and created duke of York in 1986; and Prince Edward (Edward Anthony Richard Louis), born March 10, 1964. All these children have the surname “of Windsor,” but in 1960 Elizabeth decided to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants not styled prince or princess and royal highness. Elizabeth’s first grandchild (Princess Anne’s son) was born on Nov. 15, 1977. The queen seemed increasingly aware of the modern role of the monarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royal family’s domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister’s marriage in 1978. However, after the failed marriage of her son and Diana, princess of Wales, and Diana’s death in 1997, popular feel- ing in Britain turned against the royal family, which was thought to be out of touch with contemporary British life. In line with her earlier attempts at modernizing the monarchy, the queen, after 1997, sought to present a less- stuffy and less-traditional image of the monarchy. These
attempts have met with mixed success.
Queen Elizabeth has been known to favour simplicity in court life and take a serious and informed interest in government business, aside from the traditional and ceremonial duties. Privately she has become a keen horse- woman; she has kept racehorses, frequently attended races, and periodically visited the Kentucky stud farms in the United States. Her financial and property holdings have made her one of the world’s richest women.
(b. June 12, 1929, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.—d. March 1945, Bergen- Belsen concentration camp, near Hannover)
nne Frank, a young Jewish girl who wrote a diary of her family’s two years in hiding during the German
occupation of The Netherlands, personalized the Holocaust for generations of readers. The Diary of a Young Girl (published posthumously) has become a classic of war literature.
Early in the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler, Anne’s father, Otto Frank (1889–1980), a German businessman, took his wife and two daughters to live in Amsterdam. In 1941, after German forces occupied The Netherlands, Anne was compelled to transfer from a public to a Jewish school. Faced with deportation (supposedly to a forced-labour camp), the Franks went into hiding on July 9, 1942, with four other Jews in the back-room office and warehouse of Otto Frank’s food-products business. With the aid of a few non-Jewish friends who smuggled in food and other supplies, they lived confined to their secret annex until Aug. 4, 1944, when the Gestapo, acting on a tip from Dutch informers, discovered them.
The family was transported to Westerbork, a transit camp in The Netherlands, and from there to Auschwitz in German-occupied Poland on Sept. 3, 1944, on the last transport to leave Westerbork for Auschwitz. Anne (in full Annelies Marie) and her sister Margot were trans- ferred to Bergen-Belsen the following month. Anne’s mother died in early January, just before the evacuation of Auschwitz on Jan. 18, 1945. Both Anne and Margot died in a typhus epidemic in March 1945, only weeks before the liberation of Bergen-Belsen. Otto Frank was found hos- pitalized at Auschwitz when it was liberated by Russian troops on Jan. 27, 1945.
Friends who had searched the family’s hiding place after their capture later gave Otto Frank the papers left behind by the Gestapo. Among them he found Anne’s diary, which was published as The Diary of a Young Girl (originally in Dutch, 1947). Precocious in style and insight,