Chile: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use

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displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 297,296 (Sudan) (2015); 72,876 (Central African

Republic); 7,337 (Nigeria) (2016) IDPs: 58,748 (majority are in the east) (2016)

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Background: Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879– 83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was

overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by General Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and helped secure the country’s commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean,

between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30

00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area: total: 756,102 sq km

land: 743,812 sq km

water: 12,290 sq km

note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

country comparison to the world: 38 Area—comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries: total: 7,801 km

border countries (3): Argentina 6,691

km, Bolivia 942 km, Peru 168 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200/350 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains, fertile central valley, rugged Andes in east

Elevation: mean elevation: 1,871 m

elevation extremes: lowest

point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use: agricultural land: 21.1%

arable land: 1.7%

permanent crops: 0.6%

permanent pasture: 18.8%

forest: 21.9%

other: 57% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 11,100 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water

resources: 922 cu km (2011) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricult

total: 26.67 cu m/yr (4%/10%/86%)

per capita: 1,603 cu m/yr (2007) Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains;

Lascar (elev.5,592 m), which last

erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (elev. 3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country’s most active; Chaiten’s

2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica

Environment—current issues: widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment— international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living

Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography—note: the longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 38 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama

Desert—the driest desert in the world— spreads across the northern part of the country; the crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world’s highest lake (at 6,390 m)

Nationality: noun: Chilean(s)

adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and non- indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)

Languages: Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%

note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 66.7%, Evangelical or Protestant 16.4%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 1%, other 3.4%,

none 11.5%, unspecified 1.1% (2012 est.)

Demographic profile: Chile is in the advanced stages of demographic

transition and is becoming an aging society—with fertility below replacement level, low mortality rates, and life expectancy on par with developed countries. Nevertheless, with its dependency ratio nearing its low point, Chile could benefit from its favorable age structure. It will need to keep its large working-age population productively employed, while preparing to provide for the needs of its growing proportion of elderly people, especially as women—the traditional caregivers— increasingly enter the workforce. Over the last two decades, Chile has made great strides in reducing its poverty rate, which is now lower than most Latin

American countries. However, its severe income inequality ranks as the worst among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Unequal access to quality education perpetuates this uneven income distribution. Chile has historically been a country of emigration but has slowly become more attractive to immigrants since transitioning to democracy in 1990 and improving its economic stability (other regional destinations have concurrently experienced deteriorating economic and political conditions). Most of Chile’s small but growing foreign-born population consists of transplants from

other Latin American countries, especially Peru.

Population: 17,508,260 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64 Age structure: 0–14 years: 20.46% (male 1,827,374/female

1,754,283)

15–24 years: 15.88% (male

1,418,938/female 1,361,307)

25–54 years: 43.21% (male

3,771,003/female 3,793,655)

55–64 years: 10.24% (male

842,346/female 950,574)

65 years and over: 10.22% (male 747,930/female 1,040,850) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.2%

youth dependency ratio: 29.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 16% potential support ratio: 6.3% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 33.7 years

male: 32.5 years

female: 34.9 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Population growth rate:

0.82% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137 Birth rate: 13.83 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141 Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165 Net migration rate: 0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

Urbanization: urban population:

89.5% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 1.09% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: SANTIAGO (capital)

6.507 million; Valparaiso 907,000; Concepcion 816,000 (2015)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 22 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 131 Infant mortality rate: total:

6.86 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.61 years

male: 75.58 years

female: 81.76 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52 Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 64.2%

note: percent of women aged 15–44 (2006)

Health expenditures: 7.7% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 76

Physicians density: 1.02

physicians/1,000 population (2009) Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 99.7% of population rural: 93.3% of population total: 99% of population unimproved:

urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 6.7% of population

total: 1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 100% of population rural: 90.9% of population total: 99.1% of population unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 9.1% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate: 0.29% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

HIV/AIDS—people living

with HIV/AIDS: 39,300 (2014

est.)

country comparison to the world: 61

HIV/AIDS—deaths: 700 (2014

est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 28.5% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 30

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 0.5% (2014) country comparison to the world: 137 Education expenditures: 4.6%

of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 90 Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.5%

male: 97.6%

female: 97.4% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2014)

Child labor—children ages 5–14: total number: 82,882

percentage: 3% (2003 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24: total: 16.1%

male: 13.9%

female: 19.2% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chile conventional short form: Chile

local long form: Republica de Chile

local short form: Chile

etymology: derivation of the name is unclear, but it may come from the Mapuche word “chilli” meaning “limit of the earth” or from the Quechua “chiri”

meaning “cold”

Government type: presidential republic

Capital: name: Santiago; note— Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature

Geographic coordinates: 33

27 S, 70 40 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 15 regions (regiones, singular—region); Aysen, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo

O’Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso

note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September

1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810) Constitution: many previous;

latest adopted 11 September 1980,

effective 11 March 1981; amended many times, last in 2011; note—in late 2015, the Chilean Government initiated a process to reform its constitution (2016)

Legal system: civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction Citizenship: citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014); note—the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 17 November 2013 with a runoff held on

15 December 2013 (next to be held on 19 November 2017)

election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote

—Michelle BACHELET Jeria (PS) 62.2%; Evelyn Rose MATTHEI Fornet (UDI) 37.8%

Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 8-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members directly

elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote to serve 4-year terms); note—in both the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, the party winning at least two- thirds of the votes is entitled to 2 seats in the constituency; if it obtains less than two-thirds of the votes, it is entitled to 1 seat with the remaining seat awarded to the next highest winning party

elections: Senate—last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017); Chamber of Deputies

—last held on 17 November 2013 (next to be held on 15 November 2017) election results: Senate—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party— New Majority Coalition (formerly

known as Concertacion) 19 (PDC 6, PS 6, PPD 6, MAS 1), Coalition for Change (formerly known as the Alianza coalition) 15 (RN 6, UDI 8, Amplitude

Party 1), independents 4; Chamber of Deputies-percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—New Majority 68 (PDC 21, PS 16, PPD 14, PC 6, PRSD 6,

Citizen Left 1, independents 4), Coalition for Change 47 (UDI 29, RN 14, independents 3, EP 1), Liberal Party

1, independents 4

note: In January 2015, the Chilean Congress voted to end the binomial system that was put in place under Gen. Augusto PINOCHET; the Congress also voted to expand its size and establish

rules to ensure that there is equitable gender representation; the new electoral system will be put in place in 2017 Judicial branch: highest

court(s): Supreme Court or Corte

Suprema (consists of a court president and 20 members or ministros); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members); Electoral Court (consists of 5 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 70; Constitutional Court members appointed

—3 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 2 by the National Security Council, and 1 by the Senate; members serve 8-year terms with partial membership replacement every 4 years (the court reviews constitutionality of legislation); Electoral Court member appointments— 4 by the Supreme Court and 1 a former president or vice-president of the Senate or Chamber of Deputies selected by the Supreme Court; member term NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; oral criminal tribunals; military tribunals; local police courts; specialized tribunals and courts in matters such as family, labor, customs,

taxes, and electoral affairs

Political parties and leaders: Broad Social Movement or MAS [Alejandro NAVARRO Brain] Citizen Left or IC [Sergio AGUILO] Coalition for Change or CC (also known

as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Cristian MONCKEBERG Bruner], and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Hernan LARRAIN Fernandez]

Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertacion) or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge PIZARRO Soto], Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime Daniel

QUINTANA Leal], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Ernesto VELASCO Rodriguez], and Socialist Party or PS [Isabel ALLENDE Bussi]) Communist Party of Chile (Partido

Comunista de Chile) or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle]

Ecological Green Party [Felix GONZALEZ Gatica]

Equality Party [Guillermo GONZALEZ Castro]

Humanist Party or PH [Octavio GONZALEZ]

Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Alejandra BRAVO Hidalgo]

Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Chile) [Vlado MIROSEVIC]

Political Evolution or EP [Felipe KAST]

Progressive Party or PRO [Patricia MORALES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei United Labor Central or CUT (includes trade unionists from the country’s five largest labor confederations)

other: university student federations at all major universities

International organization participation: APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15,

G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC

(national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES,

LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD

(Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,

Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission:

Ambassador Juan Gabriel VALDES Soublette (since 21 May 2014) chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746

FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael HAMMER (since April 2014)

embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800,

Las Condes, Santiago

maiing address: APO AA 34033

telephone: [56] (2) 2330-3000

FAX: [56] (2) 2330-3710, 2330-3160

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red represents the blood spilled to achieve independence

note: design was influenced by the US flag

National symbol(s): huemul

(mountain deer), Andean condor; national colors: red, white, blue National anthem: name: “Himno

Nacional de Chile” (National Anthem of

Chile)

lyrics/music: Eusebio LILLO Robles and Bernardo DE VERA y Pintado/Ramon CARNICER y Battle note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics

adopted 1847; under Augusto PINOCHET”s military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added; however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse; it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990

Economy—overview: Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports of goods and services account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some 60% of total exports. Copper alone provides 20% of government revenue. From 2003 through 2013, real growth averaged almost 5% per year, despite the slight contraction in 2009 that resulted from the global financial crisis. Growth

slowed to an estimated 2.3% in 2015. A continued drop in copper prices prompted Chile to experience its second consecutive year of slow growth, elevated inflation, and a depreciating currency. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile has 22 trade agreements covering 60 countries including agreements with the EU, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. In May 2010, Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD. In October 2015, Chile joined

the US and 10 other countries and concluded negotiations on the Trans- Pacific Partnership trade agreement. The agreement will need to be ratified by the Chilean legislature. The Chilean Government has generally followed a countercyclical fiscal policy, accumulating surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and generally allowing deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth . As of 31 October 2015, those sovereign wealth funds—kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves -amounted to more than $22.4 billion. Chile used

these funds to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn. In 2014, President M ichelle BACHELET introduced tax reforms aimed at delivering her campaign promise to fight inequality and to provide access to education and health care. The reforms are expected to generate additional tax revenues equal to 3% of Chile’s GDP, mostly by increasing corporate tax rates to OECD averages.

GDP (purchasing power parity): $422.4 billion (2015 est.)

$413.9 billion (2014 est.)

$406.4 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 44

GDP (official exchange rate): $240.2 billion (2015 est.) GDP—real growth rate: 2.1% (2015 est.)

1.8% (2014 est.)

4% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$23,500 (2015 est.)

$23,200 (2014 est.)

$23,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 80

Gross national saving: 20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

20.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 63.7%

government consumption: 13.2% investment in fixed capital: 20.6% investment in inventories: 0.4% exports of goods and services: 30.5%

imports of goods and services: -28.4% (2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by

sector of origin: agriculture:

3.4%

industry: 35%

services: 61.6% (2015 est.)

Agriculture—products:

grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber Industries: copper, lithium, other

minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing,

iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 127

Labor force: 8.68 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 13.2%

industry: 23%

services: 63.9% (2005)

Unemployment rate: 6.4%

(2015 est.) 6.3% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Population below poverty line: 14.4% (2013)

Household income or consumption by percentage

share: lowest: 10%: 1.5%

highest: 10%: 42.8% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income—Gini index: 52.1

(2009)

57.1 (2000)

country comparison to the world: 15 Budget: revenues: $48.4 billion expenditures: $56.31 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 20.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

Public debt: 17.4% of GDP (2015

est.) 15.1% of GDP (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 158 Fiscal year: calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2015 est.) 4.4% (2014

est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Central bank discount rate:

3.12% (31 December 2010)

0.5% (31 December 2009)

country comparison to the world: 102

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 5.5% (31 December

2015 est.)

8.1% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138

Stock of narrow money:

$40.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$41.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 Stock of broad money: $154.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$158 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Stock of domestic credit:

$196.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$197.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

Market value of publicly traded shares: $313.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$270.3 billion (31 December 2011)

$341.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 Current account balance: –

$4.765 billion (2015 est.)

-$3.317 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Exports: $61.82 billion (2015 est.)

$75.68 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

Exports—commodities:

copper, fruit, fish products, paper and

pulp, chemicals, wine Exports—partners: China 26.3%, US 13.2%, Japan 8.5%, South

Korea 6.5%, Brazil 4.9% (2015)

Imports: $56 billion (2015 est.)

$67.91 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Imports—commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas

Imports—partners: China 23.4%, US 18.8%, Brazil 7.8%,

Argentina 4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $38.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$40.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 47 Debt—external: $145.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$132.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Stock of direct foreign investment—at home: $201.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$182.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Stock of direct foreign

investment—abroad: $92.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$80.54 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 32 Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar—

653.6 (2015 est.)

570.37 (2014 est.)

570.37 (2013 est.)

486.49 (2012 est.)

483.67 (2011 est.)

Electricity—production:

66.89 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity—consumption:

63.39 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity—exports: 0 kWh

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121

Electricity—imports: 0 kWh

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 18.16 million kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Electricity—from fossil

fuels: 62.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Electricity—from hydroelectric plants: 33% of total installed capacity (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 69

Electricity—from other renewable sources: 4.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Crude oil—production: 6,666

bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81 Crude oil—exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Crude oil—imports: 186,900

bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Crude oil—proved reserves:

150 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 66

Refined petroleum products

—production: 205,800 bbl/day

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 323,300 bbl/day

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Refined petroleum products

—exports: 16,810 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Refined petroleum products

—imports: 139,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Natural gas—production:

908 million cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 69

Natural gas—consumption:

4.646 billion cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60 Natural gas—exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78 Natural gas—imports: 3.715 billion cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Natural gas—proved reserves: 97.97 billion cu m (1

January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Carbon dioxide emissions

from consumption of energy: 81.51 million Mt (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 46

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 3.4 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 23.7 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 136

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Telephone system: general assessment: privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations

domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code—56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the

US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations—2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media: national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self-financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 180, FM 64, shortwave 17 (1998)

Television broadcast stations: 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code: .cl Internet hosts: 2.152 million (2012)

country comparison to the world: 38 Internet users: total: 11.4 million percent of population: 65.8% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Airports: 481 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 15

Airports—with paved runways: total: 90

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 24 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 391

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 56

under 914 m: 319 (2013)

Heliports: 1 (2013)

Pipelines: gas 3,160 km; liquid petroleum gas 781 km; oil 985 km; refined products 722 km (2013) Railways: total: 7,281.5 km

broad gauge: 3,428 km 1.676-m gauge (1,691 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 3,853.5 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 30

Roadways: total: 77,764 km

paved: 18,119 km (includes 2,387 km of expressways)

unpaved: 59,645 km (2010)

country comparison to the world: 61

Merchant marine: total: 42

by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 5, chemical tanker 7, container 2, liquefied

gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1)

registered in other countries: 52 (Argentina 6, Brazil 1, Honduras 1, Isle

of Man 9, Liberia 9, Panama 14, Peru 6,

Singapore 6) (2010)

country comparison to the world: 74 Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso

LNG terminal(s) (import): Mejillones, Quintero

Military branches: Chilean Army, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes Naval Aviation, Marine Corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant

Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh) (2015)

Military service age and obligation: 18–45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment of males 18–45 is retained; service obligation is 12 months for Army and 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2015)

Military expenditures: 2.04%

of GDP (2012) 2.17% of GDP (2011)

2.04% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 38

Disputes—international:

Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia’s reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru’s unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission,

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