of the International Congress of Women, following which was established the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. She was also involved in the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union in 1920. In 1931 she was a cowinner of the Nobel Prize for Peace.
The establishment of the Chicago campus of the University of Illinois in 1963 forced the Hull House Association to relocate its headquarters. The majority of its original buildings were demolished, but the Hull resi- dence itself was preserved as a monument to Jane Addams. Among Addams’s books are Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), Newer Ideals of Peace (1907), TwentyYears at Hull-House
(1910), and The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House (1930).
ANNIE JUMP CANNON
(b. Dec. 11, 1863, Dover, Del., U.S.—d. April 13, 1941, Cambridge, Mass.)
nnie Jump Cannon was an American astronomer who specialized in the classification of stellar spectra.
Cannon was the oldest daughter of Wilson Cannon, a Delaware state senator, and Mary Jump. She studied physics and astronomy at Wellesley College, graduating in 1884. For several years thereafter she traveled and dabbled in photography and music. In 1894 she returned to Wellesley for a year of advanced study in astronomy, and in 1895 she enrolled at Radcliffe in order to continue her studies under Edward C. Pickering, who was director of the Harvard College Observatory.
In 1896 she was named an assistant at the Harvard Observatory, becoming one of a group known as “Pickering’s Women.” There, joining Williamina P.S. Fleming, Cannon devoted her energies to Pickering’s ambitious project, begun in 1885, of recording, classifying, and cataloging the spectra of all stars down to those of the ninth magnitude. The scheme of spectral classifi by surface temperature