Algeria: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use


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transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting theBalkan route and to a lesser extent cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limitedopium and expanding cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active andexpanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens


Background: After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians

fought through much of the 1950s to achieveindependence in 1962. Algeria’s primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), wasestablished in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multiparty system in response to public unrest, but thesurprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elitefeared would be an extremistled government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on

the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into aninsurgency, which saw intense violence from 199298, resulting in over 100,000 deaths many attributedto indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late1990s, and FIS’s armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widelyviewed as fraudulent and won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. The government in 2011introduced some political reforms

in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19yearold state ofemergency restrictions and increasing women’s quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasingsubsidies to the populace. Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to finance the government andlarge subsidies for the population is under stress because of declining oil prices.

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28

00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa Area: total: 2,381,741 sq km land: 2,381,741 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 10 Area-comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 6,734 km

border countries (7): Libya 989 km,

Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km

Coastline: 998 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 3252 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hotsummers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation: mean elevation: 800 m

elevation extremes: lowest

point: Chott Melrhir -40m

highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: agricultural land: 17.3%

arable land: 3.1%

permanent crops: 0.4%

permanent pasture: 13.8%

forest: 0.6%

other: 82% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,700 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources: 11.67 cu km (2011) Freshwater withdrawal


total: 5.72 cu km/yr (26%/16%/58%)

per capita: 182 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season

Environment-current issues:

soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastalwaters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizerrunoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment-international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography—note: largest country in Africa

Nationality: noun: Algerian(s)

adjective: Algerian Ethnic groups: Arab

Berber 99%, European less than 1% note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie eastof Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grantautonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools

Languages: Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or

Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)

Religions: Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)

Population: 39,542,166 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34 Age structure: 0–14 years: 28.75% (male 5,820,027/female


15–24 years: 16.64% (male

3,368,415/female 3,213,185)

25–54 years: 42.84% (male

8,569,397/female 8,369,078)

55–64 years: 6.42% (male

1,289,595/female 1,248,385)

65 years and over: 5.35% (male 977,744/female 1,138,767) (2015 est.)

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 52.6% youth dependency ratio: 43.6% elderly dependency ratio: 9.1%

potential support ratio: 11% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 27.5 years

male: 27.2 years

female: 27.8 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Population growth rate:

1.84% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60 Birth rate: 23.67 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63 Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203 Net migration rate: 0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 148

Urbanization: urban population: 70.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate

of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: ALGIERS (capital)

2.594 million; Oran 858,000 (2015) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 140 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75 Infant mortality rate: total: 20.98 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births female: 19.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 83 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.59 years

male: 75.29 years

female: 77.96 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81 Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 61.4% (2006)

Health expenditures: 6.6% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 135

Physicians density: 1.21

physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking water source:


urban: 84.3% of population rural: 81.8% of population total: 83.6% of population unimproved:

urban: 15.7% of population

rural: 18.2% of population

total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:


urban: 89.8% of population rural: 82.2% of population total: 87.6% of population unimproved:

urban: 10.2% of population

rural: 17.8% of population

total: 12.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

HIV/AIDS—people living

with HIV/AIDS: 10,500 (2014


country comparison to the world: 92

HIV/AIDS—deaths: 200 (2014


country comparison to the world: 101

Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 23.6% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 116

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3% (2013) country comparison to the world: 102 Education expenditures: 4.3%

of GDP (2008)

country comparison to the world: 97 Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 80.2%

male: 87.2%

female: 73.1% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2011)

Child labor—children ages 5–14: total number: 304,358

percentage: 5% (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 1524: total: 24.8%

male: 21.6%

female: 39.8% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Country name: conventional long form: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

conventional short form: Algeria

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza’iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha’biyah

local short form: Al Jaza’ir

etymology: the country name derives

from the capital city of Algiers Government type: presidential republic

Capital: name: Algiers

Geographic coordinates: 36

45 N, 3 03 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf,

Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M’Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: several previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)

Legal system: mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; nonparty state to the ICCt

citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdelmalek SELLAL (since 28 April 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds ifneeded for a 5 year term (2term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February

2016); electionlast held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president from themajority party in Parliament

election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz

BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%

Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with

144 seats; onethird of members appointed by the president, twothirds

indirectly elected by simple majority vote by anelectoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6year terms with onehalf of themembership renewed every 3 years) and the National People’s Assembly (lower house with 462 seatsincluding 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multiseat constituencies byproportional representation vote to serve 5 year terms)

elections: Council of the Nation last held on 29 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2017); National People’s Assembly last held on 10 May 2012 (next to be held on 17 May 2017)

election results: Council of the Nation percentof vote by party NA; seats by party NA; National People’s Assembly percent of vote by party NA; seats by party FLN 221, RND 70, AAV 47, FFS

21, PT17, FNA 9, El Adala 7, MPA 6,

PFJ 5, FC 4, PNSD 4, other 32,

independent 19

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into 4 divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members including the court president); note Algeria’s judicial system does not

include sharia courtsjudge

selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vicepresident and several members; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members 3 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of the Parliament, 1 by the Supreme Court, and 1 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6 year terms with half the membershiprenewed every 3 years subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals

Political parties and leaders: Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]

Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]

Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]

Algeria’s Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL]

Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU]

Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]

Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid MENASRA]

Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]

Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]

Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Islah, Ennahda Movement, and MSP) Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Fatah RABEI] Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI]

National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]

National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]

National Liberation Front or FLN [Amar

SAIDANI] National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSDNational Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]

National Republican Alliance New Dawn Party or PFJ New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI]

Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]

Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID]

Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]

Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI]

Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]

Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]

Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]

note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders: Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]

SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR] Youth Action Rally or RAJ

International organization participation:




WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)

chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW,

Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joan A. POLASCHIK (since 22 September 2014)

embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El-

Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algiers

mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger Gare, 16030 Algiers

telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000

FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2064

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and

white; a red, fivepointed star within a red crescentcentered over the twocolor boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), andliberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than thoseof other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness

National symbol(s): star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red

National anthem: name: “Kassaman” (We Pledge)

lyrics/music: Mufdi


note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote “Kassaman” as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by Frenchcolonial forces

Economy—overview: Algeria’s economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country’s socialist post independence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of stateownedindustries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for

roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th largest reserves of naturalgas in the world and is the sixth largest gas exporter. It ranks 16th in oil reserves. Hydrocarbon exports have enabled Algeria to maintain macroeconomic stability and amass large foreign currency reserves and a large budget stabilization fund available for tapping. In addition, Algeria’s external debt is extremely lowat about 2% of GDP. However, Algeria has struggled to develop non hydrocarbon industries because of heavy regulation and an emphasis on state driven growth. The government’s efforts have done little

to reduce high youth unemployment rates or to address housing shortages. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted the Algerian Government to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary and benefit increases, moves which continue to weigh on public finances. Since late 2014, declining oil prices forced the government to spend down its reserves at a high rate in order to sustain social spending on salaries and subsidies, particularly since the government has been unable to boost exports of hydrocarbons or significantly grow its nonoilsector. In 2015, the Algerian Government imposed further

restrictions on imports in an effort to reduce withdrawals from its foreign exchange reserves. The Government also increased the valueadded tax onelectricity and fuel, but said it would address subsidies at a later date. Longterm economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs foryounger Algerians.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$578.7 billion (2015 est.)

$557.8 billion (2014 est.)

$537.4 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 34

GDP (official exchange rate):

$172.3 billion (2015 est.)

GDP—real growth rate:

3.7% (2015 est.)

3.8% (2014 est.)

2.8% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$14,500 (2015 est.)

$14,300 (2014 est.)

$14,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 112

Gross national saving:

34.6% of GDP (2015 est.)

43.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

45.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 39.1%

government consumption: 21.3% investment in fixed capital: 39.6% investment in inventories: 7.6% exports of goods and services: 27.4%

imports of goods and services: -35%

(2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 10.3%

industry: 46%

services: 43.7% (2015 est.) Agriculture—products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 163

Labor force: 11.77 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 10.8%, 30.9%

industry: 58.4%, 13.4%

services: (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11%

(2015 est.)

10.6% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Population below poverty line: 23% (2006 est.)

Household income or

consumption by percentage share: lowest: 10%: 2.8%

highest: 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income—Gini index: 35.3


country comparison to the world: 93 Budget: revenues: $49.38 billion expenditures: $69.01 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 28.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): 11.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205 Public debt: 9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

7.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

note: data cover central government debt as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intragovernmental debt

country comparison to the world: 169 Fiscal year: calendar year Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.8% (2015 est.)

2.9% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Central bank discount rate:

4% (31 December 2010)

4% (31 December 2009)

country comparison to the world: 97

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 8% (31 December

2015 est.)

8% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Stock of narrow money:

$89.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$109 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 38 Stock of broad money: $164.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$152.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Stock of domestic credit:

$57.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$35.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA

Current account balance: –

$27.04 billion (2015 est.)

-$9.436 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 189

Exports: $36.3 billion (2015 est.)

$63.23 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59


petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)

Exports partners: Spain 18.8%, France 11.2%, US 8.8%, Italy 8.7%, UK

7.1%, Brazil 5.2%, Tunisia 4.9%,

Germany 4.5% (2015)

Imports: $52.65 billion (2015 est.)

$58.62 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50


capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports —partners: China 15.6%, France 14.3%, Italy 9.4%, Spain

7.4%, Germany 5.6%, Russia 4.1%


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $155.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$179.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Debt external:

$4.839 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$5.231 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Stock of direct foreign investment—at home: $30.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$28.98 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:

$2.679 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.589 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar—

100.6 (2015 est.)

80.579 (2014 est.)

80.579 (2013 est.) 77.54 (2012 est.) 72.938 (2011 est.)


53.99 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51


42.87 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Electricity—exports: 985

million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Electricity—imports: 936

million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 15.2

million kW (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Electricity—from fossil fuels: 98% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Electricity—from hydro electric plants: 1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Electricity—from other

renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110 Crude oil—production: 1.42 million bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18 Crude oil—exports: 1.158 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Crude oil—imports: 5,900

bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Crude oil—proved reserves:

12.2 billion bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Refined petroleum products

—production: 484,500 bbl/day

(2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 390,000 bbl/day

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Refined petroleum products

—exports: 432,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Refined petroleum products

—imports: 94,180 bbl/day (2012


country comparison to the world: 55

Natural gas—production:

79.65 billion cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Natural gas—consumption:

36.65 billion cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26 Natural gas—exports: 43 billion cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 8 Natural gas—imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Natural gas—proved

reserves: 4.505 trillion cu m (1

January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 133.9 million Mt (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Telephones fixed lines: total subscriptions: 3.1 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Telephones mobile cellular:

total: 37.3 million subscriptions per 100

inhabitants: 96 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33 Telephone system: general assessment: privatization of Algeria’s telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt’s Orascom Telecom won a 15 year license to build and operate a fixedline network in Algeria; the license will allow Orascom to develop highspeed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand forbasic residential telephony; Internet broadband services began in 2003

domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 personshas been offset by the rapid increase in mobile cellular subscribership; in 2011, mobilecellular teledensitywas roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code -213; landing point for the SEAMEWE4 fiberoptic submarine cablesystem that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations -51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2011)

Broadcast media: staterun Radio Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; staterun radio operates several national networks and roughly 40 regional radiostations (2007)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code: .dz

Internet hosts: 676 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 178 Internet users: total: 6.5 million percent of population: 16.7% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Airports: 157 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 36

Airports with—paved runways:

total: 64over 3,047 m: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 29

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports with unpaved runways: total: 93

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 39

under 914 m: 34 (2013)

Heliports: 3 (2013)

Pipelines: condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144km (2013)

Railways: total: 3,973 km

standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.432m gauge (283 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 45 Roadways: total: 113,655 km paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)

unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)

country comparison to the world: 42

Merchant marine: total: 38

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 11,

passenger/cargo 3, petroleumtanker 4, roll on/roll off 3

foreignowned: 15 (UK, 15) (2010)

country comparison to the world: 78

Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda

LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda

Military branches: People’s National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP), Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy ofthe Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (AlQuwwat alJawwiya alJaza’eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2009)

Military service age and obligation: 17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19– 30 years of age for compulsory service;

conscript service obligation is


months (6 months basic training,


months civil projects) (2012)

Military expenditures:

4.48% of GDP (2012)

4.36% of GDP (2011)

4.48% of GDP (2010)

country comparison to the world: 8

Disputes international:

Algeria and many other states reject

Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria’s border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front’s (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco

Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in

Algerian-sponsoredcamps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf) (2014)

IDPs: undetermined (civil war during 1990s) (2013)

Trafficking in persons: current situation: Algeria is a transit and, to a lesser extent, a destination and source country forwomen subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, men subjected to forced labor; criminal networks, sometimes extending to sub-Saharan Africa and to Europe, are involved in humansmuggling and trafficking in Algeria; sub-Saharan adults enter Algeria voluntarily but illegally, often with theaid of smugglers,

for onward travel to Europe, but some of the women are forced into prostitution, domesticservice, and begging; some sub- Saharan men, mostly from Mali, are forced into domestic servitude; some Algerian women and children are also forced into prostitution domestically

tier rating: Tier 3—Algeria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination oftrafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so: some officials denied the existence of human trafficking, hindering law enforcement efforts; the government reported its first conviction under its antitrafficking law; one potential trafficking case was


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