Albania: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land use

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(British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides multi-channel satellite service to Akrotiri, Dhekelia, and Nicosia) (2006)

Military—note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; Akrotiri has a full RAF base, headquarters for British Forces Cyprus, and Episkopi Support Unit

image

Background: Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire

in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939 and occupied by Germany in 1943. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first

holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since ther estoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however, most of Albania’s post-communist elections have been marred by claims of electoral fraud. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and in June 2014 became a candidate for EU accession. Although Albania’s economy continues to grow, it has slowed, and the country is still one of the poorest in Europe. A large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure remain obstacles.

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece to the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the north

Geographic coordinates: 41

00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe Area: total: 28,748 sq km land: 27,398 sq km

water: 1,350 sq km

country comparison to the world: 145 Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Mary land

Land boundaries: total: 691 km

border countries (4): Greece 212 km,

Kosovo 112 km, Macedonia 181 km,

Montenegro 186 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation: mean elevation: 708 m elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower, arableland

Land use: agricultural land: 43.8%

arable land: 22.7%

permanent crops: 2.7%

permanent pasture: 18.4%

forest: 28.3%

other: 27.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,310 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water

resources: 41.7 cu km (2011) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricult

total: 1.31 cu km/yr (43%/18%/39%)

per capita: 413.6 cu m/yr (2006) Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along

southwestern coast; floods; drought

Environment current issues:

deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,

Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography—note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Nationality: noun: Albanian(s)

adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including Vlach,

Roma (Gypsy), Macedonian, Montenegrin, and Egyptian), unspecified 15.5% (2011 est.)

Languages: Albanian 98.8% (official derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Roma, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and SerboCroatian), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)

Religions: Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist

2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%,

other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2%

note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private

religious practice (2011 est.) Population: 3,029,278 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137 Age structure: 0–14 years: 18.78% (male 300,661/female 268,369)

15–24 years: 18.67% (male

291,479/female 274,019)

25–54 years: 40.39% (male

582,207/female 641,361)

55–64 years: 10.85% (male

163,003/female 165,805)

65 years and over: 11.3% (male 160,913/female 181,461) (2015 est.) Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 44.8%

youth dependency ratio: 26.9%

elderly dependency ratio: 18% potential support ratio: 5.6% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 32 years

male: 30.8 years

female: 33.3 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95 Population growth rate: 0.3% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 175 Birth rate: 12.92 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Death rate: 6.58 deaths/1,000

population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145 Net migration rate: -3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 184

Urbanization: urban population:

57.4% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 2.21% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas population: TIRANA (capital) 454,000 (2015)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth: 23.4 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 29 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 128 Infant mortality rate: total:

12.75 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 14.19 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.15 deaths/1,000 live births

(2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.13 years

male: 75.49 years

female: 81.04 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60 Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 196

Contraceptive prevalence rate: 69.3% (2008/09)

Health expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 111

Physicians density: 1.15

physicians/1,000 population (2013) Hospital bed density: 2.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 84.3% of population rural: 81.8% of population total: 83.6% of population unimproved:

urban: 15.7% of population

rural: 18.2% of population

total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 95.5% of population rural: 90.2% of population total: 93.2% of population unimproved:

urban: 4.5% of population

rural: 9.8% of population

total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS adult— prevalence rate: 0.04% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS: NA HIV/AIDS—deaths: NA

Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 18.1% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 88

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 6.3% (2009) country comparison to the world: 80

Education expenditures:

3.54% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 130 Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.6%

male: 98.4%

female: 96.9% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2014)

Child labor children—ages 514:

total number: 72,818

percentage: 12% (2005 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 1524: total: 30.2%

male: 32.5%

female: 26.1% (2013 est.)

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania

local long form: Republika e Shqiperise

local short form: Shqiperia

former: People’s Socialist Republic of Albania

etymology: the English-language country name seems to be derived from the ancient Illyrian tribe of the Albani; the native name “Shqiperia” is popularly interpreted to mean “Land of the eagles”

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: name: Tirana (Tirane)

Geographic coordinates: 41

19 N, 19 49 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions: 12 counties (qarqe, singular-qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, Vlore

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire) National holiday: Independence

Day, 28 November (1912) also known as Flag Day

Constitution: several previous; latest approved by the Assembly 21 October 1998, adopted by popular referendum 22 November 1998,

promulgated 28 November 1998; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)

Legal system: civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the “Code of Leke” prevails

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction

declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction Citizenship: citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Albania

dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Bujar NISHANI (since 24 July 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Edi RAMA (since 10 September 2013); Deputy Prime

Minister Niko PELESHI

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approvedby the Assembly elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); a candidate needs three-fifths majority vote of the Assembly in 1 of 3 rounds or a simple majority in 2 additional rounds to become president; election last held in 4 rounds during the period 30 May-11 June 2012 (next election to be held in 2017); prime minister appointed by the president on the proposal of the majority party or coalition of parties in the Assembly

election results: Bujar NISHANI elected president; Assembly vote-73 of 140 in fourth round

Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; members directly elected in multi- seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 23 June 2013 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party-PS 41.36%, PD 30.63%, LSI

10.46%, PR 3.02%, PDIU 2.61%, other

11.92%; seats by party-PS 65, PD 50,

LSI 16, PDIU 4, PR 3, other 2; seats by parliamentary group as of April-2015

ASHE 88, APMI 50, 2-outside of the majority and opposition groups Judicial branch: highest

court(s): Constitutional Court (consists

of 9 judges, including a chairman); Court of Cassation (consists of 14 judges, including the chief justice)

judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president with theconsent of the Assembly to serve single 9-year terms with onethird of the membership renewed every 3years; chairman elected by the People’s Assembly for a single 3- year term; Court of Cassation judges, including the chairman, appointed by the president with the consent of the

Assembly to serve single, 9-year terms) subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Employment, Welfare, and Integration or APMI (coalition of 24 centrist and

centerrightparties) [Sali BERISHA]: Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA]

Democratic Party or PD [Lulzim BASHA]

Movement for National Development of LZHK [Dashamir SHEHI]

Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]

Alliance for a European Albania or ASHE (coalition of 38 parties from far left to right wing) [EdiRAMA]: Christian Democratic Party of PKD [Mark FRROKU]

Party for Justice, Integration and Unity or PDIU [Shpetim IDRIZI] (formerly part of APMI)

Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]

Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA] Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]

other parties: New Democratic Spirit or FRD [Bamir TOPI]

note: only the major parties of each coalition are listed

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kol NIKOLLAJ]

Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO]

Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]

International organization participation: BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC

(nationalcommittees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO

(correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, OAS (observer), OIC,

OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Floreta FABER (since 18 May 2015)

chancery: 1312 18th Street NW, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942

FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald LU (since 13

January 2015)

embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, 103, Tirana mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 201899510

telephone: [355] (4) 224-7285

FAX: [355] (4) 223-2222

Flag description: red with a black twoheaded eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15thcentury heroGeorge Kastrioti SKANDERBEG, who led a successful uprising against the Ottoman Turks that resulted ina shortlived independence for some Albanian regions (144378); an unsubstantiated explanation for theeagle symbol is the tradition that Albanians

see themselves as descendants of the eagle; they refer tothemselves as “Shqiptare, ” which translates as “sons of the eagle”

National symbol(s):

doubleheaded eagle; national colors: red, black

National anthem: name: “Hymni i Flamurit” (Hymn to the Flag) lyrics/music: Aleksander Stavre DRENOVA/Ciprian PORUMBESCU

note: adopted 1912

Economy overview: Albania, a formerly closed, centrallyplanned state,

is a developing country with a modern openmarketeconomy. Albania managed to weather the first waves of the global financial crisis but, more recently, thenegative effects of the crisis have caused a significant economic slowdown. Close trade, remittance, andbanking sector ties with Greece and Italy make Albania vulnerable to spillover effects of debt crises andweak growth in the euro zone. Remittances, a significant catalyst for economic growth, declined from 1215% of GDP before the 2008 financial crisis to 5.7% of GDP in 2014, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy. Theagricultural sector, which accounts for almost half of

employment but only about onefifth of GDP, is limitedprimarily to small family operations and subsistence farming, because of a lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Complex tax codes andlicensing requirements, a weak judicial system, endemic corruption, poor enforcement of contracts andproperty issues, and antiquated infrastructure contribute to Albania’s poor business environment, makingattracting foreign investment difficult. Albania’s electricity supply is uneven despite upgraded transmission capacities with neighboring countries. Technical and nontechnical losses in

electricity including theft and nonpayment continue to underminethe financial viability of the entire system, although the government has taken steps to stem nontechnicallosses and has begun to upgrade the distribution grid. Also, with help from international donors, thegovernment is taking steps to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long standing barrier tosustained economic growth. Inward FDI has increased significantly in recent years as the government has embarked on an ambitiousprogram to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The government isfocused on the simplification of

licensing requirements and tax codes, and it entered into a newarrangement with the IMF for additional financial and technical support. Albania’s IMF program may be atrisk, however, because the government has not collected sufficient tax revenue needed to reduce thebudget deficit. The country continues to face increasing public debt, exceeding its former statutory limit of60% of GDP in 2013 and reaching 73% in 2015.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$32.65 billion (2015 est.)

$31.81 billion (2014 est.)

$31.18 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollarsunreported output may be as large as 50% of official GDP

country comparison to the world: 126

GDP (official exchange rate): $11.54 billion (2015 est.) GDP—real growth rate:

2.6% (2015 est.)

2% (2014 est.)

1.1% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$11,900 (2015 est.)

$11,400 (2014 est.)

$11,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 126

Gross national saving:

16.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

15.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

18.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

GDP—composition, by end use:

household consumption: 82.1%

government consumption: 11% investment in fixed capital: 26.5% investment in inventories: 0.2% exports of goods and services: 36.4%

imports of goods and services: -56.2% (2015 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 22.3%

industry: 15%

services: 62.6% (2015 est.) Agriculture—products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products; sheep

Industries: food and tobacco products; textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 73 Labor force: 1.085 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 41.8%

industry: 11.4%

services: 46.8% (December 2014 est.)

Unemployment rate: 17.3%

(2015 est.)

17.5% (2014 est.)

note: these official rates may not include those working at nearsubsistence

farming

country comparison to the world: 160

Population below poverty line: 14.3% (2012 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest: 10%: 4.1%

highest: 10%: 20.5% (2012)

Distribution of family income—Gini index: 29 (2012 est.)

30 (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Budget: revenues: $2.978 billion

expenditures: $3.535 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 25.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): 4.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166 Public debt: 73.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

72.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41 Fiscal year: calendar year Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (2015 est.) 1.6% (2014

est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Central bank discount rate:

2.25% (31 December 2014)

3% (31 December 2013)

country comparison to the world: 112

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 7.6% (31 December

2015 est.)

8.66% (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Stock of narrow money:

$2.826 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$3.066 billion (31 December 2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 117 Stock of broad money: $5.72

billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$6.269 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 124

Stock of domestic credit:

$7.161 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$8.231 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA

Current account balance: –

$1.311 billion (2015 est.)

-$1.71 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134

Exports: $1.011 billion (2015 est.)

$1.232 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Exports—commodities:

textiles, footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco Exports—partners: Italy 42.8%,

Kosovo 9.7%, US 7.6%, China 6.1%,

Greece 5.3%, Spain 4.8% (2015)

Imports: $3.597 billion (2015 est.)

$4.057 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Imports—commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals Imports—partners: Italy 33.4%,

China 10%, Greece 9%, Turkey 6.7%,

Germany 5.2% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.852 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

$2.665 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Debt—external:

$8.782 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$8.209 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Stock of direct foreign investment—at home: $5.557 billion (31 December 2013)

$4.994 billion (31 December 2012)

country comparison to the world: 97 Exchange rates: leke (ALL) per US dollar—

126.6 (2015 est.)

105.48 (2014 est.)

105.48 (2013 est.)

108.19 (2012 est.) 100.9 (2011 est.)

Electricity—production:

4.726 billion kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

Electricity consumption:

7.793 billion kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Electricity exports: 288.5 million kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74 Electricity imports: 3.355 billion kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Electricity installed generating capacity: 1.878 million kW (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Electricity from fossil fuels:

5.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203

Electricity from nuclear

fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Electricity from hydroelectric plants: 94.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

Electricity from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 151

Crude oil—production:

20,510 bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Crude oil—exports: 23,320

bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Crude oil—imports: 3,440

bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Crude oil—proved reserves:

168.3 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Refined petroleum products

—production: 2,228 bbl/day

(2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 25,000 bbl/day

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Refined petroleum products

—exports: 354 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Refined petroleum products

—imports: 20,770 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109 Natural gas—production: 19 million cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Natural gas—consumption:

19 million cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112 Natural gas—exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55 Natural gas—imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Natural gas—proved reserves: 849.5 million cu m (1

January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of

energy: 3.962 million Mt (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 250,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 3.4 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Telephone system: general

assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, teledensity remains low with roughly 10 fixedlines per 100 people; mobilecellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective

domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixedline capacity, mobilecellular phone service has been availablesince 1996; by 2011, multiple companies were providing mobile services, and mobile teledensity hadreached 100 per 100 persons; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005, but growth has been slow; Internet cafes are popular in Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital

international: country code 355;

submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the TransBalkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiberoptic system, provides additionalconnectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiberoptic cable and, whennecessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2011)

Broadcast media: 3 public TV networks, one of which transmits by satellite to Albanianlanguage communities in neighboringcountries; more than 60 private TV stations; many viewers can pick up Italian and Greek TV broadcastsvia terrestrial reception;

cable TV service is available; 2 public radio networks and roughly 25 privateradio stations; several international broadcasters are available (2010)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 46, shortwave 1 (2005)

Television broadcast stations: 65 (3

national, 62 local); 2 cable networks

(2005)

Internet country code: .al Internet hosts: 15,528 (2012) country comparison to the world: 124 Internet users: total: 1.7 million percent of population: 56.5% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Airports: 4 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 183

Airports—with paved runways: total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2012)

Heliports: 1 (2013)

Pipelines: gas 331 km; oil 249 km (2013)

Railways: total: 677 km

standard gauge: 677 km 1.435m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 104 Roadways: total: 18,000 km paved: 7,020 km

unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)

country comparison to the world: 116 Waterways: 41 km (on the Bojana River) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 103

Merchant marine: total: 17 by type: cargo 16, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)

registered in other countries: 5

(Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 4)

(2010)

country comparison to the world: 99 Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Military branches: Land Forces Command, Navy Force Command, Air Forces Command (2013)

Military service age and obligation: 19 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age in case ofgeneral/partial compulsory

mobilization (2012)

Military expenditures:

0.85% of GDP (2015)

1.04% of GDP (2014)

1.5% of GDP (2013)

1.47% of GDP (2012)

1.52% of GDP (2011)

country comparison to the world: 112

Disputes—international: none Refugees and internally displaced persons: stateless persons: 7,442 (2015)

Illicit drugs: increasingly active

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