Base Camp First-Aid Kit – Creating First-Aid Kits

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Base Camp First-Aid Kit – Creating First-Aid Kits

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BASE CAMP FIRST-AID KIT

This kit design is for the needs of multiple people within the same group. Trained responders may wish to substitute elements to better suit their needs according to their level of training.

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Protect any sterile dressings within your kit from moisture by sealing them in 1-gallon freezer bags in groups of four.

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Your kit should always be easily accessible and its location known by everyone in your group.

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A designated person, typically the one with the most training, should be appointed medical person in charge.

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Label all containers clearly and include instructions in case the medical person in charge is the one who becomes injured.

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Splints can be improvised in the field from natural material or foam sleeping pads. So only include SAM splints if you have space or the desire to carry them.

BANDAGES AND DRESSINGS

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4" × 4" gauze pads

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2" × 2" gauze pads

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3" gauze roller bandage Paper tape

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Elastic roller bandage Self-adhering bandage

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Cravat

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Adhesive bandages (various sizes) Steri-Strips or butterfly bandages Wound irrigation syringe

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11/2" athletic tape 2nd Skin Moleskin

OINTMENTS AND MEDICATIONS

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Povidone iodine

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Triple antibiotic cream Cortizone cream Aspirin

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Ibuprofen Acetaminophen

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Diphenhydramine (antihistamine) Hydration salts/Jell-O

TOOLS

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Bandage scissors/EMT shears Thermometer with hard case Tweezers

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Nitrile gloves Sawyer Extractor Notepad and pencil

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Small multitool or Swiss Army knife Emergency space blanket

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Safety glasses and face shield

AIRWAY DEVICES

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CPR mask Nasopharyngeal airway

SIGNAL DEVICES

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Signal mirror Road flare

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Headlamp and batteries

PLANTS FOR DRY CONDITIONS

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Swamp Violet (Viola palustris)

Alleviates symptoms of dry tissues, aids digestion

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Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)

Carminative, moistening, lubricating

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Plantain (Plantago major)

Treats infection

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Nettles (Urtica dioica)

Diuretic, tonic, astringent, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory

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Cattail (Typha latifolia)

Antiseptic, pain reliever

PLANTS FOR COLD CONDITIONS

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Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum)

Helps with cold, flu, mild hypothermia, constipation

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Dogwood (Cornus florida L.)

Warming, stimulant

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Goldenrod (Solidago rugosa)

Astringent, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, diuretic

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Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)

Male and female tonic

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Chicory (Cichorium intybus)

Tonic, laxative, diuretic, sedative

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River Birch (Betula nigra)

Diuretic, antirheumatic, stimulant, astringent

PLANTS FOR WIND CONDITIONS

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Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum)

Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, absorbent

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Black Willow (Salix nigra)

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, appetite depressant, astringent

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White Willow (Salix alba)

Antifever, pain reliever, anti-inflammatory

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Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)

Astringent, warming

PLANTS FOR HOT CONDITIONS

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Curly Dock, a.k.a. Yellow Dock (Rumex crispus)

Anti-inflammatory, cooling effects

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Honeysuckle (Lonicera)

Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic

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Black Cherry (Prunus serotina)

Astringent

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Wood Sorrel (Oxalis stricta)

Cooling, tonic, anti-inflammatory

PLANTS FOR WET CONDITIONS

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Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)

Carminative, antispasmodic, antidiuretic, astringent

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Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Diaphoretic, astringent, tonic, stimulant

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White Oak (Quercus alba)

Astringent

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Burdock (Arctium)

Detoxifier

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Heal All, a.k.a. Woundwort (Prunella vulgaris)

Cooling, antiseptic, immune system balance

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Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)

Anti-inflammatory, antihistamine

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Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)

Astringent, antiseptic, vermifuge

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Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina)

Cooling, antiseptic, astringent, styptic

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White Pine (Pinus strobus)

Antibacterial, antifungal

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Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

Diuretic, anti-inflammatory, tonic

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Wild Garlic (Allium vineale)

Antiasthmatic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, hypotensive, stimulant, vasodilator

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Dave Canterbury is the co-owner and supervising instructor at The Pathfinder School, which was named by USA TODAY as one of the top twelve survival schools in the United States. In addition to his work at The Pathfinder School, Dave is the New York Times bestselling author of Bushcraft 101; Advanced Bushcraft; and The Bushcraft Guide to Trapping, Gathering, & Cooking in the Wild. He has been published in Self Reliance Illustrated, New Pioneer, American Frontiersman, and Trapper’s World, and featured on the cover of The Backwoodsman. Dave holds a bachelor’s degree in wilderness ministry from Frontier Christian University as well as his certification in wilderness first aid/CPR and advanced search and rescue. He is certified as an expert trapper by the Fur Takers of America and holds basic and intermediate certificates from the Herbal Academy, the International School of Herbal Arts & Sciences. He lives in southeastern Ohio.

Jason A. Hunt, PhD, is the president of Bethlehem Outdoor College and owner and lead instructor of Campcraft Outdoors in Bethlehem, Kentucky. He is also the operations manager and an instructor at The Pathfinder School in southeastern Ohio. He is a volunteer firefighter/EMT-B and nationally certified wilderness emergency care instructor trainer. He holds degrees in recreation and ministry, including a doctorate in Outdoor Christian Leadership. His work has also been published in Self Reliance Illustrated, Prepare, and Survivor’s Edge.

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INDEX

A note about the index: The pages referenced in this index refer to the page numbers in the print edition. Clicking on a page number will take you to the ebook location that corresponds to the beginning of that page in the print edition. For a comprehensive list of locations of any word or phrase, use your reading system’s search function.

Abdomen

bladder precaution, 138

distension of, 138

examining, 59–60 gunshot wound to, 85

Abdominal issues, 137–43. See also Urinary/reproductive system issues about: overview of, 137–38

constipation, 141–42, 207, 210, 214, 239

diarrhea, 141, 142, 207, 226, 228, 231, 239

food intake precaution, 140

food poisoning/upset stomach, 174–75, 210, 239

hemorrhoids, 142

hernias, 143

internal injuries, 139–40 internal parts protruding, 139 nausea and vomiting, 141 open injuries, 138–39, 143

penetrating object protruding, 138–39 pooling blood and, 138

practical scenario, 140 tips and tricks, 143

Abrasions, 61, 88, 207, 239 Airway

checking, 52, 63, 97, 113–14 of choking person, 121–22 clearing, 52, 121–22

devices for, 246

prioritizing treatment, 56

shock and, 113–14, 156, 157 Allergies

anaphylactic shock and, 113–14, 155, 156–57

avoiding anaphylaxis, 118

hives and, 155, 156, 191

planning tips for dealing with, 154 poisonous plants and, 203 practical scenario, 156–57

self-aid tips, 154–55

Altitude, edemas from, 58–59, 173

Altitude sickness, 132, 171–73

Anaphylactic shock, 113–14, 118, 155, 156–57 Animal bites. See Bites, insect/spider/animal Ankle injuries, 108–9

Arms and hands

broken. See Fractures examining, 60–61

functioning of, wounds and, 77–78 gunshot wound to, 85

Asthma, treating, 125

AVPU scale, 51–52 Axes. See Cutting tools

Bacteria and viruses. See also Illnesses infectious disease precautions, 24 respiratory illness treatment, 119–21 soap substitute to protect from, 28

Bandages. See Wounds Bites, insect/spider/animal

animal bites, 193, 194

insect stings (identifying and treating illness from), 189–91, 211, 238. See also Anaphylactic shock; spider bites

plants for treating, 207, 238

practical scenario, 190

preventing, 181–83

rabies and, 193

repelling/battling insects, 182–83, 186

snakes and snakebites, 47, 189, 191–92, 194

spiders and spider bites, 183–86, 194 ticks and tick-borne illness, 186–90

Black cherry, 226

Black raspberry, 228

Black walnut, 184, 231, 238, 239

Black willow, 221, 239

Blanket, emergency, 32, 39–40, 72, 102, 166 Bleeding. See also Blood; Wounds

blood loss amounts, 28 clotting the blood, 87

internal, recognizing/treating, 58–60, 115–17, 139–40

plants for treating, 86, 118, 228, 229, 231, 232, 238

practical scenario, 116–17 pressure points for stopping, 101

scenario of team handling emergency, 25–26 self-aid tips, 87

shock identification and treatment. See also Shock shock identification/treatment and, 111–14 stopping, 73–74, 87, 88, 101, 118

tourniquets and, 80–81, 87, 192

Blisters (from poisonous plants), 197. See also Plants, poisonous Blisters (on feet), preventing/treating, 89–92, 239

Blood. See also Bleeding coughing up/vomiting, 58–59 pooling in abdomen, 138

in urine, 59

Blood sugar issues, 151–54, 158–59

Boiling water, 40

Bone injuries. See Fractures Boneset, 214, 220

Breathing issues, 119–27. See also Airway assessing victim’s status, 52, 54–55

asthma treatment, 125

choking treatment, 121–22

hyperventilation, 125–26

lung injuries, 124–25

mullein for, 127, 220

respiratory illness treatment, 119–21 respiratory rate, 54–55

shortness of breath, 125–26 tips and tricks, 126–27

Bronchitis, treating, 120

Burdock, 229

Burns, treating, 94–98, 207, 212, 231, 233, 239. See also Lightning injury

Cardiogenic shock. See Shock Cattail, 98, 211

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 57, 135 Chest

bleeding in, 124. See also Bleeding, internal closed injuries, 122

gunshot wound to, 85–86 lung injuries, 124–25 paradoxical motion of, 123 practical scenario, 123–24

recognizing and treating injuries, 122–25, 126

self-aid tips, 124

wounds (flail), 84, 124

wounds (sucking), 58, 83–84, 85–86, 122–23

Chicory, 217

Chilblains, 166 Children

airway obstruction/chocking, 121–22 checking circulation of, 54

guidelines for treating, 59 insect repellent and, 182

practical scenarios involving, 50–51, 140 seizures from fever, 136

Choking, treating, 121–22

Circulation issues, 111–18. See also Bleeding; Heart; Shock checking for circulation, 54

pulse check, 52–54 Clothing

dressing for survival, 33–35, 42

fabrics to use/avoid, 33–34, 180

layering, 34–35

poisonous plants and, 195–96 preventing insect bites, 182

Cold conditions, plants for. See Plants, for cold conditions Cold-related hazards, 161–66

chilblains and, 166 clothing and. See Clothing COLDER treatment, 163

five-minute shelter to prevent/treat, 38–40 frostbite, 163–66

hypothermia, 94, 95, 162–63, 166 knowing your limits and, 42–43 practical scenario, 167–68

preventing, 41

self-aid tips, 162–63

submersion incidents, 166–68

warming techniques, 72

Colds, flu, and coughs, 119–20, 157–58, 214, 216, 220, 221, 222, 226, 228, 231, 239. See also Sore throat

Conjunctivitis (pinkeye), 176–77

Constipation, 141–42, 207, 210, 214, 239 Cough. See Colds, flu, and coughs Cramps

menstrual, 148, 210, 221, 228

muscle, 108, 149, 183

nocturnal leg (”charley horses), 149 stomach/abdominal, 141, 142, 239

Cs (10) for survival, 31–33 Curly dock (yellow dock), 224 Cutting tools, keeping sharp, 41

Cutting tools, wounds from, 86–87

Dandelion, 232

Decoctions, 235, 236–37. See also Plant references Dehydration. See Water intake

Diabetes/blood sugar issues, 151–54, 158–59

Diarrhea, 141, 142, 207, 226, 228, 231, 239

Dislocations, treating, 106–7

Dogwood, 215

Drowning, rescuing person from, 48

Dry conditions, plants for. See Plants, for dry conditions

ECAP-BTLS check system, 61 Electrolytes, 95, 147, 149, 157, 169, 239

Emergencies, 45–69. See also Moving injured person

ABCs (airway, breathing, circulation status) and vital signs, 52–55, 62–63 airway and breathing check, 52–53

approaching injured person, 45–46 assessing injuries and victim’s status, 51–55

assessing scene and mechanism of injury, 46–47, 49–51 AVPU scale, 51–52

beginning/prioritizing treatment, 51–56

caring for unresponsive/responsive people, 70–72 ECAP-BTLS check system, 61

helicopter evacuation and signaling, 68–70 ongoing checks, 62–63

physical exam, 56–61

planning ahead for, 22

positions of victim for examining, 63–66 practical scenarios, 47, 50–51

prioritizing treatment, 55–56 rescuing injured person, 47–48 SAMPLE history, 62

self-exam, 61

tips and tricks, 72

vital sign checks, 53–55, 62–63 Ethical and legal considerations, 241–42 Exam, physical, 56–61

Exercise, importance of, 112 Eye injuries, 175–78, 180

Eyes, checking, 57

Fainting, 132–33 Feet

blister prevention/treatment, 89–92, 239 foot rot/trench foot, 92–93

footwear without laces and, 43 Fevers

in children, 136

kidney stones and, 147

plants for treating, 207, 211, 214, 215, 221, 222, 225, 226, 228, 231, 239

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 186, 189

ticks, Lyme disease and, 187, 188 Fire

bird’s nest for, 37–38

ferrocerium (ferro) rod for, 32, 36, 41, 167

five-minute start, 35–38 ivy vine precaution, 203

lighters and cold temperatures, 43 making with nondominant hand, 110 practicing making, 38, 110

sure-fire starter, 25–26

tinder selection, 37, 43

First aid, wilderness (WFA), about, 19–20, 241–42 First-aid kits, creating, 243–46

Flu. See Colds, flu, and coughs

Fomentations, 235, 237–38. See also Plant references Food poisoning, 174–75

Fractures. See also Joint injuries about: overview of, 40–41, 99

ankle, 108–9

closed, 100

immobilizing, 101. See also splinting open, 100

self-aid tips, 100–101

skull, 135

splinting, 102–6 tips and tricks, 110 treating, 100–106

wound treatment, 101. See also Wounds

Frostbite, 163–66

Gear, using proper, 41–42 Goldenrod, 86, 142, 206, 215

Groups, working as team in emergencies, 25–26 Gunshot wounds, 84–86

Headaches and migraines, 133–34, 147, 239 Head and skull

concussions, 134–35

examining, 57–58

skull fractures, 135

treating injuries to, 134–35 Heal all (woundwort), 230

Heart. See also Breathing issues; Circulation issues; Pulse, checking attack, suspected, 117–18

bruising, 59

cardiogenic shock, 113. See also Shock SAMPLE history, 62, 117

Heat-related hazards, 168–71 avoiding heat rash, 159 clothing and. See Clothing heat exhaustion, 169

heat stroke, 169–70

hyperthermia, 168, 224

preventing, 41

Heat-related incidents. See also Sunburns Heimlich maneuver, 121

Helicopter evacuation and signaling, 68–70 Hemorrhoids, 142

Herbalism. See Plant medicine Hernias, 143

Hives. See Allergies Honey, 233, 239

Honeysuckle, 225

Hot conditions, plants for. See Plants, for hot conditions Hot-weather, incidents from. See Heat-related incidents Hydration. See Water intake

Hyperglycemia, 153

Hyperthermia. See Heat-related incidents Hyperventilation, 125–26

Hypoglycemia, 152–53

Hypothermia. See Cold-related hazards Hypovolemic shock. See Shock

Illnesses. See also Allergies; Bacteria and viruses; Hyperthermia; Hypothermia about: overview of chronic and acute, 151

caring for unresponsive/responsive people, 70–72 cold and flu, 119–20, 157–58

diabetes/blood sugar issues, 151–54, 158–59 helicopter evacuation and signaling, 68–70 infectious, precautions, 24

reducing likelihood of, 28–29

respiratory, treating, 119–21, 157–58

vitamin C supplements to boost immunity, 28 Immune system, boosting, 29, 217, 224, 230, 232, 239 Infection, preventing and identifying, 82–83 Inflammation

cold packs for reducing, 72 pain relievers to reduce, 120

plant-related skin conditions (contact dermatitis), 196–97, 203, 239

plants for reducing, 88, 98, 155, 206, 211, 215, 220, 221, 224, 225, 226, 230, 231, 232

poultices for, 234

Infusions, hot and cold, 234, 236. See also Plant references Insect bites. See Bites, insect/spider/animal

Insulin. See Diabetes/blood sugar issues Internal bleeding. See Bleeding

Jewelweed, 201, 206, 230 Joint injuries

about: overview of, 99 ankle injuries, 108–9

dislocations, 106–7

emergency elastic bandage, 110 practical scenario, 109

RICE procedure for, 107

sprains, strains, and cramps, 107–9, 110, 238

Ketoacidosis, 153–54

Kidney stones, 147–48 Knives. See Cutting tools

Legal and ethical considerations, 241–42 Legs

ankle injuries, 108–9. See also Fractures; Joint injuries; Sprains, strains, and cramps broken. See Fractures

examining, 60

functioning of, wounds and, 77–78 gunshot wound to, 85

Lightning injury, 173–74

Lung injuries, 124–25

Lyme disease (LD), 187–89

Menstrual-/pregnancy-related issues, 88, 148–49, 210, 221, 228, 239

Migraines and headaches, 133–34, 147, 239 Mountain sickness. See Altitude sickness Mouth, checking, 57–58

Moving injured person, 63–70 about: general guidelines, 63, 66 assessing injury before, 48

helicopter evacuation and signaling, 68–70

positions of victim before (neutral, recovery, log roll), 63–66 techniques for, 66–68

Mullein, 86, 88, 127, 180, 206, 220

Muscle cramps, 149, 183

Nausea and vomiting, 141 Nettles, 211

Neurogenic shock, 113 Neurological issues

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and, 57, 135

concussions, 134–35

fainting, 132–33

headaches and migraines, 133–34, 147, 239

practical scenario, 131

seizures, 131–32, 136

skull fractures, 135

stroke identification, 129–31, 136 tips and tricks, 136

Pain relief, 98, 107, 121, 171, 187, 212

Pathfinder System, 32, 234 Pelvic area, examining, 60 Physical exam, 56–61

Pinkeye, 176–77

Planning and preparation, 21–29

blood-loss volume awareness tip, 28 emergency plan development, 22 first aid for yourself, 26–27 infectious disease precautions, 24 practical scenario, 25–26

reducing illness likelihood, 28–29. See also Immune system, boosting stress management, 22–24

team/group cooperation tips, 25–26 Plantain, 146, 184, 194, 201, 211, 239

Plant medicine, 205–40

about: overview of, 205–6 clues to plant uses, 206

common conditions and treatments, 238–39 herbal properties, 208

herbs defined, 207

ITEM technique, 208 learning about plants, 208

“Opossum Mentality” and, 234 self-aid tips, 206

tips and tricks, 240

tissue states defined, 207

Plant medicine, processing herbs for, 234–38 cold infusions, 234

crushed applications, 235

decoctions, 235, 236–37

fomentations, 235, 237–38

hot infusions, 234, 236

poultices, 234, 235–36, 240

salves, 235, 238

tinctures, 235, 237

Plants, for cold conditions, 213–18 about: overview of, 207 boneset, 214, 220

chicory, 217

dogwood, 215

goldenrod, 86, 142, 206, 215

red clover, 216

river birch, 218

Plants, for dry conditions, 209–12 about: overview of, 207 cattail, 98, 211

nettles, 211

plantain, 146, 184, 194, 201, 211, 239

sassafras, 210

swamp violet, 210

Plants, for hot conditions, 223–26 about: overview of, 207

black cherry, 226

curly dock (yellow dock), 224 honeysuckle, 225

wood sorrel, 226

Plants, for wet conditions, 227–33 about: overview of, 207

black raspberry, 228

black walnut, 184, 231, 238, 239

burdock, 229

dandelion, 232

heal all (woundwort), 230 jewelweed, 201, 206, 230

staghorn sumac, 231

white oak, 229, 238, 239

white pine, 232

wild garlic, 233

yarrow, 86, 118, 142, 146, 148, 182, 228

Plants, for wind conditions, 219–22 about: overview of, 207

black willow, 221, 239

mullein, 86, 88, 127, 180, 206, 220

tulip poplar, 82, 184, 222

white willow, 221 Plants, poisonous

plant-related skin conditions (contact dermatitis), 196–97, 203, 239

poison ivy, 41, 43, 155, 159, 196, 197–98, 201–3, 206

poison oak, 196, 199, 201, 203

poison sumac, 196, 199–201, 203

practical scenario, 202 preventing issues with, 195–96 self-aid tips, 202

tips and tricks, 203

treating reactions to, 201–2, 203

Plants, treating by tissue state. See also Plants, for specific tissue state about: overview of, 207; tissue states and what they treat, 207

for cold conditions, 213–18 for dry conditions, 209–12 for hot conditions, 223–26

for wet conditions, 227–33 for wind conditions, 219–22

Pneumonia, treating, 120

Poisonous plants. See Plants, poisonous

Poultices, 234, 235–36, 240. See also Plant references Pregnancy, 158. See also Urinary/reproductive system issues Pressure points, 101

Pulse, checking, 52–54

Rabies, 193

Rashes, 41, 155. See also Allergies; Anaphylactic shock; Plants, poisonous; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; Spiders and spider bites

Red clover, 216

Reproductive system. See Urinary/reproductive system issues

Rescuing injured person, 47–48. See also Emergencies; specific injuries Respiration. See Breathing issues

RICE procedure, 107

River birch, 218

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 186, 189

Salves, 235, 238. See also Plant references SAMPLE history, 62

Sassafras, 210

Seizures, 131–32, 136. See also Anaphylactic shock Self-aid

about: overview of, 26–27 avoiding health problems, 112 bleeding solutions, 87

boot-purchasing tips, 90

chest injury, 124

dislocated joints, 107 emergency exam techniques, 61 falling from tree stand, 124

foot hygiene and socks, 93 fractures, 100–101

headaches/migraines, 134

hypothermia, 162–63

insect bites, 182

kit for, creating, 243–44 nausea/vomiting aid, 141 planning ahead for, 26–27 plant allergies, 154–55 poison ivy, plant tannins, 202

simple plant solutions to problems, 206 water intake, avoiding dehydration, 27, 112

Shelter, five-minute, 38–40 Shelter, insulating ground in, 43 Shock, 111–14

anaphylactic, 113–14, 118, 155, 156

cardiogenic, 113

circulatory (hypoperfusion), 111–12

hypovolemic, 112–13 identifying and treating, 111–14

insulin, 153

neurogenic, 113

self-aid tips, 112

steps for treating, 114 types of, 112–14

Signaling, for helicopter evacuation, 68–70 Skin, color/temperature/moistness, 55

Skin conditions. See Allergies; Plants, poisonous Skull. See Head and skull

Sleeplessness, 239

Snakes and snakebites, 47, 189, 191–92, 194

Soap substitute, 28

Sore throat, 210, 216, 226, 230, 239

Spider bites, 183–86

Spiders and spider bites, 194 Splinting limbs, 102–6

Sprains, strains, and cramps, 107–9, 110, 238

Staghorn sumac, 231

Stings. See Bites, insect/spider/animal Stomach. See Abdomen; Abdominal issues Strains, sprains, and cramps, 107–9, 110, 238

Stress, handling, 22–24

Stroke, identifying, 131, 136

Sunburns, 170–71

dealing with/treating, 170–71

plants for treating, 98, 180, 210

preventing, 41, 42, 43, 170

Survival skills, 31–43

common injuries/accidents, 40–41

dressing for survival, 33–35, 42

five-minute fire, 35–38

five-minute shelter, 38–40 five-minute water boil, 40 knowing your limits, 42–43 safety and improvisation, 42 Ten Cs for, 31–33

tips and tricks, 43

using proper gear/techniques, 41–42 Swamp violet, 210

Tannins, 86, 118, 142, 202

Team, groups working as, 25–26 Ticks and tick-borne illness, 186–90

Tinctures, 235, 237. See also Plant references Tourniquets, 80–81, 87, 192

Traction splints, 105

Tulip poplar, 82, 184, 222

Urinary/reproductive system issues, 145–49 checking for blood in urine, 59 difficulty urinating, 146

emptying bladder before activity, 138 erection (uncontrolled) after injury, 60, 149

hydration importance, 146–47

kidney stones, 147–48

menstrual-/pregnancy-related issues, 88, 148–49, 210, 221, 228, 239

painful urination, 145–46 pain in lower abdomen, 148 practical scenario, 147

pregnancy and, 158 tips and tricks, 149

urinary tract infection treatment, 239

Vomiting, nausea and, 141 Vomiting blood, 59

Water intake

amount to drink, 27, 112

avoiding dehydration, 27, 112 cold, flu and, 157

five-minute boil, 40

iodine-treated, 158, 178

Jell-O rehydration drink, 149 nocturnal leg cramps and, 149 practical scenario, 147

returning taste to boiled water, 158 staying hydrated, 146–47

treating dehydration, 178–79 treating water for, 178–79

Water-related issues drowning rescue, 48

foot rot/trench foot, 92–93 submersion incidents, 166–68

Weather-related hazards. See Cold-related hazards; Heat-related hazards Weather-related illness. See Hyperthermia; Hypothermia

Wet conditions, plants for. See Plants, for wet conditions White oak, 229, 238, 239

White pine, 232

White willow, 221

Wilderness first aid (WFA), about, 19–20 Wild garlic, 233

Wind conditions, plants for. See Plants, for wind conditions Wood sorrel, 226

Wounds, 73–88. See also Fractures abdominal. See Abdominal issues bandages and dressings for, 78–80, 88 chest. See Chest

cleaning and bandaging, 75–78 closing, 76–77

disinfectants and ointments for, 76 eye injuries and, 175–78, 180

gunshot, 84–86

infection prevention and identification, 82–83 knife and axe, 86–87

limb function and, 77–78 practical scenario, 80

self-aid tips, 87

stopping bleeding and tourniquets, 73–74, 80–81, 87, 88, 101, 118, 192 tips and tricks, 88

Woundwort (heal all), 230

Yarrow, 86, 118, 142, 146, 148, 182, 228

Yellow dock (curly dock), 224 Zika virus, 121

INSERT-IMAGE CREDITS

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Swamp Violet © 123RF/Lidia Rakcheeva; Sassafras © Getty Images/kj2011; Plantain © 123RF/tc397; Nettles © 123RF/intune123; Cattail © Getty Images/JoeDphoto

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Boneset by H. Zell—Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php? curid=9914751; Dogwood © Getty Images/fstockfoto; Goldenrod © Getty Images/DavidOrr

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Red Clover © Getty Images/Osumposums; Chicory © 123RF/ELEN; River Birch Leaves © Getty Images/Garsya; River Birch Bark © Getty Images/gardendata

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Mullein © Getty Images/aga7ta; Black Willow © Getty Images/Gratysanna; White Willow © Shutterstock; Tulip Poplar © 123RF/Mariia Komar

PAGE 5

Curly Dock, a.k.a. Yellow Dock © 123RF/Anne Jose Kan; Honeysuckle © Getty Images/TopPhotoImages; Black Cherry © 123RF/MARIUSZ PRUSACZYK; Wood Sorrel © 123RF/Zdenek Precechtel

PAGE 6

Black Raspberry © 123RF/Olga Smagitel; Yarrow © 123RF/Zdenek Precechtel; White Oak Leaves © Getty Images/Terryfic3D; White Oak Bark © Getty Images/bkkm; Burdock © Getty Images/igorbondarenko

PAGE 7

Heal All, a.k.a. Woundwort © Getty Images/Eileen Kumpf; Jewelweed © Getty Images/ErikaMitchell; Black Walnut © Getty Images/FrankvandenBergh; Staghorn Sumac © 123RF/Gordana Sermek

PAGE 8

White Pine © 123RF/Mariusz Jurgielewicz; Dandelion © 123RF/mcloud; Wild Garlic © Getty Images/Duncan Cook Drummond

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