed by the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, on behalf of the President, to coordinate federal assistance to a state affected by a disaster or emergency. The source and level of the federal coordinating officer will likely depend on the nature of the federal response. Also called FCO. (JP 3-08)

federal modal agencies — See transportation operating agencies.

federal service — A term applied to National Guard members and units when called to active duty to serve the Federal Government under Article I, Section 8 and Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution and the US Code, title 10 (Department of Defense), sections 12401 to 12408. See also active duty; Reserve Components. (JP 4-05)

federal supply class management — Those functions of materiel management that can best be accomplished by federal supply classification, such as cataloging, characteristic screening, standardization, interchangeability and substitution grouping, multi-item specification management, and engineering support of the foregoing.

federal transport agencies — See transportation operating agencies.

feint — In military deception, an offensive action involving contact with the adversary conducted for the purpose of deceiving the adversary as to the location and/or time of the actual main offensive action. (JP 3-58)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

fender — An object, usually made of rope or rubber, hung over the side of a vessel to protect the sides from damage caused by impact with wharves or other craft. (JP 4-01.6)

ferret — An aircraft, ship, or vehicle especially equipped for the detection, location, recording, and analyzing of electromagnetic radiation.

F-hour — See times.

field army — Administrative and tactical organization composed of a headquarters, certain organic Army troops, service support troops, a variable number of corps, and a variable number of divisions. See also Army corps.

field artillery — Equipment, supplies, ammunition, and personnel involved in the use of cannon, rocket, or surface-to-surface missile launchers. Field artillery cannons are classified according to caliber as follows.

Light — 120mm and less. Medium — 121-160mm. Heavy — 161-210mm.

Very heavy — greater than 210mm.

Also called FA. See also direct support artillery; general support artillery.

field artillery observer — A person who watches the effects of artillery fire, adjusts the center of impact of that fire onto a target, and reports the results to the firing agency. See also naval gunfire spotting team; spotter.

field exercise — (*) An exercise conducted in the field under simulated war conditions in which troops and armament of one side are actually present, while those of the other side may be imaginary or in outline. See also command post exercise.

field fortifications — (*) An emplacement or shelter of a temporary nature which can be constructed with reasonable facility by units requiring no more than minor engineer supervisory and equipment participation.

field headquarters — See command post.

field of fire — (*) The area which a weapon or a group of weapons may cover effectively with fire from a given position.

field of view — (*) 1. In photography, the angle between two rays passing through the perspective center (rear nodal point) of a camera lens to the two opposite sides of the format. Not to be confused with “angle of view.” 2. The total solid angle available to the gunner when looking through the gunsight. Also called FOV.

field of vision — (*) The total solid angle available to the gunner from his or her normal position. See also field of view.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

field press censorship — The security review of news material subject to the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces of the United States, including all information or material intended for dissemination to the public. Also called FPC. See also censorship.

field training exercise — An exercise in which actual forces are used to train commanders, staffs, and individual units in basic, intermediate, and advanced-level warfare skills. Also called FTX. See also exercise; maneuver.

fighter cover — (*) The maintenance of a number of fighter aircraft over a specified area or force for the purpose of repelling hostile air activities. See also airborne alert; cover.

fighter engagement zone — See weapon engagement zone.

fighter sweep — (*) An offensive mission by fighter aircraft to seek out and destroy enemy aircraft or targets of opportunity in an allotted area of operations.

fighting load — Consists of items of individual clothing, equipment, weapons, and ammunition that are carried by and are essential to the effectiveness of the combat soldier and the accomplishment of the immediate mission of the unit when the soldier is on foot. See also existence load.

filler — A substance carried in an ammunition container such as a projectile, mine, bomb, or grenade. A filler may be an explosive, chemical, or inert substance.

filler personnel — Individuals of suitable grade and skill initially required to bring a unit or organization to its authorized strength.

film badge — (*) A photographic film packet to be carried by personnel, in the form of a badge, for measuring and permanently recording (usually) gamma-ray dosage.

filter — (*) In electronics, a device which transmits only part of the incident energy and may thereby change the spectral distribution of energy: a. High pass filters transmit energy above a certain frequency; b. Low pass filters transmit energy below a certain frequency;

c. Band pass filters transmit energy of a certain bandwidth; d. Band stop filters transmit energy outside a specific frequency band.

final approach — (*) That part of an instrument approach procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished. a. In a non-precision approach it normally begins at the final approach fix or point and ends at the missed approach point or fix. b. In a precision approach the final approach commences at the glide path intercept point and ends at the decision height/altitude.

final bearing — The magnetic bearing assigned by an air operations center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center for final approach; an extension of the landing

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

area centerline. See also air operations center; final approach; helicopter direction center. (JP 3-04.1)

final destination — (*) In naval control of shipping, the final destination of a convoy or of an individual ship (whether in convoy or independent) irrespective of whether or not routing instructions have been issued.

final disposal procedures — See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

final governing standards — Acomprehensive set of country-specific substantive environmental provisions, typically technical limitations on effluent, discharges, etc., or a specific management practice. (JP 3-34)

final plan — (*) A plan for which drafts have been coordinated and approved and which has been signed by or on behalf of a competent authority. See also operation plan.

final protective fire — (*) An immediately available prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas.

finance operations — The execution of the joint finance mission to provide financial advice and guidance, support of the procurement process, providing pay support, and providing disbursing support. See also financial management. (JP 1-06)

financial management — Financial management encompasses the two core processes of resource management and finance operations. Also called FM. See also finance operations; resource management operations. (JP 1-06)

financial property accounting — The establishment and maintenance of property accounts in monetary terms; the rendition of property reports in monetary terms.

fire — (*) 1. The command given to discharge a weapon(s). 2. To detonate the main explosive charge by means of a firing system. See also barrage fire; call fire; counterfire; counterpreparation fire; covering fire; destruction fire; direct fire; direct supporting fire; distributed fire; grazing fire; harassing fire; indirect fire; neutralization fire; observed fire; preparation fire; radar fire; registration fire; scheduled fire; searching fire; supporting fire; suppressive fire.

fireball — (*) The luminous sphere of hot gases which forms a few millionths of a second after detonation of a nuclear weapon and immediately starts expanding and cooling.

fire barrage (specify) — An order to deliver a prearranged barrier of fire. Specification of the particular barrage may be by code name, numbering system, unit assignment, or other designated means.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

fire capabilities chart — (*) A chart, usually in the form of an overlay, showing the areas which can be reached by the fire of the bulk of the weapons of a unit.

fire control — (*) The control of all operations in connection with the application of fire on a target.

fire control radar — (*) Radar used to provide target information inputs to a weapon fire control system.

fire control system — (*) A group of interrelated fire control equipments and/or instruments designed for use with a weapon or group of weapons.

fire coordination — See fire support coordination.

fire direction center — That element of a command post, consisting of gunnery and communications personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. The fire direction center receives target intelligence and requests for fire, and translates them into appropriate fire direction. The fire direction center provides timely and effective tactical and technical fire control in support of current operations. Also called FDC.

fire for effect — That volume of fires delivered on a target to achieve the desired effect. Also called FFE. See also final protective fire; fire mission; neutralize; suppression.

fire message — See call for fire.

fire mission — (*) 1. Specific assignment given to a fire unit as part of a definite plan. 2. Order used to alert the weapon/battery area and indicate that the message following is a call for fire.

fire plan — (*) A tactical plan for using the weapons of a unit or formation so that their fire will be coordinated.

firepower — (*) 1. The amount of fire which may be delivered by a position, unit, or weapon system. 2. Ability to deliver fire.

fires — The effects of lethal or nonlethal weapons. (JP 3-09)

fire storm — (*) Stationary mass fire, generally in built-up urban areas, generating strong, inrushing winds from all sides; the winds keep the fires from spreading while adding fresh oxygen to increase their intensity.

fire support — Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives. See also fires. (JP 3-09.3)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

fire support area — An appropriate maneuver area assigned to fire support ships by the naval force commander from which they can deliver gunfire support to an amphibious operation. Also called FSA. See also amphibious operation; fire support; naval support area. (JP 3-09)

fire support coordinating measure — Ameasure employed by land or amphibious commanders to facilitate the rapid engagement of targets and simultaneously provide safeguards for friendly forces. Also called FSCM. See also fire support coordination. (3-09.3)

fire support coordination — (*) The planning and executing of fire so that targets are adequately covered by a suitable weapon or group of weapons.

fire support coordination center — A single location in which are centralized communications facilities and personnel incident to the coordination of all forms of fire support. Also called FSCC. See also fire; fire support; fire support coordination; support; supporting arms coordination center. (JP 3-09.1)

fire support coordination line — A fire support coordinating measure that is established and adjusted by appropriate land or amphibious force commanders within their boundaries in consultation with superior, subordinate, supporting, and affected commanders. Fire support coordination lines (FSCLs) facilitate the expeditious attack of surface targets of opportunity beyond the coordinating measure. An FSCL does not divide an area of operations by defining a boundary between close and deep operations or a zone for close air support. The FSCL applies to all fires of air, land, and sea-based weapons systems using any type of ammunition. Forces attacking targets beyond an FSCL must inform all affected commanders in sufficient time to allow necessary reaction to avoid fratricide. Supporting elements attacking targets beyond the FSCL must ensure that the attack will not produce adverse attacks on, or to the rear of, the line. Short of an FSCL, all air-to-ground and surface-to- surface attack operations are controlled by the appropriate land or amphibious force commander. The FSCL should follow well-defined terrain features. Coordination of attacks beyond the FSCL is especially critical to commanders of air, land, and special operations forces. In exceptional circumstances, the inability to conduct this coordination will not preclude the attack of targets beyond the FSCL. However, failure to do so may increase the risk of fratricide and could waste limited resources. Also called FSCL. See also fires; fire support. (JP 3-0)

fire support element — That portion of the force tactical operations center at every echelon above company or troop (to corps) that is responsible for targeting coordination and for integrating fires delivered on surface targets by fire-support means under the control, or in support, of the force. Also called FSE. See also fire; fire support; force; support. (JP 3- 09.1)

fire support group — (*) A temporary grouping of ships under a single commander charged with supporting troop operations ashore by naval gunfire. A fire support group may be further subdivided into fire support units and fire support elements.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

fire support officer — Senior field artillery officer assigned to Army maneuver battalions and brigades. Advises commander on fire-support matters. Also called FSO. See also field artillery; fire; fire support; support. (JP 3-09.1)

fire support station — An exact location at sea within a fire support area from which a fire support ship delivers fire.

fire support team —Ateam provided by the field artillery component to each maneuver company and troop to plan and coordinate all supporting fires available to the unit, including mortars, field artillery, naval surface fire support, and close air support integration. Also called FIST. See also close air support; field artillery; fire; fire support; support. (JP 3-09.3)

firing area — (*) In a sweeper-sweep combination it is the horizontal area at the depth of a particular mine in which the mine will detonate. The firing area has exactly the same dimensions as the interception area but will lie astern of it unless the mine detonates immediately when actuated.

firing chart — Map, photo map, or grid sheet showing the relative horizontal and vertical positions of batteries, base points, base point lines, check points, targets, and other details needed in preparing firing data.

firing circuit — (*) 1. In land operations, an electrical circuit and/or pyrotechnic loop designed to detonate connected charges from a firing point. 2. In naval mine warfare, that part of a mine circuit which either completes the detonator circuit or operates a ship counter.

firing mechanism — See firing circuit.

firing point — (*) That point in the firing circuit where the device employed to initiate the detonation of the charges is located. Also called FP.

firing system — In demolition, a system composed of elements designed to fire the main charge or charges.

first light — The beginning of morning nautical twilight; i.e., when the center of the morning sun is 12 degrees below the horizon.

first responder phase — A phase of medical care in which health care providers’ focus is to save life and limb and stabilize the patient sufficiently to withstand evacuation to the next level of care. This first response may include first aid (self-aid and buddy aid, combat lifesavers) or medical assistance by combat medics, hospital corpsmen, physician assistants, or physicians. See also essential care; evacuation; patient. (JP 4-02)

first strike — The first offensive move of a war. (Generally associated with nuclear operations.)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

fission products — (*) A general term for the complex mixture of substances produced as a result of nuclear fission.

fission to yield ratio — (*) The ratio of the yield derived from nuclear fission to the total yield; it is frequently expressed in percent.

fitted mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive charge, a primer, detonator, and firing system. See also exercise filled mine; explosive filled mine.

fix — (*) A position determined from terrestrial, electronic, or astronomical data.

fixed ammunition — (*) Ammunition in which the cartridge case is permanently attached to the projectile. See also munition.

fixed capital property — 1. Assets of a permanent character having continuing value. 2. As used in military establishments, includes real estate and equipment installed or in use, either in productive plants or in field operations. Synonymous with fixed assets.

fixed medical treatment facility — (*) A medical treatment facility which is designed to operate for an extended period of time at a specific site.

fixed port — Water terminals with an improved network of cargo-handling facilities designed for the transfer of oceangoing freight. See also water terminal. (JP 4-01.5)

fixed price incentive contract — Afixed price type of contract with provision for the adjustment of profit and price by a formula based on the relationship that final negotiated total cost bears to negotiated target cost as adjusted by approved changes.

fixed price type contract — A type of contract that generally provides for a firm price or, under appropriate circumstances, may provide for an adjustable price for the supplies or services being procured. Fixed price contracts are of several types so designed as to facilitate proper pricing under varying circumstances.

fixed station patrol — (*) One in which each scout maintains station relative to an assigned point on a barrier line while searching the surrounding area. Scouts are not stationary but remain underway and patrol near the center of their assigned stations. A scout is a surface ship, submarine, or aircraft.

fixer system — See fixer network.

flag days (red or green) — Red flag days are those during which movement requirements cannot be met; green flag days are those during which the requisite amount or a surplus of transportation capability exists.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

flag officer — A term applied to an officer holding the rank of general, lieutenant general, major general, or brigadier general in the US Army, Air Force or Marine Corps or admiral, vice admiral, or rear admiral in the US Navy or Coast Guard.

flame field expedients — Simple, handmade devices used to produce flame or illumination.

Also called FFE. (JP 3-15)

flame thrower — (*) A weapon that projects incendiary fuel and has provision for ignition of this fuel.

flammable cargo — See inflammable cargo.

flank guard — (*) A security element operating to the flank of a moving or stationary force to protect it from enemy ground observation, direct fire, and surprise attack.

flanking attack — (*) An offensive maneuver directed at the flank of an enemy. See also

frontal attack.

flare — (*) The change in the flight path of an aircraft so as to reduce the rate of descent for touchdown.

flare dud — A nuclear weapon that, when launched at a target, detonates with anticipated yield but at an altitude appreciably greater than intended. This is not a dud insofar as yield is concerned, but it is a dud with respect to the effects on the target and the normal operation of the weapon.

flash blindness — (*) Impairment of vision resulting from an intense flash of light. It includes temporary or permanent loss of visual functions and may be associated with retinal burns. See also dazzle.

flash burn — (*) A burn caused by excessive exposure (of bare skin) to thermal radiation.

flash message — A category of precedence reserved for initial enemy contact messages or operational combat messages of extreme urgency. Brevity is mandatory. See also precedence.

flash ranging — Finding the position of the burst of a projectile or of an enemy gun by observing its flash.

flash report — Not to be used. See inflight report.

flash suppressor — (*) Device attached to the muzzle of the weapon which reduces the amount of visible light or flash created by burning propellant gases.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

flash-to-bang time — (*) The time from light being first observed until the sound of the nuclear detonation is heard.

flatrack — Portable, open-topped, open-sided units that fit into existing below-deck container cell guides and provide a capability for container ships to carry oversized cargo and wheeled and tracked vehicles. (JP 4-01.7)

flatted cargo — Cargo placed in the bottom of the holds, covered with planks and dunnage, and held for future use. Flatted cargo usually has room left above it for the loading of vehicles that may be moved without interfering with the flatted cargo. Frequently, flatted cargo serves in lieu of ballast. Sometimes called understowed cargo.

fleet — An organization of ships, aircraft, Marine forces, and shore-based fleet activities all under the command of a commander or commander in chief who may exercise operational as well as administrative control. See also major fleet; numbered fleet.

fleet ballistic missile submarine — A nuclear-powered submarine designed to deliver ballistic missile attacks against assigned targets from either a submerged or surfaced condition. Designated as SSBN.

fleet in being — A fleet (force) that avoids decisive action, but, because of its strength and location, causes or necessitates counter-concentrations and so reduces the number of opposing units available for operations elsewhere.

Fleet Marine Force — A balanced force of combined arms comprising land, air, and service elements of the US Marine Corps. A Fleet Marine Force is an integral part of a US fleet and has the status of a type command. Also called FMF.

flexible deterrent option — A planning construct intended to facilitate early decision by laying out a wide range of interrelated response paths that begin with deterrent-oriented options carefully tailored to send the right signal. The flexible deterrent option is the means by which the various deterrent options available to a commander (such as economic, diplomatic, political, and military measures) are implemented into the planning process. Also called FDO. See also deterrent options. (JP 4-05.1)

flexible response — The capability of military forces for effective reaction to any enemy threat or attack with actions appropriate and adaptable to the circumstances existing.

flight — 1. In Navy and Marine Corps usage, a specified group of aircraft usually engaged in a common mission. 2. The basic tactical unit in the Air Force, consisting of four or more aircraft in two or more elements. 3. A single aircraft airborne on a nonoperational mission.

flight advisory — A message dispatched to aircraft in flight or to interested stations to advise of any deviation or irregularity.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

flight deck — 1. In certain airplanes, an elevated compartment occupied by the crew for operating the airplane in flight. 2. The upper deck of an aircraft carrier that serves as a runway.

flight following — (*) The task of maintaining contact with specified aircraft for the purpose of determining en route progress and/or flight termination.

flight information center — (*) A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting service.

flight information region — (*) An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided. Also called FIR. See also air traffic control center; area control center.

flight information service — (*) A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights. Also called FIS.

flight levels — (*) Surfaces of constant atmospheric pressure which are related to a specific pressure datum, 1013.2 mb (29.92 in), and are separated by specific pressure intervals. (Flight levels are expressed in three digits that represent hundreds of feet; e.g., flight level 250 represents a barometric altimeter indication of 25,000 feet and flight level 255 is an indication of 25,500 feet.)

flight path — (*) The line connecting the successive positions occupied, or to be occupied, by an aircraft, missile, or space vehicle as it moves through air or space.

flight plan — (*) Specified information provided to air traffic services units relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.

flight plan correlation — A means of identifying aircraft by association with known flight plans.

flight profile — Trajectory, or its graphic representation, followed by its altitude, speed, distance flown, and maneuver.

flight quarters — A ship configuration that assigns and stations personnel at critical positions to conduct safe flight operations. (JP 3-04.1)

flight readiness firing — A missile system test of short duration conducted with the propulsion system operating while the missile is secured to the launcher. Such a test is performed to determine the readiness of the missile system and launch facilities prior to flight test.

flight surgeon — (*) A physician specially trained in aviator medical practice whose primary duty is the medical examination and medical care of aircrew.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

flight test — (*) Test of an aircraft, rocket, missile, or other vehicle by actual flight or launching. Flight tests are planned to achieve specific test objectives and gain operational information.

flight visibility — The average forward horizontal distance from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen and identified by day and prominent lighted objects may be seen and identified by night.

floating base support — (*) A form of logistic support in which supplies, repairs, maintenance, and other services are provided in harbor or at an anchorage for operating forces from ships.

floating craft company — A company-sized unit made up of various watercraft teams such as tugs, barges, and barge cranes. See also watercraft. (JP 4-01.6)

floating dump — Emergency supplies preloaded in landing craft, amphibious vehicles, or in landing ships. Floating dumps are located in the vicinity of the appropriate control officer, who directs their landing as requested by the troop commander concerned. (JP 3-02)

floating mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine visible on the surface. See also free mine; mine; watching mine.

floating reserve — (*) In an amphibious operation, reserve troops which remain embarked until needed. See also general reserve.

flooder — (*) In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a buoyant mine which, on operation after a preset time, floods the mine case and causes it to sink to the bottom.

flotation — (*) The capability of a vehicle to float in water.

fly-in echelon — Includes the balance of the initial assault force, not included in the assault echelon, and some aviation support equipment. Also called FIE. (JP 4-01.2)

foam path — A path of fire extinguisher foam laid on a runway to assist aircraft in an emergency landing.

follow-up — In amphibious operations, the reinforcements and stores carried on transport ships and aircraft (not originally part of the amphibious force) that are offloaded after the assault and assault follow-on echelons have been landed. See also amphibious operation; assault; assault follow-on echelon. (JP 3-02)

follow-up echelon — (*) In air transport operations, elements moved into the objective area after the assault echelon.

follow-up shipping — Ships not originally a part of the amphibious task force but which deliver troops and supplies to the objective area after the assault phase has begun. (JP 3-02.2)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

follow-up supplies — Supplies delivered after the initial landings or airdrop to resupply units until routine supply procedures can be instituted. These supplies may be delivered either automatically or on an on-call basis and are prepared for delivery by supporting supply units. See also resupply; routine supplies; supplies. (JP 3-17)

footprint — 1. The area on the surface of the earth within a satellite’s transmitter or sensor field of view. 2. The amount of personnel, spares, resources, and capabilities physically present and occupying space at a deployed location.

force — 1. An aggregation of military personnel, weapon systems, equipment, and necessary support, or combination thereof. 2. A major subdivision of a fleet. (JP 0-2)

force activity designators — Numbers used in conjunction with urgency of need designators to establish a matrix of priorities used for supply requisitions. Defines the relative importance of the unit to accomplish the objectives of the Department of Defense. Also called FADs. See also force. (JP 4-09)

force beddown — The provision of expedient facilities for troop support to provide a platform for the projection of force. These facilities may include modular or kit-type facility substitutes. See also facility substitutes. (JP 4-04)

force closure — The point in time when a supported joint force commander determines that sufficient personnel and equipment resources are in the assigned operational area to carry out assigned tasks. See also closure; force. (JP 3-35)

force enablement — Air refueling and other actions that increase an aircraft’s range, payload, loiter time, and flexibility, to allow it to accomplish a wider range of missions. See also air refueling. (JP 3-17)

force extension — Tankers escorting fighters are force extended when they are refueled by other tankers en route to their destination. Force extension is normally required when tankers are acting in a dual-role capacity because their cargo will likely preclude carrying enough fuel for the tanker and receivers to reach the final destination. On global attack missions, force extension can also be used to extend the effective range, payload, and loiter time of combat aircraft due to the increased offload capacity of the force extended tanker. See also air refueling; dual-role tanker. (JP 3-17)

force health protection — All services performed, provided, or arranged by the Services to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of personnel. These services include, but are not limited to, the management of health services resources, such as manpower, monies, and facilities; preventive and curative health measures; evacuation of the wounded, injured, or sick; selection of the medically fit and disposition of the medically unfit; blood management; medical supply, equipment, and maintenance thereof; combat stress control; and medical, dental, veterinary, laboratory, optometry, medical food, and medical intelligence services. See also force; protection. (JP 4-02)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

force list — A total list of forces required by an operation plan, including assigned forces, augmentation forces, and other forces to be employed in support of the plan.

force module — A grouping of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces, with their accompanying supplies and the required nonunit resupply and personnel necessary to sustain forces for a minimum of 30 days. The elements of force modules are linked together or are uniquely identified so that they may be extracted from or adjusted as an entity in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System databases to enhance flexibility and usefulness of the operation plan during a crisis. Also called FM. See also force module package.

force module package — A force module with a specific functional orientation (e.g. air superiority, close air support, reconnaissance, ground defense) that include combat, associated combat support, and combat service support forces. Additionally, force module packages will contain sustainment in accordance with logistic policy contained in Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan Annex B. Also called FMP. See also force module.

force movement control center — A temporary organization activated by the Marine air- ground task force to control and coordinate all deployment support activities. Also called FMCC. See also Marine air-ground task force. (JP 4-01.8)

force multiplier — Acapability that, when added to and employed by a combat force, significantly increases the combat potential of that force and thus enhances the probability of successful mission accomplishment. (JP 3-05.1)

force planning — Planning associated with the creation and maintenance of military capabilities. It is primarily the responsibility of the Military Departments and Services and is conducted under the administrative control that runs from the Secretary of Defense to the Military Departments and Services. (JP 5-0)

force projection — The ability to project the military element of national power from the continental United States (CONUS) or another theater, in response to requirements for military operations. Force projection operations extend from mobilization and deployment of forces to redeployment to CONUS or home theater. See also force. (JP 3-35)

force protection — Actions taken to prevent or mitigate hostile actions against Department of Defense personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information. These actions conserve the force’s fighting potential so it can be applied at the decisive time and place and incorporate the coordinated and synchronized offensive and defensive measures to enable the effective employment of the joint force while degrading opportunities for the enemy. Force protection does not include actions to defeat the enemy or protect against accidents, weather, or disease. Also called FP. See also force; force protection condition; protection. (JP 3-0)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

force protection condition — A Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff-approved program standardizing the Military Services’ identification of and recommended responses to terrorist threats against US personnel and facilities. This program facilitates inter-Service coordination and support for antiterrorism activities. Also called FPCON. There are four FPCONs above normal. a. FPCON ALPHA — This condition applies when there is a general threat of possible terrorist activity against personnel and facilities, the nature and extent of which are unpredictable, and circumstances do not justify full implementation of FPCON BRAVO measures. However, it may be necessary to implement certain measures from higher FPCONs resulting from intelligence received or as a deterrent. The measures in this FPCON must be capable of being maintained indefinitely. b. FPCON BRAVO — This condition applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists. The measures in this FPCON must be capable of being maintained for weeks without causing undue hardship, affecting operational capability, and aggravating relations with local authorities. c. FPCON CHARLIE — This condition applies when an incident occurs or intelligence is received indicating some form of terrorist action against personnel and facilities is imminent. Implementation of measures in this FPCON for more than a short period probably will create hardship and affect the peacetime activities of the unit and its personnel.

d. FPCON DELTA — This condition applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or person is likely. Normally, this FPCON is declared as a localized condition. See also antiterrorism; force protection. (SECDEF MSG 071522Z SEP 01)

force rendezvous — (*) A checkpoint at which formations of aircraft or ships join and become part of the main force. Also called group rendezvous.

force requirement number — An alphanumeric code used to uniquely identify force entries in a given operation plan time-phased force and deployment data. Also called FRN.

force(s) — See airborne force; armed forces; covering force; garrison force; multinational force; Navy cargo handling force; task force; underway replenishment force.

force shortfall — A deficiency in the number of types of units available for planning within the time required for the performance of an assigned task. (JP 4-05)

forces in being — (*) Forces classified as being in state of readiness “A” or “B” as prescribed in the appropriate Military Committee document.

force sourcing — The identification of the actual units, their origins, ports of embarkation, and movement characteristics to satisfy the time-phased force requirements of a supported commander.

force structure — See military capability.

force tabs — With reference to war plans, the statement of time-phased deployments of major combat units by major commands and geographical areas.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

force tracking — The identification of units and their specific modes of transport during movement to an objective area. (JP 4-01.3)

forcible entry — Seizing and holding of a military lodgment in the face of armed opposition.

See also lodgment. (JP 3-18)

fordability — See shallow fording.

foreign armed force — An armed force belonging to a government or organizational entity other than the United States.

foreign assistance — Assistance to foreign nations ranging from the sale of military equipment to donations of food and medical supplies to aid survivors of natural and manmade disasters. US assistance takes three forms — development assistance, humanitarian assistance, and security assistance. See also domestic emergencies; foreign disaster; foreign humanitarian assistance; security assistance. (JP 3-08)

foreign disaster — An act of nature (such as a flood, drought, fire, hurricane, earthquake, volcanic eruption, or epidemic), or an act of man (such as a riot, violence, civil strife, explosion, fire, or epidemic), which is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant United States foreign disaster relief to a foreign country, foreign persons, or to an international organization. See also foreign disaster relief. (JP 3-08)

foreign disaster relief — Prompt aid that can be used to alleviate the suffering of foreign disaster victims. Normally it includes humanitarian services and transportation; the provision of food, clothing, medicine, beds, and bedding; temporary shelter and housing; the furnishing of medical materiel and medical and technical personnel; and making repairs to essential services. See also foreign disaster. (JP 3-07.6)

foreign humanitarian assistance — Programs conducted to relieve or reduce the results of natural or manmade disasters or other endemic conditions such as human pain, disease, hunger, or privation that might present a serious threat to life or that can result in great damage to or loss of property. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) provided by US forces is limited in scope and duration. The foreign assistance provided is designed to supplement or complement the efforts of the host nation civil authorities or agencies that may have the primary responsibility for providing FHA. FHA operations are those conducted outside the United States, its territories, and possessions. Also called FHA. See also foreign assistance. (JP 3-07.6)

foreign instrumentation signals intelligence — Technical information and intelligence derived from the intercept of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of non-US aerospace, surface, and subsurface systems. Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence is a subcategory of signals intelligence. Foreign instrumentation signals include but are not limited to telemetry, beaconry, electronic

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

interrogators, and video data links. Also called FISINT. See also signals intelligence.

(JP 2-01)

foreign intelligence — Intelligence relating to capabilities, intentions, and activities of foreign powers, organizations, or persons (not including counterintelligence), except for information on international terrorist activities. See also intelligence. (JP 2-0)

foreign internal defense — Participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government or other designated organization to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. Also called FID. (JP 3-05)

foreign military sales — That portion of United States security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended. This assistance differs from the MilitaryAssistance Program and the International Military Education and Training Program in that the recipient provides reimbursement for defense articles and services transferred. Also called FMS.

foreign military sales trainees — Foreign nationals receiving training conducted by the Department of Defense on a reimbursable basis, at the country’s request.

foreign national — Any person other than a US citizen, US permanent or temporary legal resident alien, or person in US custody.

foreign nation support — Civil and/or military assistance rendered to a nation when operating outside its national boundaries during war, or operations other than war based on agreements mutually concluded between nations or on behalf of international organizations. Support may come from the nation in which forces are operating. Foreign nation support also may be from third party nations and include support or assistance, such as logistics, rendered outside the operational area. Also called FNS. See also host-nation support. (JP 3-57.1)

foreign object damage — Rags, pieces of paper, line, articles of clothing, nuts, bolts, or tools that, when misplaced or caught by air currents normally found around aircraft operations (jet blast, rotor or prop wash, engine intake), cause damage to aircraft systems or weapons or injury to personnel. Also called FOD. (JP 3-04.1)

foreshore — That portion of a beach extending from the low water (datum) shoreline to the limit of normal high water wave wash. (JP 4-01.6)

format — (*) 1. In photography, the size and/or shape of a negative or of the print therefrom.

2. In cartography, the shape and size of a map or chart.

formation — (*) 1. An ordered arrangement of troops and/or vehicles for a specific purpose.

2. An ordered arrangement of two or more ships, units, or aircraft proceeding together under a commander.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

formatted message text — (*) A message text composed of several sets ordered in a specified sequence, each set characterized by an identifier and containing information of a specified type, coded and arranged in an ordered sequence of character fields in accordance with the NATO message text formatting rules. It is designed to permit both manual and automated handling and processing. See also free form message text; structured message text.

formerly restricted data — Information removed from the restricted data category upon a joint determination by the Department of Energy (or antecedent agencies) and Department of Defense that such information relates primarily to the military utilization of atomic weapons and that such information can be adequately safeguarded as classified defense information. (Section 142d, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.) See also restricted data.

form lines — (*) Lines resembling contours, but representing no actual elevations, which have been sketched from visual observation or from inadequate or unreliable map sources, to show collectively the configuration of the terrain.

forward aeromedical evacuation — (*) That phase of evacuation which provides airlift for patients between points within the battlefield, from the battlefield to the initial point of treatment, and to subsequent points of treatment within the combat zone.

forward air controller — An officer (aviator/pilot) member of the tactical air control party who, from a forward ground or airborne position, controls aircraft in close air support of ground troops. Also called FAC. See also close air support. (JP 3-09.1)

forward air controller (airborne) — A specifically trained and qualified aviation officer who exercises control from the air of aircraft engaged in close air support of ground troops. The forward air controller (airborne) is normally an airborne extension of the tactical air control party. Also called FAC(A). (JP 3-09.3)

forward area — An area in proximity to combat.

forward arming and refueling point — A temporary facility — organized, equipped, and deployed by an aviation commander, and normally located in the main battle area closer to the area where operations are being conducted than the aviation unit’s combat service area

— to provide fuel and ammunition necessary for the employment of aviation maneuver units in combat. The forward arming and refueling point permits combat aircraft to rapidly refuel and rearm simultaneously. Also called FARP.

forward aviation combat engineering — A mobility operation in which engineers perform tasks in support of forward aviation ground facilities. Tasks include reconnaissance; construction of low altitude parachute extraction zones, landing strips, and airstrips; and providing berms, revetments, and trenches for forward arming and refueling points. See also combat engineering; reconnaissance. (JP 3-34)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

forward edge of the battle area — (*) The foremost limits of a series of areas in which ground combat units are deployed, excluding the areas in which the covering or screening forces are operating, designated to coordinate fire support, the positioning of forces, or the maneuver of units. Also called FEBA.

forward line of own troops — A line that indicates the most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a specific time. The forward line of own troops (FLOT) normally identifies the forward location of covering and screening forces. The FLOT may be at, beyond, or short of the forward edge of the battle area. An enemy FLOT indicates the forward-most position of hostile forces. Also called FLOT.

forward logistic site — See naval forward logistic site. Also called FLS. (JP 4-01.3)

forward-looking infrared — An airborne, electro-optical thermal imaging device that detects far-infrared energy, converts the energy into an electronic signal, and provides a visible image for day or night viewing. Also called FLIR. (JP 3-09.3)

forward oblique air photograph — Oblique photography of the terrain ahead of the aircraft.

forward observer — An observer operating with front line troops and trained to adjust ground or naval gunfire and pass back battlefield information. In the absence of a forward air controller, the observer may control close air support strikes. Also called FO. See also forward air controller; spotter. (JP 3-09.1)

forward operating base — An airfield used to support tactical operations without establishing full support facilities. The base may be used for an extended time period. Support by a main operating base will be required to provide backup support for a forward operating base. Also called FOB. (JP 3-09.3)

forward operating location — Primarily used for counterdrug operations. Similar to a forward operating base (FOB) but without the in-place infrastructure associated with a FOB. Also called FOL.

forward operations base — In special operations, a base usually located in friendly territory or afloat that is established to extend command and control or communications or to provide support for training and tactical operations. Facilities may be established for temporary or longer duration operations and may include an airfield or an unimproved airstrip, an anchorage, or a pier. A forward operations base may be the location of special operations component headquarters or a smaller unit that is controlled and/or supported by a main operations base. Also called FOB. See also advanced operations base; main operations base. (JP 3-05.1)

forward recovery mission profile — A mission profile that involves the recovery of an aircraft at a neutral or friendly forward area airfield or landing site.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

forward resuscitative surgery — The urgent initial surgery required to render patients transportable for further evacuation to medical treatment facilities staffed and equipped to provide for their care. Forward resuscitative surgery is performed on patients with signs and symptoms of initial airway compromise, difficult breathing, and circulatory shock and who do not respond to initial emergency medical treatment and advanced trauma management procedures. See also essential care; evacuation; medical treatment facility; patient. (JP 4-02)

forward slope — (*) Any slope which descends towards the enemy.

forward tell — (*) The transfer of information to a higher level of command. See also track telling.

four-round illumination diamond — (*) A method of distributing the fire of illumination shells which, by a combination of lateral spread and range spread, provides illumination of a large area.

463L system — Aircraft pallets, nets, tie down, and coupling devices, facilities, handling equipment, procedures, and other components designed to interface with military and civilian aircraft cargo restraint systems. Though designed for airlift, system components may have to move intermodally via surface to support geographic combatant commander objectives. (JP 4-01.7)

FPCON ALPHA — See force protection condition. FPCON BRAVO — See force protection condition. FPCON CHARLIE — See force protection condition. FPCON DELTA — See force protection condition.

fragmentary order — An abbreviated form of an operation order (verbal, written or digital) usually issued on a day-to-day basis that eliminates the need for restating information contained in a basic operation order. It may be issued in sections. It is issued after an operation order to change or modify that order or to execute a branch or sequel to that order. Also called FRAG order.

frame — (*) In photography, any single exposure contained within a continuous sequence of photographs.

free air anomaly — The difference between observed gravity and theoretical gravity that has been computed for latitude and corrected for elevation of the station above or below the geoid, by application of the normal rate of change of gravity for change of elevation, as in free air.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

free air overpressure — (*) The unreflected pressure, in excess of the ambient atmospheric pressure, created in the air by the blast wave from an explosion. See also overpressure.

freedom of navigation operations — Operations conducted to demonstrate US or international rights to navigate air or sea routes. (JP 3-07)

free drop — (*) The dropping of equipment or supplies from an aircraft without the use of parachutes. See also airdrop; air movement; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

free fall — A parachute maneuver in which the parachute is manually activated at the discretion of the jumper or automatically at a preset altitude. See also airdrop; air movement; free drop; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

free field overpressure — See free air overpressure.

free-fire area — A specific area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters. Also called FFA. See also fire. (JP 3-09)

free form message text — (*) A message text without prescribed format arrangements. It is intended for fast drafting as well as manual handling and processing. See also formatted message text; structured message text.

free issue — Materiel provided for use or consumption without charge to the fund or fund subdivision that finances the activity to which it is issued.

free mail — Correspondence of a personal nature that weighs less than 11 ounces, to include audio and video recording tapes, from a member of the Armed Forces or designated civilian, mailed postage free from a Secretary of Defense approved free mail zone. (JP 1-0)

free mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a moored mine whose mooring has parted or been cut.

free play exercise — (*) An exercise to test the capabilities of forces under simulated contingency and/or wartime conditions, limited only by those artificialities or restrictions required by peacetime safety regulations. See also controlled exercise.

free rocket — (*) A rocket not subject to guidance or control in flight.

freight consolidating activity — Atransportation activity that receives less than car- or truckload shipments of materiel for the purpose of assembling them into car- or truckload lots for onward movement to the ultimate consignee or to a freight distributing activity or other break bulk point. See also freight distributing activity.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

freight distributing activity — A transportation activity that receives and unloads consolidated car- or truckloads of less than car- or truckload shipments of material and forwards the individual shipments to the ultimate consignee. See also freight consolidating activity.

frequency deconfliction — A systematic management procedure to coordinate the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for operations, communications, and intelligence functions. Frequency deconfliction is one element of electromagnetic spectrum management. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare; spectrum management. (JP 3-51)

friendly — A contact positively identified as friendly. See also hostile.

friendly fire — In casualty reporting, a casualty circumstance applicable to persons killed in action or wounded in action mistakenly or accidentally by friendly forces actively engaged with the enemy, who are directing fire at a hostile force or what is thought to be a hostile force. See also casualty.

front — (*) 1. The lateral space occupied by an element measured from the extremity of one flank to the extremity of the other flank. 2. The direction of the enemy. 3. The line of contact of two opposing forces. 4. When a combat situation does not exist or is not assumed, the direction toward which the command is faced.

frontal attack — (*) 1. An offensive maneuver in which the main action is directed against the front of the enemy forces. 2. (DOD only) In air intercept, an attack by an interceptor aircraft that terminates with a heading crossing angle greater than 135 degrees.

frustrated cargo — Any shipment of supplies and/or equipment which, while en route to destination, is stopped prior to receipt and for which further disposition instructions must be obtained.

full charge — The larger of the two propelling charges available for naval guns.

full mission-capable — Material condition of any piece of military equipment, aircraft, or training device indicating that it can perform all of its missions. Also called FMC. See also deadline; mission-capable; partial mission-capable; partial mission-capable, maintenance; partial mission-capable, supply.

full mobilization — See mobilization.

functional component command — A command normally, but not necessarily, composed of forces of two or more Military Departments which may be established across the range of military operations to perform particular operational missions that may be of short duration or may extend over a period of time. See also component; Service component command. (JP 0-2)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

functional damage assessment — The estimate of the effect of military force to degrade or destroy the functional or operational capability of the target to perform its intended mission and on the level of success in achieving operational objectives established against the target. This assessment is based upon all-source information, and includes an estimation of the time required for recuperation or replacement of the target function. See also damage assessment; target. (JP 3-60)

functional kill — To render a targeted installation, facility, or target system unable to fulfill its primary function.

functional plans — Plans involving the conduct of military operations in a peacetime or permissive environment developed by combatant commanders to address requirements such as disaster relief, nation assistance, logistics, communications, surveillance, protection of US citizens, nuclear weapon recovery and evacuation, and continuity of operations or similar discrete tasks. They may be developed in response to the requirements of the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan, at the initiative of the combatant commander (CINC), or as tasked by the supported combatant commander, Joint Staff, Service, or Defense agency. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff review of CINC-initiated plans is not normally required. (JP 5-0)

functions — The appropriate or assigned duties, responsibilities, missions, or tasks of an individual, office, or organization. As defined in the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, the term “function” includes functions, powers, and duties (5 United States Code 171n (a)).

fusion — In intelligence usage, the process of examining all sources of intelligence and information to derive a complete assessment of activity. (JP 2-0)

fusion center — In intelligence usage, a physical location to accomplish fusion. It normally has sufficient intelligence automated data processing capability to assist in the process. (JP 2-0)

fuze cavity — (*) A recess in a charge for receiving a fuze.


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