Armenia: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use

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Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)

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Background: Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally

adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.

Armenian leaders remain preoccupied

by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a ceasefire

took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding regions, approximately 14 percent of Azerbaijan’s territory. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress

toward a peaceful resolution.

Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, senior Armenian leaders began pursuing rapprochement with Turkey, aiming to secure an opening of the border, but Turkey has not yet ratified the Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries. In January 2015, Armenia joined Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan as a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.

Location: Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan

Geographic coordinates: 40

00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Asia Area: total: 29,743 sq km land: 28,203 sq km

water: 1,540 sq km

country comparison to the world: 143 Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 1,570 km

border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996

km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley Elevation: mean elevation: 1,792 m elevation extremes: lowest point: Debed River 400 m

highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat’ 4,090 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite

Land use: agricultural land: 59.7%

arable land: 15.8%

permanent crops: 1.9%

permanent pasture: 42%

forest: 9.1%

other: 31.2% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,740 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources: 7.77 cu km (2011) Freshwater withdrawal

(domestic/industrial/agricult

total: 2.86 cu km/yr (40%/6%/54%) per capita: 929.7 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment current— issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite

of its location in a seismically active zone

Environment— international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,

Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution- Persistent Organic Pollutants Geography—note: landlocked in

the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana

Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in thismountain range

Nationality: noun: Armenian(s)

adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.1%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)

Languages: Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1% (2011 est.)

Religions: Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%,

none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)

Population: 3,056,382 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Age structure: 0–14 years:

19.05% (male 310,893/female 271,479)

15–24 years: 14.42% (male

225,029/female 215,700)

25–54 years: 43.47% (male

638,983/female 689,519)

55–64 years: 12.35% (male

171,584/female 205,751)

65 years and over: 10.71% (male 130,804/female 196,640) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 41.3% youth dependency ratio: 26% elderly dependency ratio: 15.3%

potential support ratio: 6.5% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 34.2 years

male: 32.3 years

female: 36.1 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 80

Population growth rate:

-0.15% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 211 Birth rate: 13.61 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145 Death rate: 9.34 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 61 Net migration rate: -5.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 196 Urbanization: urban population: 62.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: -0.11% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: YEREVAN (capital) 1,044 (2015)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth: 23.5 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 25 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 123 Infant mortality rate: total:

13.51 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 14.95 deaths/1,000 live births female: 11.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.37 years

male: 71.13 years

female: 78.03 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121 Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 54.9% (2010)

Health expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 152

Physicians density: 2.7

physicians/1,000 population (2013) Hospital bed density: 3.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 100% of population rural: 100% of population total: 100% of population unimproved:

urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 96.2% of population rural: 78.2% of population total: 89.5% of population unimproved:

urban: 3.8% of population

rural: 21.8% of population

total: 10.5% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate: 0.22% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,000 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

HIV/AIDS—deaths: 200 (2014

est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Obesity—adult prevalence

rate: 19.9% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 68

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.3% (2010) country comparison to the world: 89 Education expenditures: 2.2%

of GDP (2014)

country comparison to the world: 132 Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.6% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy

(primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years

male: 11 years

female: 14 years (2009)

Child labor—children ages 5–14:

total number: 19,596

percentage: 4%

note: data represent children ages 7–17 (2007 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24: total: 36.1%

male: 31.8%

female: 41.5% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Armenia conventional short form: Armenia

local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut’yunlocal short form:

Hayastan

former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic etymology: the eetymology of the country’s name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is

named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great- great-grandson of Noah; Hayk’s descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia

Government type: semi- presidential republic

note: a constituional referendum approved in December 2015 will change the government type to a parliamentary system, replacing the semi-presidential system and becoming effective for the 2017–18 electoral cycle

Capital: name: Yerevan

Geographic coordinates: 40

10 N, 44 30 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 11 provinces (marzer, singular-marz);

Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark’unik’, Kotayk’, Lorri, Shirak, Syunik’, Tavush, Vayots’ Dzor, Yerevan Independence: 21 September

1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution: previous 1915,

1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995;

amended 2005, 2015; note—the 2015 amendment, approved in December 2015 by a public referendum and effective for the 2017–18 electoral cycle, changes the government type from the current semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system (2016)

note: the 2015 amendment, approved in December 2015 by a public referendum and effective for the 2017–18 electoral cycle, changes the government type from the current semi-presidential system to a parliamentary system (2016)

Legal system: civil law system International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction

declaration; non-party state to the ICCt Citizenship: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Serzh SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Hovik ABRAHAMYAN (since 13 April 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minist erelections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February

2013 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority support in the National Congress; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Congress refuses to accept their program

election results: Serzh SARGSIAN reelected president in one round; percent of vote—Serzh SARGSIAN (RPA) 58.6%, Raffi HOVHANNISIAN

(Heritage Party) 36.7%, Hrant BAGRATIAN (ANM) 2.2%, other 2.5%

note: constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 will transform the government to a parliamentary system by 2018; for the scheduled February 2018

election, the president will be indirectly elected by parliament and will serve a single 7-year term; following the 2018 election, the prime minister will be elected based on majority support of the National Assembly

Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; 90 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 41 directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in the spring of 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party

—RPA 44%, Prosperous Armenia 30.1%, ANC 7.1%, Heritage Party

5.8%, ARF (Dashnak) 5.7%, Rule of Law 5.5%, other 1.8%; seats by party— RPA 69, Prosperous Armenia 37, ANC

7, Rule of Law 6, Heritage Party 5, ARF

(Dashnak) 5, independent 2

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court chairman and organized into a criminal chamber and a civil and administrative chamber, each with a court chairman and 2 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office:

Court of Cassation judges nominated by

the Judicial Council, a 9-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; Constitutional Court judges—4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by National Assembly; judges of both courts can serve until retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: 2 Courts of Appeal (for civil cases and for criminal and military cases); district courts; Administrative Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TERPETROSSIAN]

Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABIAN]

Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF (“Dashnak” Party) [Hrant MARKARIAN]

Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISIAN]

People’s Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN]

Prosperous Armenia [Naira ZOHRABYAN]

Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]

Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]

Political pressure groups

and leaders: Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]

Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation: ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU

(NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Grigor HOVHANNISSIAN (since 28 January 2016)

chancery: 2225 R Street NW,

Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976

FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982

consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILLS (since 13 February 2015)

embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan

0082

mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521– 7020

telephone: [374] (10) 464-700

FAX: [374] (10) 464-742

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it National symbol(s): Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange

National anthem: name: “Mer Hayrenik” (Our Fatherland) lyrics/music: Mikael

NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYA

Nnote: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918–1922) but with different lyrics

Economy overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to smalls-cale agriculture and away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders—Iran and Georgia— because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia’s ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-

Karabakh region.

Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti- corruption measures have been ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and strengthen the rule of law in order to regain economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from two of its nearest neighbors, Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Armenia’s geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive

monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to the sharp deterioration in the global economy and the economic downturn in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support and most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector, including electricity and natural gas. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 20% of GDP and partly offset the country’s severe trade imbalance. Armenia joined Russia in the Eurasian Economic Union upon the bloc’s launch in January 2015, even

though the ruble’s sharp depreciation in December 2014 led to currency instability, inflation, and a significant decrease in exports from Armenia to Russia.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$25.32 billion (2015 est.)

$24.58 billion (2014 est.)

$23.75 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 136

GDP (official exchange rate):

$10.57 billion (2015 est.)

GDP—real growth rate:

3% (2015 est.)

3.5% (2014 est.)

3.3% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$8,500 (2015 est.)

$8,200 (2014 est.)

$8,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 144

Gross national saving:

16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

13.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

14.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 82.8%

government consumption: 12.6% investment in fixed capital: 20% investment in inventories: -0.5% exports of goods and services: 29.5% imports of goods and services: -44.4% (2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 23.3%

industry: 30.1%

services: 46.7% (2015 est.)

Agriculture—products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Industries: diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing, brandy, mining

Industrial production growth rate: 0.3% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 165

Labor force: 1.508 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 39%

industry: 17%

services: 44% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate: 17.8%

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Population below poverty line: 32% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest: 10%: 3.7%

highest: 10%: 24.8% (2012)

Distribution of family income—Gini index: 30.3

(2012)

31.3 (2011)

country comparison to the world: 120 Budget: revenues: $2.541 billion expenditures: $2.849 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 24% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): -2.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109 Public debt: 47.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

43.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88 Fiscal year: calendar year Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.7% (2015 est.)

3% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Central bank discount rate:

10.5% (10 February 2015) 8% (11

January 2012)

note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy instrument of the Armenian National Bank

country comparison to the world: 21

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 17.3% (31 December

2015 est.)

16.41% (31 December 2014 est.)

note: average lending rate on loans up to one year

country comparison to the world: 25

Stock of narrow money:

$1.127 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.118 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 149 Stock of broad money: $2.038 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.723 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Stock of domestic credit:

$6.212 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$5.219 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$132.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)

$139.6 million (31 December 2011)

$144.8 million (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 119 Current account balance: –

$335 million (2015 est.) $

-849 million (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 90

Exports: $1.496 billion (2015 est.)

$1.665 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150 Exports—commodities: pig iron, unwrought copper, nonferrous metals, gold, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports—partners: Russia 15.2%, China 11.1%, Germany 9.8%,

Iraq 8.8%, Georgia 7.8%, Canada 7.6%,

Bulgaria 5.3%, Iran5.3% (2015)

Imports: $3.117 billion (2015 est.)

$3.734 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 144

Imports—commodities:

natural gas, petroleum, tobacco

products, foodstuffs, diamonds, pharmaceuticals, cars Imports—partners: Russia

29.1%, China 9.7%, Germany 6.2%,

Iran 6.1%, Italy 4.6%, Turkey 4.2%

(2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.209 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$1.489 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Debt—external:

$8.537 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$8.695 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111

Stock of direct foreign investment—at home: $4.817 billion (2013)

country comparison to the world: 98 Exchange rates: drams (AMD) per US dollar—

480.9 (2015 est.)

415.92 (2014 est.)

415.92 (2013 est.)

401.76 (2012 est.) 372.5 (2011 est.)

Electricity—production:

7.622 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

Electricity—consumption:

5.043 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 115 Electricity—exports: 1.696 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Electricity—imports: 98

million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 4.021

million kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Electricity—from fossil

fuels: 32.2% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 34.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

Electricity—from hydro electric plants: 33.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 66

Electricity—from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Crude oil—production: 0

bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105 Crude oil—exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95 Crude oil—imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Crude oil—proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Refined petroleum products

—production: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 8,700 bbl/day

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Refined petroleum products

—exports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Refined petroleum products

—imports: 8,722 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141 Natural gas—production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Natural gas—consumption:

2.01 billion cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 80 Natural gas—exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56 Natural gas—imports: 2.061 billion cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Natural gas—proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Carbon dioxide emissions

from consumption of energy: 12.12 million Mt (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 97

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 560,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 3.5 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004, and a second and third provider began operations in 2005 and 2009 respectively

domestic: reliable modern fixe-dline and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; significant but ever- shrinking gaps remain in mobile-cellular

coverage in rural areas

international: country code—374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia- Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations—3 (2008)

Broadcast media: 2 public TV networks operating alongside about 40 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; major Russian broadcast

stations are widely available; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 21 privately owned radio stations; several major international broadcasters are available (2015)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)

Television broadcast stations: 48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian channels widely available) (2006)

Internet country code: .am

Internet hosts: 194,142 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 73 Internet users: total: 1.3 million percent of population: 43.6% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Airports: 11 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 154

Airports—with paved runways: total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Pipelines: gas 2,233 km (2013)

Railways: total: 780 km

broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified)

note: 726 km operational (2014) country comparison to the world: 97 Roadways: total: 7,792 km (2013) country comparison to the world: 143

Military branches: Armenian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air

Force and Air Defense; “Nagorno- Karabakh Republic”: Nagorno- Karabakh Self-Defense Force (NKSDF) (2011)

Military service age and obligation: 18–27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2012) Military expenditures: 4.29%

of GDP (2014)

4.1% of GDP (2013)

3.92% of GDP (2012)

3.87% of GDP (2011)

3.92% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 10

Disputes—international: the dispute over the break-away Nagorno- Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents hav eevacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side

of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government

Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 14,994 (Syria

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