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Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power
Just2know : There is no knowledge that is not power

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As Amended Through 9 June 2004

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abort — (*) 1. To terminate a mission for any reason other than enemy action. It may occur at any point after the beginning of the mission and prior to its completion. 2. To discontinue aircraft takeoff or missile launch.

above-the-line publications — The upper level publications in the hierarchy of joint publications which includes capstone, keystone, and other key joint doctrine publications that the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff signs and are intended to be used by combatant commanders, subunified commanders, joint task force commanders, Service Chiefs, and Joint Staff directors. See also below-the-line publications; capstone publication; joint publication; keystone publications. (JP 1-01)

absolute altimeter — (*) A type of altimeter which measures vertical distance to the surface below, using radio, radar, sonic, laser, or capacitive technology.

absolute dud — A nuclear weapon which, when launched at or emplaced on a target, fails to explode.

absolute filter — (*) A filter capable of cutting off 100% by weight of solid particles greater than a stated micron size.

absolute height — (*) The height of an aircraft directly above the surface or terrain over which it is flying. See also altitude.

absorbed dose — (*) The amount of energy imparted by nuclear (or ionizing) radiation to unit mass of absorbing material. The unit is the rad.

acceptability — Operation plan review criterion. The determination as to whether the contemplated course of action is worth the cost in manpower, materiel, and time involved; is consistent with the law of war; and is militarily and politically supportable. See also adequacy; feasibility.

access to classified information — The ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of classified information. Persons have access to classified information if they are permitted to gain knowledge of the information or if they are in a place where they would be expected to gain such knowledge. Persons do not have access to classified information by being in a place where classified information is kept if security measures prevent them from gaining knowledge of the information.

accidental attack — An unintended attack which occurs without deliberate national design as a direct result of a random event, such as a mechanical failure, a simple human error, or an unauthorized action by a subordinate.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

accompanying supplies — Unit supplies that deploy with forces.

accountability — The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. The person having this obligation may or may not have actual possession of the property, documents, or funds. Accountability is concerned primarily with records, while responsibility is concerned primarily with custody, care, and safekeeping. See also responsibility.

accounting line designator — A five-character code, consisting of the target desired ground zero designator and the striking command suffix, to indicate a specific nuclear strike by a specified weapon delivery system on a target objective to the operation plan. Also called ALD.

accuracy of fire — (*) The precision of fire expressed by the closeness of a grouping of shots at and around the center of the target.

accuracy of information — See evaluation.

acoustical surveillance — Employment of electronic devices, including sound-recording,

-receiving, or -transmitting equipment, for the collection of information.

acoustic circuit — A mine circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a target. See also

mine.

acoustic intelligence — (*) Intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic phenomena. Also called ACINT.

acoustic jamming — The deliberate radiation or reradiation of mechanical or electroacoustic signals with the objectives of obliterating or obscuring signals that the enemy is attempting to receive and of disrupting enemy weapons systems. See also barrage jamming; electronic warfare; jamming; spot jamming.

acoustic mine — (*) A mine with an acoustic circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a ship or sweep. See also mine.

acoustic minehunting — (*) The use of a sonar to detect mines or mine-like objects which may be on or protruding from the seabed, or buried.

acoustic warfare — (*) Action involving the use of underwater acoustic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the underwater acoustic spectrum and actions which retain friendly use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. Also called AW. There are three divisions within acoustic warfare. 1. acoustic warfare support measures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions to search for, intercept, locate, record, and analyze radiated acoustic energy in water for the purpose of exploiting such radiations. The use of acoustic warfare support measures involves no intentional underwater acoustic

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

emission and is generally not detectable by the enemy. Also called AWSM. 2. acoustic warfare countermeasures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy’s effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. Acoustic warfare countermeasures involve intentional underwater acoustic emissions for deception and jamming. Also called AWCM. 3. acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to ensure friendly effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum despite the enemy’s use of underwater acoustic warfare. Acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures involve anti-acoustic warfare support measures and anti-acoustic warfare countermeasures, and may not involve underwater acoustic emissions. Also called AWCCM.

acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures — See acoustic warfare Part 3. acoustic warfare countermeasures — See acoustic warfare Part 2. acoustic warfare support measures — See acoustic warfare Part 1.

acquire — 1. When applied to acquisition radars, the process of detecting the presence and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit identification. 2. When applied to tracking radars, the process of positioning a radar beam so that a target is in that beam to permit the effective employment of weapons. See also target acquisition.

acquire (radar) — See acquire. acquisition — See collection (acquisition).

acquisition and cross-servicing agreement — Agreements negotiated on a bilateral basis with US allies or coalition partners that allow US forces to exchange most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment. Authority to negotiate these agreements is usually delegated to the combatant commander by the Secretary of Defense. Authority to execute these agreements lies with the Secretary of Defense, and may or may not be delegated. Governed by legal guidelines, these agreements are used for contingencies, peacekeeping operations, unforeseen emergencies, or exercises to correct logistic deficiencies that cannot be adequately corrected by national means. The support received or given is reimbursed under the conditions of the acquisition and cross-servicing agreement. Also called ACSA. See also cross-servicing; servicing. (JP 4-07)

action agent — In intelligence usage, one who has access to, and performs actions against, the target.

action deferred — Tactical action on a specific track is being withheld for better tactical advantage. Weapons are available and commitment is pending.

action information center — See air defense control center; combat information center.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

action phase — In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the landing forces of the amphibious force in the operational area and the accomplishment of their mission. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; landing force; mission. (JP 3-02)

activation — Order to active duty (other than for training) in the Federal service. See also

active duty; federal service. (JP 4-05)

activation detector — (*) A device used to determine neutron flux or density by virtue of the radioactivity induced in it as a result of neutron capture.

active air defense — Direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. It includes the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, electronic warfare, and other available weapons. See also air defense. (JP 3-01)

active communications satellite — See communications satellite.

active defense — The employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy. See also passive defense.

active duty — Full-time duty in the active military service of the United States. This includes members of the Reserve Components serving on active duty or full-time training duty, but does not include full-time National Guard duty. Also called AD. See also active duty for training; inactive duty training.

active duty for special work — A tour of active duty for reserve personnel authorized from military and reserve personnel appropriations for work on active or reserve component programs. This includes annual screening, training camp operations, training ship operations, and unit conversion to new weapon systems when such duties are essential. Active duty for special work may also be authorized to support study groups, training sites and exercises, short-term projects, and doing administrative or support functions. By policy, active duty for special work tours are normally limited to 179 days or less in one fiscal year. Tours exceeding 180 days are accountable against active duty end strength.

active duty for training — A tour of active duty which is used for training members of the Reserve Components to provide trained units and qualified persons to fill the needs of the Armed Forces in time of war or national emergency and such other times as the national security requires. The member is under orders that provide for return to non-active status when the period of active duty for training is completed. This includes annual training, special tours of active duty for training, school tours, and the initial duty for training performed by nonprior service enlistees. Also called ADT.

Active Guard and Reserve — National Guard and Reserve members who are on voluntary active duty providing full-time support to National Guard, Reserve, and Active Component

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

organizations for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the Reserve Components. Also called AGR. (JP 1-03.17)

active homing guidance — (*) A system of homing guidance wherein both the source for illuminating the target and the receiver for detecting the energy reflected from the target as the result of the illumination are carried within the missile.

active material — (*) Material, such as plutonium and certain isotopes of uranium, which is capable of supporting a fission chain reaction.

active mine — (*) A mine actuated by the reflection from a target of a signal emitted by the mine.

active public affairs policy — Open dissemination of information to inform the news media and public about an issue or activity. An active approach is characterized by announcing the event or addressing the issue through news media advisories, news releases, personal contacts, news conferences, or other forms of public presentation. Such a policy encourages and supports news media coverage. See also public affairs. (JP 3-61)

active sealift forces — Military Sealift Command active, common-user sealift and the afloat pre-positioning force, including the required cargo handling and delivery systems as well as necessary operating personnel. See also afloat pre-positioning force; common-user sealift; Military Sealift Command. (JP 4-01.2)

active status — Status of all Reserves except those on an inactive status list or in the Retired Reserve. Reservists in an active status may train for points and/or pay and may be considered for promotion.

activity — 1. Aunit, organization, or installation performing a function or mission, e.g., reception center, redistribution center, naval station, naval shipyard. 2. A function, mission, action, or collection of actions. Also called ACT. See also establishment.

act of mercy — In evasion and recovery operations, assistance rendered to evaders by an individual or elements of the local population who sympathize or empathize with the evaders’ cause or plight. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations. (JP 3-50.3)

actual ground zero — (*) The point on the surface of the Earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of an actual nuclear detonation. See also desired ground zero; ground zero.

actuate — (*) To operate a mine-firing mechanism by an influence or a series of influences in such a way that all the requirements of the mechanism for firing, or for registering a target count, are met.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

acute radiation dose — (*) Total ionizing radiation dose received at one time and over a period so short that biological recovery cannot occur.

adequacy — Operation plan review criterion. The determination as to whether the scope and concept of a planned operation are sufficient to accomplish the task assigned. See also acceptability; feasibility.

adjust — An order to the observer or spotter to initiate an adjustment on a designated target.

administrative airlift service — The airlift service normally provided by specifically identifiable aircraft assigned to organizations or commands for internal administration.

administrative control — Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations. Also called ADCON. (JP 0-2)

administrative escort — A warship or merchant ship under naval control, carrying a convoy commodore and staff, and serving as a platform for simultaneous communication with an operational control authority and a coastal convoy.

administrative landing — An unopposed landing involving debarkation from vessels that have been administratively loaded. See also administrative loading; administrative movement; logistics over-the-shore operations.

administrative lead time — The interval between initiation of procurement action and letting of contract or placing of order. See also procurement lead time.

administrative loading — (*) Aloading system which gives primary consideration to achieving maximum utilization of troop and cargo space without regard to tactical considerations. Equipment and supplies must be unloaded and sorted before they can be used. Also called commercial loading. See also loading.

administrative map — A map that contains graphically recorded information pertaining to administrative matters, such as supply and evacuation installations, personnel installations, medical facilities, collecting points for stragglers and enemy prisoners of war, train bivouacs, service and maintenance areas, main supply roads, traffic circulation, boundaries, and other details necessary to show the administrative situation. See also map.

administrative movement — (*) A movement in which troops and vehicles are arranged to expedite their movement and conserve time and energy when no enemy interference, except by air, is anticipated.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

administrative order — (*) An order covering traffic, supplies, maintenance, evacuation, personnel, and other administrative details.

administrative shipping — Support shipping that is capable of transporting troops and cargo from origin to destination, but that cannot be loaded or unloaded without non-organic personnel and/or equipment (e.g., cargo handling personnel, stevedores, piers, barges, cranes, materials handling equipment, vessels, etc.). See also administrative loading; administrative movement.

advanced base — A base located in or near an operational area whose primary mission is to support military operations.

advanced logistic support site — See naval advanced logistic support site. Also called

ALSS. (JP 4-01.3)

advanced operations base — In special operations, a small temporary base established near or within a joint special operations area to command, control, and/or support training or tactical operations. Facilities are normally austere. The base may be ashore or afloat. If ashore, it may include an airfield or unimproved airstrip, a pier, or an anchorage. An advanced operations base is normally controlled and/or supported by a main operations base or a forward operations base. Also called AOB. See also forward operations base; main operations base. (JP 3-05.1)

advance force — (*) A temporary organization within the amphibious task force which precedes the main body to the objective area. Its function is to participate in preparing the objective for the main assault by conducting such operations as reconnaissance, seizure of supporting positions, minesweeping, preliminary bombardment, underwater demolitions, and air support.

advance guard — Detachment sent ahead of the main force to ensure its uninterrupted advance; to protect the main body against surprise; to facilitate the advance by removing obstacles and repairing roads and bridges; and to cover the deployment of the main body if it is committed to action.

advance guard reserve — Second of the two main parts of an advance guard, the other being the advance guard support. It protects the main force and is itself protected by the advance guard support. Small advance guards do not have reserves.

advance guard support — First of the two main parts of an advance guard, the other being the advance guard reserve. It is made up of three smaller elements, in order from front to rear, the advance guard point, the advance party, and the support proper. The advance guard support protects the advance guard reserve.

adverse weather — Weather in which military operations are generally restricted or impeded.

See also marginal weather.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

adverse weather aerial delivery system — The precise delivery of personnel, equipment, and supplies during adverse weather, using a self-contained aircraft instrumentation system without artificial ground assistance or the use of ground navigational aids. Also called AWADS. (JP 3-17)

advisory area — (*) A designated area within a flight information region where air traffic advisory service is available.

aerial picket — See air picket.

aerial port — An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air movement of personnel and materiel as well as an authorized port for entrance into or departure from the country where located. Also called APORT. See also port of debarkation; port of embarkation.

aerial port control center — The agency responsible for the management and control of all aerial port resources and for the receipt and dissemination of all airlift requirements received from the airlift control team as the joint force commander’s agent. Also called APCC. See also aerial port; airlift control team. (JP 3-17)

aerial port squadron — An Air Force organization that operates and provides the functions assigned to aerial ports, including processing personnel and cargo, rigging for airdrop, packing parachutes, loading equipment, preparing air cargo and load plans, loading and securing aircraft, ejecting cargo for inflight delivery, and supervising units engaged in aircraft loading and unloading operations.

aerodynamic missile — (*) A missile which uses aerodynamic forces to maintain its flight path. See also ballistic missile; guided missile.

aeromedical evacuation — The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation. Also called AE.

aeromedical evacuation cell — The interface between validation and execution; an aeromedical evacuation cell is established in the tanker airlift control center/air mobility operations control center. The aeromedical evacuation cell provides the critical link between command and control, operations, and medical direction. It performs operational mission planning, tasking, and scheduling, and mission monitoring of airlift and aeromedical evacuation assets to support patient movement in coordination with the patient movement requirement center. See also aeromedical evacuation; Tanker Airlift Control Center. (JP 3-17)

aeromedical evacuation control officer — An officer of the air transport force or air command controlling the flow of patients by air.

aeromedical evacuation control team — A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. Provides command and control for theater aeromedical evacuation elements. It is responsible to the director of mobility forces for

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

current aeromedical evacuation operational planning and mission execution. The aeromedical evacuation control team analyzes patient movement requirements; coordinates airlift to meet aeromedical evacuation requirements; tasks the appropriate aeromedical evacuation elements including special medical requirements, when necessary; and passes mission information to the patient movement requirement center. Also called AECT. See also aeromedical evacuation; aeromedical evacuation cell; air mobility division. (JP 3-17)

aeromedical evacuation coordination center — A coordination center within the joint air operations center’s airlift coordination cell that monitors all activities related to aeromedical evacuation (AE) operations execution. It manages the medical aspects of the AE mission and serves as the net control station for AE communications. It coordinates medical requirements with airlift capability, assigns medical missions to the appropriateAE elements, and monitors patient movement activities. Also called AECC. See also aeromedical evacuation; aeromedical evacuation system; aeromedical evacuation unit. (JP 4-01.1)

aeromedical evacuation system — A system that provides: a. control of patient movement by air transport; b. specialized medical aircrew, medical crew augmentees, and specialty medical attendants and equipment for inflight medical care; c. facilities on or in the vicinity of air strips and air bases for the limited medical care of intransit patients entering, en route via, or leaving the system; and d. communication with originating, destination, and en route medical facilities concerning patient transportation. Also called AES. See also aeromedical evacuation. (JP 4-02.2)

aeromedical evacuation unit — An operational medical organization concerned primarily with the management and control of patients being transported via an aeromedical evacuation system or system echelon. See also forward aeromedical evacuation.

aeronautical chart — A specialized representation of mapped features of the Earth, or some part of it, produced to show selected terrain, cultural and hydrographic features, and supplemental information required for air navigation, pilotage, or for planning air operations.

aeronautical information overprint — (*) Additional information which is printed or stamped on a map or chart for the specific purpose of air navigation.

aeronautical plotting chart — (*) A chart designed for the graphical processes of navigation.

aerosol — Aliquid or solid composed of finely divided particles suspended in a gaseous medium.

Examples of common aerosols are mist, fog, and smoke. (JP 3-11)

aerospace — Of, or pertaining to, Earth’s envelope of atmosphere and the space above it; two separate entities considered as a single realm for activity in launching, guidance, and control of vehicles that will travel in both entities.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

aerospace defense — 1. All defensive measures designed to destroy or nullify attacking enemy aircraft and missiles and also negate hostile space systems. 2. An inclusive term encompassing air defense, ballistic missile defense, and space defense. See also air defense; space defense. (JP 3-01.1)

affiliation training — Military training based on allied and/or coalition, joint, and/or Service doctrine or tactics, techniques, and procedures, as applicable, to prepare personnel or units for multinational operations. Usually conducted between US and non-US forces. May also be referred to as multinational training. See also command post exercise; exercise; field training exercise; maneuver.

afloat pre-positioning force — Shipping maintained in full operational status to afloat pre- position military equipment and supplies in support of combatant commanders’ operation plans. The afloat pre-positioning force consists of the three maritime pre-positioning ships squadrons and the afloat pre-positioning ships. Also called APF. See also afloat pre- positioning ships; maritime pre-positioning ships. (JP 4-01.2)

afloat pre-positioning operations — Pre-positioning of ships, preloaded with equipment and supplies (including ammunition and petroleum) that provides for an alternative to land- based programs. This concept provides for ships and onboard force support equipment and supplies positioned near potential crisis areas that can be delivered rapidly to joint airlifted forces in the operational area. Afloat pre-positioning in forward areas enhances a force’s capability to respond to a crisis, resulting in faster reaction time. See also operation. (JP 4-01.6)

afloat pre-positioning ships — Forward deployed merchant ships loaded with tactical equipment and supplies to support the initial deployment of military forces. Also called APS. See also merchant ship. (JP 4-01.2)

afloat support — (*) A form of logistic support outside the confines of a harbor in which fuel, ammunition, and supplies are provided for operating forces either underway or at anchor. See also floating base support.

afterwinds — Wind currents set up in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion directed toward the burst center, resulting from the updraft accompanying the rise of the fireball.

agency — (*) In intelligence usage, an organization or individual engaged in collecting and/or processing information. Also called collection agency. See also agent; intelligence cycle; source.

agent — In intelligence usage, one who is authorized or instructed to obtain or to assist in obtaining information for intelligence or counterintelligence purposes.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

agent authentication — The technical support task of providing an agent with personal documents, accoutrements, and equipment which have the appearance of authenticity as to claimed origin and which support and are consistent with the agent’s cover story.

agent net — An organization for clandestine purposes that operates under the direction of a principal agent.

aggressor forces — 1. Forces engaged in aggressive military action. 2. In the context of training exercises, the “enemy” created to add realism in training maneuvers and exercises.

aimpoint — 1. A precise point associated with a target and assigned for a specific weapon impact to achieve the intended objective and level of destruction. May be defined descriptively (e.g., vent in center of roof), by grid reference, or geolocation. 2. A prominent radar-significant feature, for example a tip of land, or bridge, used to assist an aircrew in navigating and delivering their weapons (usually in bad weather and/or at night). Also called offset aimpoint (OAP). See also desired mean point of impact; desired point of impact. (JP 2-01.1)

air — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that a burst or group of bursts occurred before impact.

air alert — See airborne alert; air defense warning conditions; alert; ground alert.

air and space expeditionary task force — A deployed numbered air force (NAF) or command echelon immediately subordinate to a NAF provided as the US Air Force component command committed to a joint operation. Also called AETF. See also air expeditionary force; air expeditionary wing. (JP 3-33)

air apportionment — See apportionment (air). (JP 3-30)

air assault — The movement of friendly assault forces (combat, combat support, and combat service support) by rotary-wing aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. See also assault. (JP 3-18)

air assault force — A force composed primarily of ground and rotary-wing air units organized, equipped, and trained for air assault operations. (JP 3-18)

air assault operation — An operation in which assault forces (combat, combat support, and combat service support), using the mobility of rotary-wing assets and the total integration of available firepower, maneuver under the control of a ground or air maneuver commander to engage enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. (JP 3-18)

air attack — 1. coordinated — A combination of two or more types of air attack (dive, glide, low-level) in one strike, using one or more types of aircraft. 2. deferred — A procedure in which attack groups rendezvous as a single unit. It is used when attack groups are launched

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

from more than one station with their departure on the mission being delayed pending further orders. 3. divided —A method of delivering a coordinated air attack which consists of holding the units in close tactical concentration up to a point, then splitting them to attack an objective from different directions.

airborne — 1. In relation to personnel, troops especially trained to effect, following transport by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchdown. 2. In relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation. It also designates some aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 3. When applied to materiel, items that form an integral part of the aircraft. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained. Alighter-than-air aircraft is not considered to be airborne when it is attached to the ground, except that moored balloons are airborne whenever sent aloft. Also called ABN. See also air transportable unit.

airborne alert — (*) A state of aircraft readiness wherein combat-equipped aircraft are airborne and ready for immediate action. See also fighter cover. (DOD only) It is designed to reduce reaction time and to increase survivability. See also combat air patrol; fighter cover; ground alert.

airborne assault — See assault phase, Part 2.

airborne assault weapon — An unarmored, mobile, full-tracked gun providing a mobile antitank capability for airborne troops. Can be airdropped.

airborne command post — (*) A suitably equipped aircraft used by the commander for the control of his or her forces.

airborne early warning — The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units. Also called AEW.

airborne early warning and control — (*) Air surveillance and control provided by airborne early warning aircraft which are equipped with search and height-finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems. Also called AEW & C. See also air picket.

airborne force — (*) A force composed primarily of ground and air units organized, equipped, and trained for airborne operations. See also force(s).

airborne interception equipment — (*) A fire control system, including radar equipment, installed in interceptor aircraft used to effect air interception.

airborne lift — The total capacities expressed in terms of personnel and cargo that are, or can be, carried by available aircraft in one trip.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

airborne mission commander — The commander serves as an airborne extension of the executing component’s rescue coordination center (RCC) and coordinates the combat search and rescue (CSAR) effort between the combat search and rescue task force (CSARTF) and the RCC (or joint search and rescue center) by monitoring the status of all CSARTF elements, requesting additional assets when needed, and ensuring the recovery and supporting forces arrive at their designated areas to accomplish the CSAR mission. The airborne mission commander (AMC) may be designated by the component RCC or higher authority. The AMC appoints, as necessary, an on-scene commander. Also called AMC. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescue task force; rescue coordination center. (JP 3-50.21)

airborne operation — An operation involving the air movement into an objective area of combat forces and their logistic support for execution of a tactical, operational, or strategic mission. The means employed may be any combination of airborne units, air transportable units, and types of transport aircraft, depending on the mission and the overall situation. See also assault; assault phase.

airborne order — A command and authorization for flight when a predetermined time greater than five minutes is established for aircraft to become airborne.

airborne radio relay — Airborne equipment used to relay radio transmission from selected originating transmitters.

airborne sensor operator — An individual trained to operate sensor equipment aboard aircraft and to perform limited interpretations of collected information produced in flight.

airborne troops — Those ground units whose primary mission is to make assault landings from the air. See also troops.

air-breathing missile — A missile with an engine requiring the intake of air for combustion of its fuel, as in a ramjet or turbojet. To be contrasted with the rocket missile, which carries its own oxidizer and can operate beyond the atmosphere.

airburst — (*) An explosion of a bomb or projectile above the surface as distinguished from an explosion on contact with the surface or after penetration. See also types of burst.

air-capable ship — All ships other than aircraft carriers; aircraft carriers, nuclear; amphibious assault ships, landing platform helicopter; general purpose amphibious assault ships; or general purpose amphibious assault ships (with internal dock) from which aircraft can take off, be recovered, or routinely receive and transfer logistic support. See also aviation ship. (JP 3-04.1)

air cargo — (*) Stores, equipment or vehicles, which do not form part of the aircraft, and are either part or all of its payload.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

Air Carrier Initiative Program — Mutual assistance program with signatory commercial air carriers to assist in illegal drug detection and detection of internal conspiracies. (JP 3-07.4)

air cartographic camera — (*) Acamera having the accuracy and other characteristics essential for air survey or cartographic photography. Also called mapping camera.

air cartographic photography — (*) The taking and processing of air photographs for mapping and charting purposes.

air component coordination element — An Air Force component element that interfaces and provides liaison with the joint force land component commander, or commander Army forces. The air component coordination element is the senior Air Force element assisting the joint force land component commander, or commander Army forces in planning air component supporting and supported requirements. The air component coordination element is responsible to the joint force air component commander and coordinates with the joint force land component commander’s staff, representing the joint force air component commander’s needs in either a supporting or supported role. Also called ACCE. (JP 3-31)

air control operations — The employment of air forces, supported by ground and naval forces, as appropriate, to achieve military objectives in vital airspace areas. Such operations include destruction of enemy air and surface-to-air forces, interdiction of enemy air operations, protection of vital air lines of communications, and the establishment of local military superiority in areas of air operations. See also operation. (JP 3-18)

air corridor — (*) A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and established for the purpose of preventing friendly aircraft from being fired on by friendly forces.

aircraft — See inactive aircraft inventory; program aircraft; reserve aircraft; supporting aircraft; unit aircraft.

aircraft arresting barrier — (*) A device, not dependent on an aircraft arresting hook, used to stop an aircraft by absorbing its forward momentum in an emergency landing or an aborted takeoff. Also called barricade; emergency barrier. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting cable — (*) That portion of an aircraft arresting system which spans the runway surface or flight deck landing area and is engaged by the aircraft arresting hook. Also called aircraft arresting wire.

aircraft arresting gear — (*) A device used to engage hook-equipped aircraft to absorb the forward momentum of a routine or emergency landing or aborted takeoff. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting hook — (*) A device fitted to an aircraft to engage arresting gear. Also called tail hook. See also aircraft arresting system.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

aircraft arresting system — (*) A series of components used to stop an aircraft by absorbing its momentum in a routine or emergency landing or aborted takeoff. See also aircraft arresting barrier; aircraft arresting gear; aircraft arresting hook.

aircraft arresting wire — See aircraft arresting cable. See also aircraft arresting system. aircraft arrestment — (*) Controlled stopping of an aircraft by external means.

aircraft block speed — True airspeed in knots under zero wind conditions adjusted in relation to length of sortie to compensate for takeoff, climbout, letdown, instrument approach, and landing.

aircraft captain — See aircraft commander.

aircraft carrier — A warship designed to support and operate aircraft, engage in attacks on targets afloat or ashore, and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces. Designated as CV or CVN. CVN is nuclear powered.

aircraft commander — (*) The aircrew member designated by competent authority as being in command of an aircraft and responsible for its safe operation and accomplishment of the assigned mission. Also called AC.

aircraft control and warning system — Asystem established to control and report the movement of aircraft. It consists of observation facilities (radar, passive electronic, visual, or other means), control center, and necessary communications.

aircraft cross-servicing — (*) Services performed on an aircraft by an organization other than that to which the aircraft is assigned, according to an established operational aircraft cross-servicing requirement, and for which there may be a charge. Aircraft cross-servicing has been divided into two categories: a. Stage A cross-servicing: The servicing of an aircraft on an airfield/ship which enables the aircraft to be flown to another airfield/ship. b. Stage B cross-servicing: The servicing of an aircraft on an airfield/ship which enables the aircraft to be flown on an operational mission. See also aircraft transient servicing.

aircraft loading table — A data sheet used by the airlift commander containing information as to the load that actually goes into each aircraft.

aircraft mission equipment — (*) Equipment that must be fitted to an aircraft to enable it to fulfill a particular mission or task. Also called aircraft role equipment.

aircraft modification — (*) A change in the physical characteristics of aircraft, accomplished either by a change in production specifications or by alteration of items already produced.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

aircraft monitoring and control — That equipment installed in aircraft to permit monitoring and control of safing, arming, and fuzing functions of nuclear weapons or nuclear weapon systems.

aircraft piracy — Any seizure or exercise of control, by force or violence, or threat of force or violence or by any other form of intimidation and with wrongful intent, of an aircraft within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States. (JP 3-07.2)

aircraft role equipment — See aircraft mission equipment.

aircraft scrambling — (*) Directing the immediate takeoff of aircraft from a ground alert condition of readiness.

aircraft store — (*) Any device intended for internal or external carriage and mounted on aircraft suspension and release equipment, whether or not the item is intended to be separated in flight from the aircraft. Aircraft stores are classified in two categories as follows. a. expendable store — An aircraft store normally separated from the aircraft in flight such as a missile, rocket, bomb, nuclear weapon, mine, torpedo, pyrotechnic device, sonobuoy, signal underwater sound device, or other similar items. b. nonexpendable store — An aircraft store which is not normally separated from the aircraft in flight such as a tank (fuel and spray), line-source disseminator, pod (refueling, thrust augmentation, gun, electronic attack, data link, etc.), multiple rack, target, cargo drop container, drone, or other similar items. See also payload.

aircraft tiedown — Securing aircraft when parked in the open to restrain movement due to the weather or condition of the parking area.

aircraft transient servicing — (*) Services performed on an aircraft by an organization other than that to which the aircraft is assigned and for which there may be a financial charge. This activity is separate from the established aircraft cross-servicing program and requires that the transient aircrew supervise the correct application of ground crew procedures. See also aircraft cross-servicing.

aircraft utilization — Average numbers of hours during each 24-hour period that an aircraft is actually in flight.

aircraft vectoring — (*) The directional control of in-flight aircraft through transmission of azimuth headings.

air cushion vehicle — A vehicle capable of being operated so that its weight, including its payload, is wholly or significantly supported on a continuously generated cushion or “bubble” of air at higher than ambient pressure. Also called ACV. (Note: NATO uses the term “ground effect machine.”)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air defense — All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the Earth’s envelope of atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Also called AD. See also active air defense; aerospace defense; passive air defense.

air defense action area — (*) An area and the airspace above it within which friendly aircraft or surface-to-air weapons are normally given precedence in operations except under specified conditions. See also air defense operations area.

air defense area — 1. overseas — A specifically defined airspace for which air defense must be planned and provided. 2. United States — Airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate agency within which the ready control of airborne vehicles is required in the interest of national security during an air defense emergency.

air defense artillery — Weapons and equipment for actively combatting air targets from the ground. Also called ADA.

air defense battle zone — Avolume of airspace surrounding an air defense fire unit or defended area, extending to a specified altitude and range, in which the fire unit commander will engage and destroy targets not identified as friendly under criteria established by higher headquarters.

air defense control center — (*) The principal information, communications, and operations center from which all aircraft, antiaircraft operations, air defense artillery, guided missiles, and air warning functions of a specific area of air defense responsibility are supervised and coordinated. Also called air defense operations center. See also combat information center.

air defense direction center — An installation having the capability of performing air surveillance, interception, control, and direction of allocated air defense weapons within an assigned sector of responsibility. It may also have an identification capability.

air defense division — A geographic subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense sector.

air defense early warning — See early warning.

air defense emergency — An emergency condition, declared by the Commander in Chief, NorthAmerican Air Defense Command, that exists when attack upon the continental United States, Alaska, Canada, or United States installations in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place. Also called ADE.

air defense ground environment — (*) The network of ground radar sites and command and control centers within a specific theater of operations which are used for the tactical control of air defense operations.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air defense identification zone — Airspace of defined dimensions within which the ready identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. Also called ADIZ. See also air defense operations area.

air defense operations area — An area and the airspace above it within which procedures are established to minimize mutual interference between air defense and other operations. It may include designation of one or more of the following: air defense action area, air defense area; air defense identification zone, and/or firepower umbrella. See also air defense action area; air defense identification zone; positive identification and radar advisory zone. (JP 3-52)

air defense operations center — See air defense control center.

air defense operations team — Ateam of United StatesAir Force ground environment personnel assigned to certain allied air defense control and warning units/elements.

air defense readiness — An operational status requiring air defense forces to maintain higher than ordinary preparedness for a short period of time.

air defense region — (*) A geographical subdivision of an air defense area.

air defense sector — (*) A geographical subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense division.

air defense suppression — In air operations, actions taken to degrade fixed and mobile surface- based components of enemy air defense systems so that offensive air forces may effectively attack a target.

air defense warning conditions — A degree of air raid probability according to the following code. The term air defense division/sector referred to herein may include forces and units afloat and/or deployed to forward areas, as applicable. Air defense warning yellow — attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is probable. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are en route toward an air defense division/sector, or unknown aircraft and/or missiles suspected to be hostile are en route toward or are within an air defense division/ sector. Air defense warning red — attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is imminent or is in progress. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are within an air defense division/sector or are in the immediate vicinity of an air defense division/sector with high probability of entering the division/sector. Air defense warning white — attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is improbable. May be called either before or after air defense warning yellow or red. The initial declaration of air defense emergency will automatically establish a condition of air defense warning other than white for purposes of security control of air traffic.

air delivery — See airdrop; air landed; air movement; air supply.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air delivery container — A sling, bag, or roll, usually of canvas or webbing, designed to hold supplies and equipment for air delivery.

air delivery equipment — Special items of equipment (such as parachutes, air delivery containers, platforms, tie downs, and related items) used in air delivery of personnel, supplies, and equipment.

air direct delivery — The intertheater air movement of cargo or personnel from an airlift point of embarkation to a point as close as practicable to the user’s specified final destination, thereby minimizing transshipment requirements. Air direct delivery eliminates the traditional Air Force two step intertheater and intratheater airlift transshipment mission mix. See also intertheater airlift; intratheater airlift. (JP 3-17)

airdrop — The unloading of personnel or materiel from aircraft in flight. See also airdrop platform; air movement; free drop; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

airdrop platform — A base upon which vehicles, cargo, or equipment are loaded for airdrop.

See also airdrop.

air employment/allocation plan — The means by which subordinate commanders advise the joint force commander of planned employment/allocation of organic or assigned assets, of any expected excess sorties, or of any additional air support requirements.

air expeditionary force — Deployed US Air Force wings, groups, and squadrons committed to a joint operation. Also called AEF. See also air and space expeditionary task force. (JP 3-33)

air expeditionary wing — A wing or wing slice placed under the administrative control of an air and space expeditionary task force or air and space task force by Department of the Air Force orders for a joint operation. Also called AEW. See also air and space expeditionary task force. (JP 3-33)

air facility — An installation from which air operations may be or are being conducted. See also facility.

airfield — An area prepared for the accommodation (including any buildings, installations, and equipment), landing, and takeoff of aircraft. See also alternate airfield; departure airfield; landing area; landing point; landing site; main airfield; redeployment airfield. (DOD Note: In all entries involving “airfield” or “aerodrome,” the US uses “airfield,” and NATO uses “aerodrome.” The terms are synonymous.)

airfield traffic — (*) All traffic on the maneuvering area of an airfield and all aircraft flying in the vicinity of an airfield.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

Air Force air and space operations center — The senior agency of the Air Force component commander that provides command and control of Air Force air and space operations and coordinates with other components and Services. Also called AFAOC. (JP 3-09.3)

Air Force Component Headquarters — The field headquarters facility of the Air Force commander charged with the overall conduct of Air Force operations. It is composed of the command section and appropriate staff elements.

Air Force special operations base — A base, airstrip, or other appropriate facility that provides physical support to Air Force special operations forces (AFSOF). The facility may be used solely to support AFSOF or may be a portion of a larger base supporting other operations. As a supporting facility, it is distinct from the forces operating from or being supported by it. Also called AFSOB. (JP 3-05)

Air Force special operations component — The Air Force component of a joint force special operations component. Also called AFSOC. See also Army special operations component; Navy special operations component. (JP 3-05.2)

Air Force special operations detachment — A squadron-size headquarters that could be a composite organization composed of different Air Force special operations assets. The detachment is normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component, joint special operations task force, or joint task force, depending upon size and duration of the operation. Also called AFSOD. (JP 3-05)

Air Force special operations element — An element-size Air Force special operations headquarters. It is normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component or detachment, depending upon size and duration of the operation. Also calledAFSOE. (JP3-05)

Air Force special operations forces — Those Active and Reserve Component Air Force forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called AFSOF. (JP 3-05)

airhead — (*) 1. A designated area in a hostile or threatened territory which, when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and materiel and provides the maneuver space necessary for projected operations. Normally it is the area seized in the assault phase of an airborne operation. 2. A designated location in an area of operations used as a base for supply and evacuation by air. See also beachhead; bridgehead.

airhead line — A line denoting the limits of the objective area for an airborne assault. The airhead line is bounded by assault objectives that are operationally located to ensure that enemy fires cannot be brought to bear on the main objective and for friendly forces to conduct defensive operations in depth. See also airhead; assault phase; objective area. (JP 3-18)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air intercept control common — A tactical air-to-ground radio frequency, monitored by all air intercept control facilities within an area, that is used as a backup for other discrete tactical control frequencies.

air interception — To effect visual or electronic contact by a friendly aircraft with another aircraft. Normally, the air intercept is conducted in the following five phases: a. climb phase — Airborne to cruising altitude. b. maneuver phase — Receipt of initial vector to target until beginning transition to attack speed and altitude. c. transition phase — Increase or decrease of speed and altitude required for the attack. d. attack phase — Turn to attack heading, acquire target, complete attack, and turn to breakaway heading. e. recovery phase — Breakaway to landing. See also close-controlled air interception.

air intercept zone — A subdivided part of the destruction area in which it is planned to destroy or defeat the enemy airborne threat with interceptor aircraft.

air interdiction — (*) Air operations conducted to destroy, neutralize, or delay the enemy’s military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces at such distance from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required.

air landed — (*) Moved by air and disembarked, or unloaded, after the aircraft has landed or while a helicopter is hovering. See also air movement.

air landed operation — An operation involving movement by air with a designated destination for further ground deployment of units and personnel and/or further ground distribution of supplies. See also air landed. (JP 3-17)

air-launched ballistic missile — A ballistic missile launched from an airborne vehicle.

air liaison officer — The senior tactical air control party member attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air power. An air liaison officer is usually an aeronautically rated officer. AlsocalledALO. Seealsoliaison. (JP3-09.3)

airlift capability — The total capacity expressed in terms of number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo that can be carried at any one time to a given destination by available airlift. See also airlift requirement; allowable load; payload.

airlift control team — A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. The airlift control team brings intratheater airlift functional expertise from the theater organizations to plan, coordinate, manage, and execute intratheater airlift operations in the area of responsibility and joint operations area for the joint force air component commander. US Transportation Command and Air Mobility Command may augment the airlift control team with intratheater airlift expertise. These two sources of airlift expertise integrate into a single airlift control team within the air mobility division.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

Also called ALCT. See also air mobility division; air operations center; intratheater airlift. (JP 3-17)

airlift coordination cell — A cell within the air operations center which plans, coordinates, manages, and executes theater airlift operations in the area of responsibility or joint operations area. Normally consists of an airlift plans branch, an airlift operations branch, and an airlift support branch. Also calledALCC. See also air operations center; area of responsibility; joint operations area. (JP 3-17)

airlift mission commander — A commander designated when airlift aircraft are participating in airlift operations specified in the implementing directive. The airlift mission commander is usually designated by the commander of the deployed airlift unit, but may be selected by the Air Force component commander or joint force air component commander depending on the nature of the mission. See also joint force air component commander. (JP 3-17)

airlift requirement — (*) The total number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo required to be carried by air for a specific task. See also airlift capability.

airlift service — The performance or procurement of air transportation and services incident thereto required for the movement of persons, cargo, mail, or other goods.

air logistic support — Support by air landing or airdrop, including air supply, movement of personnel, evacuation of casualties and enemy prisoners of war, and recovery of equipment and vehicles.

air logistic support operation — (*) An air operation, excluding an airborne operation, conducted within a theater to distribute and recover personnel, equipment, and supplies.

airmiss — See near miss.

air mission — See mission, Part 3.

air mission intelligence report — A detailed report of the results of an air mission, including a complete intelligence account of the mission.

airmobile forces — (*) The ground combat, supporting, and air vehicle units required to conduct an airmobile operation.

airmobile operation — (*) An operation in which combat forces and their equipment move about the battlefield by aircraft to engage in ground combat.

air mobility — The rapid movement of personnel, materiel and forces to and from or within a theater by air. This includes both airlift and air refueling. See also air refueling. (JP 3-17)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

Air Mobility Command — The Air Force component command of the US Transportation Command. Also called AMC.

air mobility control team — A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. The air mobility control team is the centralized source of air mobility command, control, and communications for the director of mobility forces during mission execution. The director of mobility forces uses the air mobility control team to direct (or redirect as required) air mobility forces in concert with other air and space forces to respond to requirement changes, higher priorities, or immediate execution limitations. The air mobility control team deconflicts all air mobility operations into, out of, and within the area of responsibility or joint operations area. The air mobility control team maintains execution process and communications connectivity for tasking, coordination, and flight with the air operations center’s combat operations division, subordinate air mobility units, and mission forces. Also called AMCT. See also air mobility; air mobility division; air operations center. (JP 3-17)

air mobility division — Located in the joint air operations center to plan, coordinate, task, and execute the air mobility mission. Consists of the air mobility control team, airlift control team, aerial refueling control team, aeromedical evacuation control team, and the air mobility element. Coordinates with the joint force commander’s movement requirements and control authority, the theater air mobility operations control center, if established, and theAir Mobility Command’s tanker/airlift control center, as required. Also called AMD. See also air mobility; joint air operations center. (JP 4-01)

air mobility element — The air mobility element provides air mobility integration and coordination of US Transportation Command-assigned air mobility forces. The air mobility element receives direction from the director of mobility forces and is the primary team for providing coordination with the tanker airlift control center. Direct delivery intertheater air mobility missions, if required, will be coordinated through the air mobility division and tasked by the Air Mobility Command tanker airlift control center. The tanker airlift control center commander maintains operational control of direct delivery missions during execution. The air mobility element ensures the integration of intertheater air mobility missions with theater air and space operations planning. Also called AME. See also air mobility division; air operations center; director of mobility forces; Tanker Airlift Control Center. (JP 3-17)

air mobility express — An express airlift system that is activated when Department of Defense requirements dictate. It is comprised of express carrier aircraft and related continental United States infrastructure,Air Mobility Command airlift, and an in-theater rapid distribution system. Also called AMX. See also air mobility; Air Mobility Command. (JP 3-17)

air movement — Air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment including airdrops and air landings. See also airdrop; air landed. (JP 3-17)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air movement column — In airborne operations, the lead formation and the serials following, proceeding over the same flight path at the same altitude.

air movement table — (*) A table prepared by a ground force commander in coordination with an air force commander. This form, issued as an annex to the operation order: a. indicates the allocation of aircraft space to elements of the ground units to be airlifted; b. designates the number and type of aircraft in each serial; c. specifies the departure area, time of loading, and takeoff.

air observation — See air observer.

air observation post — See observation post.

air observer — (*) An individual whose primary mission is to observe or take photographs from an aircraft in order to adjust artillery fire or obtain military information.

air observer adjustment — The correcting of gunfire from an aircraft. See also spot.

air offensive — Sustained operations by strategic and/or tactical air weapon systems against hostile air forces or surface targets.

air photographic reconnaissance — (*) The obtaining of information by air photography, divided into three types: a. Strategic photographic reconnaissance; b. Tactical photographic reconnaissance; and c. Survey/cartographic photography-air photography taken for survey/ cartographical purposes and to survey/cartographic standards of accuracy. It may be strategic or tactical.

air picket — (*) An airborne early warning aircraft positioned primarily to detect, report, and track approaching enemy aircraft or missiles and to control intercepts. Also called aerial picket. See also airborne early warning and control.

air plot — (*) 1. A continuous plot used in air navigation of a graphic representation of true headings steered and air distances flown. 2. A continuous plot of the position of an airborne object represented graphically to show true headings steered and air distances flown. 3. Within ships, a display that shows the positions and movements of an airborne object relative to the plotting ship.

airport — See airfield.

air portable — (*) Denotes materiel which is suitable for transport by an aircraft loaded internally or externally, with no more than minor dismantling and reassembling within the capabilities of user units. This term must be qualified to show the extent of air portability. See also load.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

airport surface detection equipment — Short-range radar displaying the airport surface. Aircraft and vehicular traffic operating on runways, taxiways, and ramps, moving or stationary, may be observed with a high degree of resolution.

airport surveillance radar — Radar displaying range and azimuth that is normally employed in a terminal area as an aid to approach- and departure-control.

airport traffic area — Unless otherwise specifically designated, that airspace within a horizontal radius of five statute miles from the geographic center of any airport at which a control tower is operating, extending from the surface up to, but not including, an altitude of 3,000 feet above the elevation of the airport. Also called ATA.

air position — (*) The calculated position of an aircraft assuming no wind effect.

air priorities committee — (*) A committee set up to determine the priorities of passengers and cargo.

air raid reporting control ship — (*) A ship to which the air defense ship has delegated the duties of controlling air warning radar and air raid reporting.

air reconnaissance — The acquisition of information by employing visual observation and/or sensors in air vehicles.

air reconnaissance liaison officer — An Army officer especially trained in air reconnaissance and imagery interpretation matters who is attached to a tactical air reconnaissance unit. This officer assists and advises the air commander and staff on matters concerning ground operations and informs the supported ground commander on the status of air reconnaissance requests.

air refueling — The capability to refuel aircraft in flight, which extends presence, increases range, and serves as a force multiplier. Also called AR.

air refueling control point — During refueling operations, the geographic point where the receiver arrives in the observation or precontact position with respect to the tanker. Also called ARCP.

air refueling control team — A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. Part of the air operations center that coordinates aerial refueling planning, tasking, and scheduling to support combat air operations or to support a strategic airbridge within the area of responsibility or joint area of operations. Also called ARCT. See also air mobility division; air operations center; air refueling. (JP 3-17)

air refueling control time — During refueling operations, the time the receiver and tanker arrive at the air refueling control point. Also called ARCT.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air refueling initiation point — During refueling operations, a point located upstream from the air refueling control point (inbound to the air refueling control point) where the receiver aircraft initiates the rendezvous. Also called ARIP.

air request net — A high frequency, single sideband, nonsecure net monitored by all tactical air control parties (TACPs) and the air support operations center (ASOC) that allows immediate requests to be transmitted from a TACP at any Army echelon directly to the ASOC for rapid response. (JP 3-01.4)

air route — (*) The navigable airspace between two points, identified to the extent necessary for the application of flight rules.

air route traffic control center — The principal facility exercising en route control of aircraft operating under instrument flight rules within its area of jurisdiction. Approximately 26 such centers cover the United States and its possessions. Each has a communication capability to adjacent centers.

air smuggling event — In counterdrug operations, the departure of a suspected drug smuggling aircraft, an airdrop of drugs, or the arrival of a suspected drug smuggling aircraft. (JP 3-07.4)

air sovereignty — A nation’s inherent right to exercise absolute control and authority over the airspace above its territory. See also air sovereignty mission.

air sovereignty mission — The integrated tasks of surveillance and control, the execution of which enforces a nation’s authority over its territorial airspace. See also air sovereignty.

airspace control — See airspace control in the combat zone. (JP 3-52)

airspace control area — Airspace that is laterally defined by the boundaries of the operational area. The airspace control area may be subdivided into airspace control sectors.

airspace control authority — (*) The commander designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. Also called ACA. See also airspace control; airspace control area; airspace control system; control; operation.

airspace control boundary — (*) The lateral limits of an airspace control area, airspace control sub-area, high density airspace control zone, or airspace restricted area.

airspace control center — The airspace control authority’s primary airspace control facility, including assigned Service component, host-nation, and/or allied personnel and equipment. (JP 3-52)

airspace control facility — Any of the several Service component, host nation, or allied facilities that provide airspace control in the combat zone. (JP 3-52)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

airspace control in the combat zone — A process used to increase combat effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. Airspace control is provided in order to prevent fratricide, enhance air defense operations, and permit greater flexibility of operations. Airspace control does not infringe on the authority vested in commanders to approve, disapprove, or deny combat operations. Also called airspace control; combat airspace control. (JP 3-52)

airspace control order — An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace control measures. It is published either as part of the air tasking order or as a separate document. Also called ACO. (JP 3-52)

airspace control plan — The document approved by the joint force commander that provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint force area of responsibility and/or joint operations area. Also calledACP. See also airspace control system; area of responsibility; joint force commander; joint operations area. (JP 3-52)

airspace control sector — A subelement of the airspace control area, established to facilitate the control of the overall area. Airspace control sector boundaries normally coincide with air defense organization subdivision boundaries. Airspace control sectors are designated in accordance with procedures and guidance contained in the airspace control plan in consideration of Service component, host-nation, and allied airspace control capabilities and requirements. See also airspace control area. (JP 3-52)

airspace control system — (*) An arrangement of those organizations, personnel, policies, procedures, and facilities required to perform airspace control functions. Also called ACS.

airspace coordination area — Athree-dimensional block of airspace in a target area, established by the appropriate ground commander, in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. The airspace coordination area may be formal or informal. Also called ACA. (JP 3-09.3)

airspace management — The coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of airspace of defined dimensions.

airspace reservation — The airspace located above an area on the surface of the land or water, designated and set apart by Executive Order of the President or by a state, commonwealth, or territory, over which the flight of aircraft is prohibited or restricted for the purpose of national defense or for other governmental purposes.

airspace restrictions — (*) Special restrictive measures applied to segments of airspace of defined dimensions.

air space warning area — See danger area.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

airspeed — The speed of an aircraft relative to its surrounding air mass. The unqualified term “airspeed” can mean any one of the following. a. calibrated airspeed — Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument installation error. b. equivalent airspeed — Calibrated airspeed corrected for compressibility error. c. indicated airspeed — The airspeed shown by an airspeed indicator. d. true airspeed — Equivalent airspeed corrected for error due to air density (altitude and temperature).

airspeed indicator — (*) An instrument which displays the indicated airspeed of the aircraft derived from inputs of pitot and static pressures.

air staging unit — (*) A unit situated at an airfield and concerned with reception, handling, servicing, and preparation for departure of aircraft and control of personnel and cargo.

air station — (*) In photogrammetry, the point in space occupied by the camera lens at the moment of exposure.

air strike — An attack on specific objectives by fighter, bomber, or attack aircraft on an offensive mission. May consist of several air organizations under a single command in the air.

air strike coordinator — The air representative of the force commander in a target area, who is responsible for directing all aircraft in the target area and coordinating their efforts to achieve the most effective use of air striking power.

air strip — (*) An unimproved surface which has been adapted for takeoff or landing of aircraft, usually having minimum facilities. See also airfield.

air superiority — That degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another that permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea, and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force. (JP 3-30)

air supply — (*) The delivery of cargo by airdrop or air landing.

air support — (*) All forms of support given by air forces on land or sea. See also close air support; immediate air support; preplanned air support; tactical air support.

air support operations center — The principal air control agency of the theater air control system responsible for the direction and control of air operations directly supporting the ground combat element. It processes and coordinates requests for immediate air support and coordinates air missions requiring integration with other supporting arms and ground forces. It normally collocates with the Army tactical headquarters senior fire support coordination center within the ground combat element. Also called ASOC. See also air support; close air support; operation; tactical air control center. (JP 3-09.3)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air support request — A means to request preplanned and immediate close air support, air interdiction, air reconnaissance, surveillance, escort, helicopter airlift, and other aircraft missions. Also called AIRSUPREQ. (JP 3-30)

air supremacy — (*) That degree of air superiority wherein the opposing air force is incapable of effective interference.

air surface zone — (*) A restricted area established for the purpose of preventing friendly surface vessels and aircraft from being fired upon by friendly forces and for permitting antisubmarine operations, unrestricted by the operation of friendly submarines. See also restricted area.

air surveillance — (*) The systematic observation of airspace by electronic, visual or other means, primarily for the purpose of identifying and determining the movements of aircraft and missiles, friendly and enemy, in the airspace under observation. See also satellite and missile surveillance; surveillance.

air surveillance officer — (*) An individual responsible for coordinating and maintaining an accurate, current picture of the air situation within an assigned airspace area.

air survey camera — See air cartographic camera.

air survey photography — See air cartographic photography.

air target chart — A display of pertinent air target intelligence on a specialized graphic base. It is designed primarily to support operations against designated air targets by various weapon systems. Also called ATC.

Air Target Materials Program — A Department of Defense program under the management control of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency established for and limited to the production of medium- and large-scale map, chart, and geodetic products, that supports worldwide targeting requirements of the unified and specified commands, the Military Departments, and allied participants. It encompasses the determination of production and coverage requirements, standardization of products, establishment of production priorities and schedules, and the production, distribution, storage, and release/exchange of products included under it.

air target mosaic — A large-scale mosaic providing photographic coverage of an area and permitting comprehensive portrayal of pertinent target detail. These mosaics are used for intelligence study and in planning and briefing for air operations.

air tasking order — A method used to task and disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected sorties, capabilities and/or forces to targets and specific missions. Normally provides specific instructions to include call signs, targets, controlling agencies, etc., as well as general instructions. Also called ATO. (JP 3-30)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air tasking order/confirmation — A message used to task joint force components; to inform the requesting command and the tasking authority of the action being taken; and/or to provide additional information about the mission. The message is used only for preplanned missions and is transmitted on a daily basis, normally 12 hours prior to the start of the air tasking day or in accordance with established operation plans for the operational area. Also called ATOCONF. (JP 3-30)

air terminal — A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transportation hub and accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the intransit processing of traffic. The airfield may or may not be designated an aerial port.

air-to-air guided missile — (*) An air-launched guided missile for use against air targets. See also guided missile.

air-to-surface guided missile — (*) An air-launched guided missile for use against surface targets. See also guided missile.

air traffic control and landing system — Department of Defense facilities, personnel, and equipment (fixed, mobile, and seaborne) with associated avionics to provide safe, orderly, and expeditious aerospace vehicle movements worldwide. Also called ATCALS.

air traffic control center — (*) A unit combining the functions of an area control center and a flight information center. Also called ATCC. See also area control center; flight information region.

air traffic control clearance — (*) Authorization by an air traffic control authority for an aircraft to proceed under specified conditions.

air traffic control facility — Any of the component airspace control facilities primarily responsible for providing air traffic control services and, as required, limited tactical control services. (JP 3-52)

air traffic controller — An air controller especially trained for and assigned to the duty of airspace management and traffic control of airborne objects.

air traffic control service — (*) A service provided for the purpose of: a. preventing collisions:

(1) between aircraft; and (2) on the maneuvering area between aircraft and obstructions; and b. expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

air traffic identification — The use of electronic devices, operational procedures, visual observation, and/or flight plan correlation for the purpose of identifying and locating aircraft flying within the airspace control area.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

air traffic section — The link between the staging post and the local air priority committee. It is the key to the efficient handling of passengers and cargo at a staging post. It must include load control (including Customs and Immigrations facilities), freight, and mail sections.

air transportable unit — (*) A unit, other than airborne, whose equipment is adapted for air movement. See also airborne; airborne operation.

air transported operations — The movement by aircraft of troops and their equipment for an operation.

air transport group — A task organization of transport aircraft units that provides air transport for landing force elements or provides logistic support. (JP 3-02)

airway — (*) A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor marked with radio navigational aids.

airways station — A ground communication installation established, manned, and equipped to communicate with aircraft in flight, as well as with other designated airways installations, for the purpose of expeditious and safe movements of aircraft. These stations may or may not be located on designated airways.

air weapons controller — An individual especially trained for and assigned to the duty of employing and controlling air weapon systems against airborne and surface objects.

alert — (*) 1. Readiness for action, defense or protection. 2. A warning signal of a real or threatened danger, such as an air attack. 3. The period of time during which troops stand by in response to an alarm. 4. To forewarn; to prepare for action. See also airborne alert. 5. (DOD only) Awarning received by a unit or a headquarters which forewarns of an impending operational mission. 6. (DOD only) In aviation, an aircraft and aircrew that are placed in an increased state of readiness so that they may be airborne in a specified period of time after a launch order is received. See also air defense warning conditions; ground alert; warning order.

alert force — Specified forces maintained in a special degree of readiness.

alerting service — (*) A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required.

alert order — 1. A crisis action planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that provides essential guidance for planning and directs the initiation of execution planning for the selected course of action authorized by the Secretary of Defense. 2. A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of execution planning after the directing authority approves a military course of action. An alert order does not authorize execution of the approved

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

course of action. See also course of action; crisis action planning; execution planning.

(JP 5-0)

all appropriate action — Action taken in self-defense that is reasonable in intensity, duration, and magnitude, based on all the facts known to the commander at the time.

alliance — An alliance is the result of formal agreements (i.e., treaties) between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interests of the members. See also coalition; multinational. (JP 5-0)

allocation — In a general sense, distribution of limited resources among competing requirements for employment. Specific allocations (e.g., air sorties, nuclear weapons, forces, and transportation) are described as allocation of air sorties, nuclear weapons, etc. See also allocation (air); allocation (nuclear); allocation (transportation); apportionment.

allocation (air) — The translation of the air apportionment decision into total numbers of sorties by aircraft type available for each operation or task. See also allocation. (JP 3-17)

allocation (nuclear) — The apportionment of specific numbers and types of nuclear weapons to a commander for a stated time period as a planning factor for use in the development of war plans. (Additional authority is required for the actual deployment of allocated weapons to locations desired by the commander to support the war plans. Expenditures of these weapons are not authorized until released by proper authority.)

allocation request — A message used to provide an estimate of the total air effort, to identify any excess and joint force general support aircraft sorties, and to identify unfilled air requirements. This message is used only for preplanned missions and is transmitted on a daily basis, normally 24 hours prior to the start of the next air tasking day. Also called ALLOREQ. (JP 3-30)

allocation (transportation) — Distribution by designated authority of available transport capability to users. See also allocation. (JP 3-17)

allotment — The temporary change of assignment of tactical air forces between subordinate commands. The authority to allot is vested in the commander having combatant command (command authority). See also combatant command (command authority).

allowable cabin load — The maximum payload that can be carried on an individual sortie.

Also called ACL. (JP 3-17)

allowable load — (*) The total load that an aircraft can transport over a given distance, taking into account weight and volume. See also airlift capability; airlift requirement; load; payload.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

allowable stacking weight — The amount of weight that can be stacked on corner posts of a container when subjected to 1.8 times the force of gravity. (JP 4-01.7)

all-source intelligence — 1. Intelligence products and/or organizations and activities that incorporate all sources of information, most frequently including human resources intelligence, imagery intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, and open-source data in the production of finished intelligence. 2. In intelligence collection, a phrase that indicates that in the satisfaction of intelligence requirements, all collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting systems and resources are identified for possible use and those most capable are tasked. See also intelligence. (JP 2-0)

all-weather air defense fighter — (*) A fighter aircraft with equipment and weapons which enable it to engage airborne targets in all weather conditions, day and night.

alongside replenishment — The transfer at sea of personnel and/or supplies by rigs between two or more ships proceeding side by side.

alphabet code — See phonetic alphabet.

alternate airfield — (*) An airfield specified in the flight plan to which a flight may proceed when it becomes inadvisable to land at the airfield of intended landing. An alternate airfield may be the airfield of departure.

alternate command authority — One or more predesignated officers empowered by the commander through predelegation of authority to act under stipulated emergency conditions in the accomplishment of previously defined functions.

alternate command post — Any location designated by a commander to assume command post functions in the event the command post becomes inoperative. It may be partially or fully equipped and manned or it may be the command post of a subordinate unit.

alternate headquarters — An existing headquarters of a component or subordinate command that is predesignated to assume the responsibilities and functions of another headquarters under prescribed emergency conditions.

alternative — See variant.

altitude — (*) The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level. See also density altitude; drop altitude; elevation; minimum safe altitude; pressure altitude; transition altitude; true altitude.

altitude acclimatization — (*) A slow physiological adaptation resulting from prolonged exposure to significantly reduced atmospheric pressure.

altitude chamber — See hypobaric chamber.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

altitude datum — (*) The arbitrary level from which vertical displacement is measured. The datum for height measurement is the terrain directly below the aircraft or some specified datum; for pressure altitude, the level at which the atmospheric pressure is 29.92 inches of mercury (1013.2 m.bs); and for true altitude, mean sea level. See also altitude.

altitude delay — (*) Synchronization delay introduced between the time of transmission of the radar pulse and the start of the trace on the indicator, for the purpose of eliminating the altitude hole on the plan position indicator-type display.

altitude height — See altitude datum.

altitude hole — (*) The blank area at the origin of a radial display, on a radar tube presentation, the center of the periphery of which represents the point on the ground immediately below the aircraft. In side-looking airborne radar, this is known as the altitude slot.

altitude separation — See vertical separation. altitude slot — See altitude hole.

ambient temperature — Outside temperature at any given altitude, preferably expressed in degrees centigrade. (JP 3-04.1)

ambulance exchange point — A location where a patient is transferred from one ambulance to another en route to a medical treatment facility. This may be an established point in an ambulance shuttle or it may be designated independently. Also called AXP. See also medical treatment facility. (JP 4-02.2)

American National Standards Institute — The United States standards organization that establishes procedures for the development and coordination of voluntaryAmerican national standards.

ammunition — See munition.

ammunition and toxic material open space — (*) An area especially prepared for storage of explosive ammunition and toxic material. For reporting purposes, it does not include the surrounding area restricted for storage because of safety distance factors. It includes barricades and improvised coverings. See also storage.

ammunition controlled supply rate — In Army usage, the amount of ammunition estimated to be available to sustain operations of a designated force for a specified time if expenditures are controlled at that rate. It is expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired by weapons, and in terms of units of measure per organization per day for bulk allotment ammunition items. Tactical commanders use this rate to control expenditures of ammunition during tactical operations at planned intervals. It is issued

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

through command channels at each level. It is determined based on consideration of the required supply rates submitted by subordinate commanders and ammunition assets available.

ammunition lot — (*) A quantity of homogeneous ammunition, identified by a unique lot number, which is manufactured, assembled, or renovated by one producer under uniform conditions and which is expected to function in a uniform manner.

ammunition supply point — See distribution point.

amphibian — A small craft, propelled by propellers and wheels or by air cushions for the purpose of moving on both land and water. (JP 4-01.6)

amphibious assault — The principal type of amphibious operation that involves establishing a force on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also assault; assault phase. (JP 3-02)

amphibious assault area — See landing area.

amphibious assault bulk fuel system — The petroleum, oils, and lubricants discharge system used to support US Marine Corps amphibious assaults and maritime pre-positioning force operations. It consists of 5,000 or 10,000 feet of buoyant 6-inch hose deployed from a landing ship, tank in amphibious assaults, or a maritime pre-positioning ship in maritime pre-positioning force operations. See also amphibious assault; petroleum, oils, and lubricants. (JP 4-01.6)

amphibious assault landing — See amphibious operation, Part e.

amphibious assault ship (general purpose) — A naval ship designed to embark, deploy, and land elements of a landing force in an assault by helicopters, landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and by combinations of these methods. Designated as “LHA” or with internal dock as “LHD.”

amphibious aviation assault ship — An amphibious assault ship, landing platform helicopter; general purpose amphibious assault ship; or general purpose amphibious assault ship (with internal dock). (JP 3-04.1)

amphibious chart — (*) A special naval chart designed to meet special requirements for landing operations and passive coastal defense, at a scale of 1:25,000 or larger, and showing foreshore and coastal information in greater detail than a combat chart.

amphibious command ship — (*) A naval ship from which a commander exercises control in amphibious operations. Designated as LCC.

amphibious construction battalion — A permanently commissioned naval unit, subordinate to the Commander, Naval Beach Group, designed to provide an administrative unit from which personnel and equipment are formed in tactical elements and made available to

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

appropriate commanders to operate pontoon causeways, transfer barges, warping tugs, and assault bulk fuel systems, and to meet salvage requirements of the naval beach party. Also called PHIBCB. (JP 3-02)

amphibious control group — (*) Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne ship-to-shore movement in an amphibious operation.

amphibious demonstration — (*) A type of amphibious operation conducted for the purpose of deceiving the enemy by a show of force with the expectation of deluding the enemy into a course of action unfavorable to him.

amphibious force — An amphibious task force and a landing force together with other forces that are trained, organized, and equipped for amphibious operations. Also called AF. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force; landing force. (JP 3-02)

amphibious group — A command within the amphibious force, consisting of the commander and staff, designed to exercise operational control of assigned units in executing all phases of a division-size amphibious operation. (JP 3-02.2)

amphibious lift — (*) The total capacity of assault shipping utilized in an amphibious operation, expressed in terms of personnel, vehicles, and measurement or weight tons of supplies.

amphibious objective area —Ageographical area (delineated for command and control purposes in the order initiating the amphibious operation) within which is located the objective(s) to be secured by the amphibious force. This area must be of sufficient size to ensure accomplishment of the amphibious force’s mission and must provide sufficient area for conducting necessary sea, air, and land operations. Also called AOA. See also amphibious force; mission. (JP 3-02)

amphibious objective study — Astudy designed to provide basic intelligence data of a permanent or semipermanent nature required for planning amphibious operations. Each study deals with a specific area, the selection of which is based on strategic location, susceptibility to seizure by amphibious means, and other considerations.

amphibious operation — A military operation launched from the sea by an amphibious force, embarked in ships or craft with the primary purpose of introducing a landing force ashore to accomplish the assigned mission. See also amphibious force; landing force; mission; operation. (JP 3-02)

amphibious planning — The process of planning for an amphibious operation, distinguished by the necessity for concurrent, parallel, and detailed planning by all participating forces. The planning pattern is cyclical in nature, composed of a series of analyses and judgments of operational situations, each stemming from those that have preceded. (JP 3-02.2)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

amphibious raid — (*) A type of amphibious operation involving swift incursion into or temporary occupation of an objective followed by a planned withdrawal. See also amphibious operation.

amphibious reconnaissance — (*) An amphibious landing conducted by minor elements, normally involving stealth rather than force of arms, for the purpose of securing information, and usually followed by a planned withdrawal.

amphibious reconnaissance unit — A unit organized, equipped, and trained to conduct and support amphibious reconnaissance missions. An amphibious reconnaissance unit is made up of a number of amphibious reconnaissance teams.

amphibious shipping — Organic Navy ships specifically designed to transport, land, and support landing forces in amphibious assault operations and capable of being loaded or unloaded by naval personnel without external assistance in the amphibious objective area.

amphibious squadron — (*) Atactical and administrative organization composed of amphibious assault shipping to transport troops and their equipment for an amphibious assault operation. Also called PHIBRON.

amphibious striking forces — Forces capable of projecting military power from the sea upon adjacent land areas for initiating and/or conducting operations in the face of enemy opposition.

amphibious task force — A Navy task organization formed to conduct amphibious operations. The amphibious task force, together with the landing force and other forces, constitutes the amphibious force. Also called ATF. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; landing force. (JP 3-02)

amphibious tractor — See amphibious vehicle.

amphibious transport dock — A ship designed to transport and land troops, equipment, and supplies by means of embarked landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters. Designated as LPD.

amphibious transport group — A subdivision of an amphibious task force composed primarily of transport ships. The size of the transport group will depend upon the scope of the operation. Ships of the transport group will be combat-loaded to support the landing force scheme of maneuver ashore. A transport unit will usually be formed to embark troops and equipment to be landed over a designated beach or to embark all helicopter-borne troops and equipment. (JP 3-02.2)

amphibious vehicle — (*) A wheeled or tracked vehicle capable of operating on both land and water. See also landing craft.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

amphibious vehicle availability table — A tabulation of the type and number of amphibious vehicles available primarily for assault landings and for support of other elements of the operation.

amphibious vehicle employment plan — A plan showing in tabular form the planned employment of amphibious vehicles in landing operations, including their employment after the initial movement to the beach.

amphibious vehicle launching area — (*) An area, in the vicinity of and to seaward of the line of departure, to which landing ships proceed and launch amphibious vehicles.

amphibious withdrawal — A type of amphibious operation involving the extraction of forces by sea in ships or craft from a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)

analysis and production — See intelligence cycle. (JP 2-0)

anchorage — Aspecified location for anchoring or mooring a vessel in-stream or offshore. (JP 4-01.6)

anchor cable — (*) In air transport, a cable in an aircraft to which the parachute static lines or strops are attached.

anchor line extension kit — (*) Adevice fitted to an aircraft equipped with removable clamshell doors to enable paratroopers to exit from the rear.

annex — A document appended to an operation order or other document to make it clearer or to give further details.

annotated print — (*) A photograph on which interpretation details are indicated by words or symbols.

annotation — (*) A marking placed on imagery or drawings for explanatory purposes or to indicate items or areas of special importance.

annual screening — One day of active duty for training required each year for Individual Ready Reserve members so the Services can keep current on each member’s physical condition, dependency status, military qualifications, civilian occupational skills, availability for service, and other information.

annual training — The minimal period of training reserve members must perform each year to satisfy the training requirements associated with their Reserve Component assignment. Also called AT.

antemortem identification media — Records, samples, and photographs taken prior to death. These include (but are not limited to) fingerprints, dental x-rays, body tissue samples,

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

photographs of tattoos, or other identifying marks. These “predeath” records would be compared against records completed after death to help establish a positive identification of a remains. See also mortuary affairs. (JP 4-06)

antenna mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a contact mine fitted with antennae which, when touched by a steel ship, sets up galvanic action to fire the mine. See also mine.

antiarmor helicopter — (*) A helicopter armed primarily for use in the destruction of armored targets. Also called antitank helicopter.

anticountermining device — (*) A device fitted in an influence mine designed to prevent its actuation by shock.

antideficiency violations — The incurring of obligations or the making of expenditure (outlays) in excess of amounts available in appropriations or funds. (JP 1-06)

anti-G suit — A device worn by aircrew to counteract the effects on the human body of positive acceleration.

antilift device — A device arranged to detonate the mine to which it is attached, or to detonate another mine or charge nearby, if the mine is disturbed.

antimateriel agent — (*) A living organism or chemical used to cause deterioration of, or damage to, selected materiel.

antimateriel operation — (*) The employment of antimateriel weapons or agents in military operations.

antipersonnel mine (land mine warfare) — A mine designed to cause casualties to personnel.

See also mine.

antiradiation missile — (*) A missile which homes passively on a radiation source. Also called ARM. See also guided missile.

antirecovery device — (*) In naval mine warfare, any device in a mine designed to prevent an enemy discovering details of the working of the mine mechanism.

antisubmarine action — An operation by one or more antisubmarine-capable ships, submarines, or aircraft (or a combination thereof) against a particular enemy submarine.

antisubmarine air distant support — Antisubmarine air support at a distance from, but directly related to, specific convoys or forces.

antisubmarine air search attack unit — The designation given to one or more aircraft separately organized as a tactical unit to search for and destroy submarines.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

antisubmarine barrier — (*) The line formed by a series of static devices or mobile units arranged for the purpose of detecting, denying passage to, or destroying hostile submarines. See also antisubmarine patrol.

antisubmarine close air support — Air operations for the antisubmarine warfare protection of a supported force.

antisubmarine operation — Operation contributing to the conduct of antisubmarine warfare.

antisubmarine patrol — (*) The systematic and continuing investigation of an area or along a line to detect or hamper submarines, used when the direction of submarine movement can be established. See also antisubmarine barrier.

antisubmarine screen — (*) An arrangement of ships and/or aircraft for the protection of a screened unit against attack by a submarine.

antisubmarine search — (*) Systematic investigation of a particular area for the purpose of locating a submarine known or suspected to be somewhere in the area. Some types of search are also used in locating the position of a distress incident.

antisubmarine support operation — (*) An operation conducted by an antisubmarine force in the area around a force or convoy, in areas through which the force or convoy is passing, or in defense of geographic areas. Support operations may be completely coordinated with those of the force or convoy, or they may be independent operations coordinated only to the extent of providing operational intelligence and information.

antisubmarine warfare — (*) Operations conducted with the intention of denying the enemy the effective use of submarines. Also called ASW.

antisubmarine warfare forces — Forces organized primarily for antisubmarine action. May be composed of surface ships, aircraft, submarines, or any combination of these, and their supporting systems.

antisurface air operation — (*) An air operation conducted in an air/sea environment against enemy surface forces.

antisweep device — (*) Any device incorporated in the mooring of a mine or obstructor, or in the mine circuits to make the sweeping of the mine more difficult.

antisweeper mine — (*) A mine which is laid or whose mechanism is designed or adjusted with the specific object of damaging mine countermeasures vessels. See also mine.

antitank helicopter — See antiarmor helicopter.

antitank mine — (*) A mine designed to immobilize or destroy a tank. See also mine.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

antiterrorism — Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military forces. Also called AT. See also antiterrorism awareness; counterterrorism; proactive measures; terrorism. (JP 3-07.2)

antiterrorism awareness — Fundamental knowledge of the terrorist threat and measures to reduce personal vulnerability to terrorism. See also antiterrorism.

antiwatching device — A device fitted in a moored mine which causes it to sink should it show on the surface, so as to prevent the position of the mine or minefield being disclosed. See also watching mine.

any Service member mail — Mail sent by the general public to an unspecified Service member deployed on a contingency operation, as an expression of patriotic support. (JP 1-0)

apogee — The point at which a missile trajectory or a satellite orbit is farthest from the center of the gravitational field of the controlling body or bodies.

apparent horizon — (*) The visible line of demarcation between land/sea and sky.

apparent precession — (*) The apparent deflection of the gyro axis, relative to the Earth, due to the rotating effect of the Earth and not due to any applied force. Also called apparent wander.

appendix — A document appended to an annex of an operation order, operation plan, or other document to clarify or to give further details.

applicable materiel assets — That portion of the total acceptable materiel assets that meets the military or other characteristics as defined by the responsible Military Service and that is in the right condition and location to satisfy a specific military requirement.

application — 1. The system or problem to which a computer is applied. Reference is often made to an application as being either of the computational type (arithmetic computations predominate) or of the data processing type (data handling operations predominate). 2. In the intelligence context, the direct extraction and tailoring of information from an existing foundation of intelligence and near real time reporting. It is focused on and meets specific, narrow requirements, normally on demand. (JP 2-0)

apportionment — In the general sense, distribution for planning of limited resources among competing requirements. Specific apportionments (e.g., air sorties and forces for planning) are described as apportionment of air sorties and forces for planning, etc. See also allocation; apportionment (air).

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

apportionment (air) — The determination and assignment of the total expected effort by percentage and/or by priority that should be devoted to the various air operations for a given period of time. Also called air apportionment. See also apportionment. (JP 3-0)

approach clearance — Authorization for a pilot conducting flight in accordance with instrument flight rules to commence an approach to an airport.

approach control — A control station in an air operations control center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center, that is responsible for controlling air traffic from marshal until hand-off to final control. See also helicopter direction center; marshal. (JP 3-04.1)

approach end of runway — (*) That end of the runway nearest to the direction from which the final approach is made.

approach lane — An extension of a boat lane from the line of departure toward the transport area.

approach march — (*) Advance of a combat unit when direct contact with the enemy is imminent. Troops are fully or partially deployed. The approach march ends when ground contact with the enemy is made or when the attack position is occupied.

approach schedule — The schedule that indicates, for each scheduled wave, the time of departure from the rendezvous area, from the line of departure, and from other control points and the time of arrival at the beach.

approach sequence — (*) The order in which two or more aircraft are cleared for an approach.

approach time — The time at which an aircraft is expected to commence approach procedure.

approval authority — A representative (person or organization) of the Commandant, US Coast Guard, authorized to approve containers within terms of the International Conference for Safe Containers. See also International Convention for Safe Containers. (JP 4-01.7)

apron — A defined area on an airfield intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance.

archipelagic sea lanes passage — The nonsuspendable right of continuous and expeditious transit through archipelagic waters in the normal mode through and over routes normally used for navigation and overflight.

architecture — A framework or structure that portrays relationships among all the elements of the subject force, system, or activity. (JP 3-05)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

archive — When used in the context of deliberate planning, the directed command will remove the referenced operation plan, operation plan in concept format, and any associated Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing files from its library of active plans. All material will be prepared for shipment to appropriate archive facilities in accordance with appropriate command directives. See also maintain; retain.

area air defense commander — Within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force, the commander will assign overall responsibility for air defense to a single commander. Normally, this will be the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the command, control, and communications capability to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. Representation from the other components involved will be provided, as appropriate, to the area air defense commander’s headquarters. Also called AADC. (JP 3-52)

area assessment — The commander’s prescribed collection of specific information that commences upon employment and is a continuous operation. It confirms, corrects, refutes, or adds to previous intelligence acquired from area studies and other sources prior to employment. (JP 3-05)

area bombing — (*) Bombing of a target which is in effect a general area rather than a small or pinpoint target.

area command — (*) A command which is composed of those organized elements of one or more of the Armed Services, designated to operate in a specific geographical area, which are placed under a single commander. See also command.

area control center — (*) A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction. See also air traffic control center; flight information region.

area damage control — (*) Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or manmade disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects. See also damage control; disaster control.

area of influence — (*) A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commander’s command or control.

area of intelligence responsibility — An area allocated to a commander in which the commander is responsible for the provision of intelligence within the means at the commander’s disposal. See also area of interest; area of responsibility.

area of interest — That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces who could

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission. Also called AOI. See also area of influence.

(JP 2-03)

area of limitation — A defined area where specific limitations apply to the strength and fortifications of disputing or belligerent forces. Normally, upper limits are established for the number and type of formations, tanks, antiaircraft weapons, artillery, and other weapons systems in the area of limitation. Also called AOL. See also line of demarcation; peace operations. (JP 3-07.3)

area of militarily significant fallout — (*) Area in which radioactive fallout affects the ability of military units to carry out their normal mission.

area of northern operations — A region of variable width in the Northern Hemisphere that lies north of the 50 degrees isotherm — a line along which the average temperature of the warmest 4-month period of the year does not exceed 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Mountain regions located outside of this area are included in this category of operations provided these same temperature conditions exist.

area of operations — An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. Also called AO. See also area of responsibility; joint operations area; joint special operations area. (JP 5-0)

area of responsibility — The geographical area associated with a combatant command within which a combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct operations. Also called AOR. See also combatant command. (JP 3-0)

area of separation — See buffer zone. Also called AOS. See also peace operations. (JP 3-07.3)

area operations — (*) In maritime usage, operations conducted in a geographical area and not related to the protection of a specific force.

area oriented — Personnel or units whose organizations, mission, training, and equipping are based on projected operational deployment to a specific geographic or demographic area. (JP 3-05)

area radar prediction analysis — Radar target intelligence study designed to provide radar- significant data for use in the preparation of radar target predictions.

area search — Visual reconnaissance of limited or defined areas.

area target — (*) A target consisting of an area rather than a single point.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

armament delivery recording — Motion picture, still photography, and video recordings showing the delivery and impact of ordnance. This differs from reconnaissance imagery in that it records the act of delivery and impact and normally is done by the weapon system delivering the ordnance. Armament delivery recording is used primarily for evaluating strike effectiveness and for combat crew training. It is also one of the principal sources of over-the-target documentation in force employments, and may be used for public affairs purposes. Also called ADR.

armed forces — The military forces of a nation or a group of nations. See also force.

armed forces censorship — The examination and control of personal communications to or from persons in theArmed Forces of the United States and persons accompanying or serving with the Armed Forces of the United States. See also censorship.

armed forces courier — An officer or enlisted member in the grade of E-7 or above, of the US Armed Forces, assigned to perform Armed Forces Courier Service duties and identified by possession of an Armed Forces Courier Service Identification Card (ARF-COS Form 9). See also courier.

Armed Forces Courier Service — A joint service of the Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, with the Chief of Staff, US Army, as Executive Agent. The courier service provides one of the available methods for the secure and expeditious transmission of material requiring protected handling by military courier.

armed forces courier station — AnArmy, Navy, orAir Force activity, approved by the respective military department and officially designated by Headquarters, Armed Forces Courier Service, for the acceptance, processing, and dispatching of Armed Forces Courier Service material.

Armed Forces of the United States — A term used to denote collectively all components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. See also United States Armed Forces.

Armed Forces Radio and Television Service — Aworldwide radio and television broadcasting organization that provides US military commanders overseas and at sea with sufficient electronic media resources to effectively communicate theater, local, Department of Defense, and Service-unique command information to their personnel and family members. Also called AFRTS. (JP 3-61)

armed helicopter — (*) A helicopter fitted with weapons or weapon systems.

armed mine — (*) A mine from which all safety devices have been withdrawn and, after laying, all automatic safety features and/or arming delay devices have operated. Such a mine is ready to be actuated after receipt of a target signal, influence, or contact.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

armed reconnaissance — A mission with the primary purpose of locating and attacking targets of opportunity, i.e., enemy materiel, personnel, and facilities, in assigned general areas or along assigned ground communications routes, and not for the purpose of attacking specific briefed targets.

armed sweep — (*) A sweep fitted with cutters or other devices to increase its ability to cut mine moorings.

arming — As applied to explosives, weapons, and ammunition, the changing from a safe condition to a state of readiness for initiation.

arming delay device — A device fitted in a mine to prevent it being actuated for a preset time after laying.

arming lanyard — See arming wire.

arming pin — (*) A safety device inserted in a munition, which until its removal, prevents the unintentional action of the arming cycle. Also called safety pin. See also safety device.

arming system — That portion of a weapon that serves to ready (arm), safe, or re-safe (disarm) the firing system and fuzing system and that may actuate devices in the nuclear system.

arming wire — (*) A cable, wire or lanyard routed from the aircraft to an expendable aircraft store in order to initiate the arming sequence for the store upon release from the aircraft, when the armed release condition has been selected; it also prevents arming initiation prior to store release and during safe jettison. Also called arming lanyard. See also safety wire.

armistice — In international law, a suspension or temporary cessation of hostilities by agreement between belligerent powers. (JP 3-07.3)

armistice demarcation line — Ageographically defined line from which disputing or belligerent forces disengage and withdraw to their respective sides following a truce or cease fire agreement. Also called cease fire line in some United Nations operations. Also called ADL. See also armistice; cease fire; cease fire line; peace operations. (JP 3-07.3)

arm or de-arm — Applies to those procedures in the arming or de-arming section of the applicable aircraft loading manual or checklist that places the ordnance or explosive device in a ready or safe condition i.e., rocket launchers, guided missiles, guns — internal and pods, paraflares

— (external and SUU-44/25 dispenser). (NOTE: The removal or installation of pylon or bomb rack safety pins from a nonordnance-loaded station is considered a function requiring certification within the purview of this publication.) See also arming; de-arming; ordnance. (JP 3-04.1)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

armored personnel carrier —Alightly armored, highly mobile, full-tracked vehicle, amphibious and air-droppable, used primarily for transporting personnel and their individual equipment during tactical operations. Production modifications or application of special kits permit use as a mortar carrier, command post, flame thrower, antiaircraft artillery chassis, or limited recovery vehicle. Also called APC.

arms control — A concept that connotes: a. any plan, arrangement, or process, resting upon explicit or implicit international agreement, governing any aspect of the following: the numbers, types, and performance characteristics of weapon systems (including the command and control, logistics support arrangements, and any related intelligence-gathering mechanism); and the numerical strength, organization, equipment, deployment, or employment of the Armed Forces retained by the parties (it encompasses disarmament); and b. on some occasions, those measures taken for the purpose of reducing instability in the military environment.

arms control agreement — The written or unwritten embodiment of the acceptance of one or more arms control measures by two or more nations.

arms control agreement verification — A concept that entails the collection, processing, and reporting of data indicating testing or employment of proscribed weapon systems, including country of origin and location, weapon and payload identification, and event type.

arms control measure — Any specific arms control course of action.

Army Air Defense Command Post — The tactical headquarters of an Army air defense commander.

Army air-ground system — The Army system which provides for interface between Army and tactical air support agencies of other Services in the planning, evaluating, processing, and coordinating of air support requirements and operations. It is composed of appropriate staff members, including G-2 air and G-3 air personnel, and necessary communication equipment. Also called AAGS.

Army and Air Force Exchange Service imprest fund activity — A military-operated retail activity, usually in remote or forward sites, when regular direct operations exchanges cannot be provided. It is a satellite activity of an Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) direct operation. The supported unit appoints the officer in charge of an imprest fund activity, who is issued an initial fund by AAFES to purchase beginning inventory. Money generated from sales is used to replenish the merchandise stock. See also imprest fund. (JP 1-0)

Army base — A base or group of installations for which a local commander is responsible, consisting of facilities necessary for support of Army activities including security, internal lines of communications, utilities, plants and systems, and real property for which the Army has operating responsibility. See also base complex.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

Army corps — A tactical unit larger than a division and smaller than a field army. A corps usually consists of two or more divisions together with auxiliary arms and services. See also field army.

Army service area — The territory between the corps rear boundary and the combat zone rear boundary. Most of the Army administrative establishment and service troops are usually located in this area. See also rear area.

Army Service component command — Command responsible for recommendations to the joint force commander on the allocation and employment ofArmy forces within a combatant command. Also called ASCC. (JP 3-31)

Army special operations component — TheArmy component of a joint force special operations component. Also called ARSOC. See also Air Force special operations component; Navy special operations component. (JP 3-05.1)

Army special operations forces — Those Active and Reserve Component Army forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called ARSOF. (JP 3-05)

Army tactical data link 1 — See tactical digital information link. arresting barrier — See aircraft arresting barrier.

arresting gear — See aircraft arresting gear.

arrival zone — In counterdrug operations, the area in or adjacent to the United States where smuggling concludes and domestic distribution begins. By air, an airstrip; by sea, an offload point on land, or transfer to small boats. See also transit zone. (JP 3-07.4)

artificial horizon — See attitude indicator.

artillery fire plan table — (*) A presentation of planned targets giving data for engagement. Scheduled targets are fired in a definite time sequence. The starting time may be on call, at a prearranged time, or at the occurrence of a specific event.

artillery survey control point — (*) A point at which the coordinates and the altitude are known and from which the bearings/azimuths to a number of reference objects are also known.

assault — 1. The climax of an attack, closing with the enemy in hand-to-hand fighting. 2. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission. 3. To make a short, violent, but well-ordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement, a fort, or a machine gun nest. 4. A phase of an

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

airborne operation beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault phase; landing attack.

assault aircraft — (*) Apowered aircraft that moves assault troops and/or cargo into an objective area.

assault area — In amphibious operations, that area that includes the beach area, the boat lanes, the lines of departure, the landing ship areas, the transport areas, and the fire support areas in the immediate vicinity of the boat lanes. (JP 3-02)

assault area diagram — A graphic means of showing, for amphibious operations, the beach designations, boat lanes, organization of the line of departure, scheduled waves, landing ship area, transport areas, and the fire support areas in the immediate vicinity of the boat lanes.

assault craft — (*) A landing craft or amphibious vehicle primarily employed for landing troops and equipment in the assault waves of an amphibious operation.

assault craft unit — A permanently commissioned naval organization, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, that contains landing craft and crews necessary to provide lighterage required in an amphibious operation. Also called ACU. (JP 3-02)

assault echelon — In amphibious operations, the element of a force comprised of tailored units and aircraft assigned to conduct the initial assault on the operational area. Also called AE. See also amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)

assault fire — 1. That fire delivered by attacking troops as they close with the enemy. 2. In artillery, extremely accurate, short-range destruction fire at point targets.

assault follow-on echelon — In amphibious operations, that echelon of the assault troops, vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and supplies that, though not needed to initiate the assault, is required to support and sustain the assault. In order to accomplish its purpose, it is normally required in the objective area no later than five days after commencement of the assault landing. Also called AFOE.

assault phase — (*) 1. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of their mission. 2. In an airborne operation, a phase beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault.

assault schedule — See landing schedule.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

assault shipping — (*) Shipping assigned to the amphibious task force and utilized for transporting assault troops, vehicles, equipment, and supplies to the objective area.

assault wave — See wave.

assembly — (*) In logistics, an item forming a portion of an equipment, that can be provisioned and replaced as an entity and which normally incorporates replaceable parts or groups of parts. See also component; subassembly.

assembly anchorage — (*) An anchorage intended for the assembly and onward routing of ships.

assembly area — (*) 1. An area in which a command is assembled preparatory to further action. 2. In a supply installation, the gross area used for collecting and combining components into complete units, kits, or assemblies.

assessment — 1. Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned intelligence activity. 2. Judgment of the motives, qualifications, and characteristics of present or prospective employees or “agents.”

asset (intelligence) — Any resource — person, group, relationship, instrument, installation, or supply — at the disposition of an intelligence organization for use in an operational or support role. Often used with a qualifying term such as agent asset or propaganda asset.

assign — (*) 1. To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the functions, of the unit or personnel. 2. To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or functions are primary and/or relatively permanent. See also attach.

assistance mechanism — Individuals, groups of individuals, or organizations (together with materiel and/or facilities in position, or that can be placed in position by appropriate US or multinational agencies), used to accomplish or support evasion and recovery operations. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations. (JP 3-50.3)

assisted recovery — The return of an evader to friendly control as the result of assistance from an outside source. See also evader; source. (JP 3-50.3)

assumed azimuth — The assumption of azimuth origins as a field expedient until the required data are available.

assumed grid — A grid constructed using an arbitrary scale superimposed on a map, chart, or photograph for use in point designation without regard to actual geographic location. See also grid.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

assumption — A supposition on the current situation or a presupposition on the future course of events, either or both assumed to be true in the absence of positive proof, necessary to enable the commander in the process of planning to complete an estimate of the situation and make a decision on the course of action.

astern fueling — (*) The transfer of fuel at sea during which the receiving ship(s) keep(s) station astern of the delivering ship.

asymmetrical sweep — (*) Asweep whose swept path under conditions of no wind or cross-tide is not equally spaced either side of the sweeper’s track.

atmospheric environment — The envelope of air surrounding the Earth, including its interfaces and interactions with the Earth’s solid or liquid surface.

at my command — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the command used when it is desired to control the exact time of delivery of fire.

atomic air burst — See airburst. atomic defense — See nuclear defense.

atomic demolition munition — A nuclear device designed to be detonated on or below the ground surface, or under water as a demolition munition against material-type targets to block, deny, and/or canalize the enemy.

atomic underground burst — See nuclear underground burst. atomic underwater burst — See nuclear underwater burst. atomic warfare — See nuclear warfare.

atomic weapon — See nuclear weapon.

at priority call — (*) A precedence applied to the task of an artillery unit to provide fire to a formation/unit on a guaranteed basis. Normally observer, communications, and liaison are not provided. An artillery unit in “direct support” or “in support” may simultaneously be placed “at priority call” to another unit or agency for a particular task and/or for a specific period of time.

at sea — Includes the following maritime areas: foreign internal waters, archipelagic waters, and territorial seas; foreign contiguous zones; foreign exclusive economic zones; the high seas; and US-exclusive economic zone, territorial sea, and internal waters.

attach — 1. The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. 2. The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

functions are secondary or relatively temporary, e.g., attached for quarters and rations; attached for flying duty. See also assign.

attachment — See attach.

attack assessment — An evaluation of information to determine the potential or actual nature and objectives of an attack for the purpose of providing information for timely decisions. See also damage estimation.

attack cargo ship — A naval ship designed or converted to transport combat-loaded cargo in an assault landing. Capabilities as to carrying landing craft, speed of ship, armament, and size of hatches and booms are greater than those of comparable cargo ship types. Designated as LKA.

attack group — (*) A subordinate task organization of the navy forces of an amphibious task force. It is composed of assault shipping and supporting naval units designated to transport, protect, land, and initially support a landing group.

attack heading — 1. The interceptor heading during the attack phase that will achieve the desired track-crossing angle. 2. The assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown by aircraft during the delivery phase of an air strike.

attack helicopter — (*) A helicopter specifically designed to employ various weapons to attack and destroy enemy targets.

attack origin — 1. The location or source from which an attack was initiated. 2. The nation initiating an attack. See also attack assessment.

attack pattern — The type and distribution of targets under attack. Also called target pattern.

See also attack assessment.

attack position — The last position occupied by the assault echelon before crossing the line of departure.

attack timing — The predicted or actual time of bursts, impacts, or arrival of weapons at their intended targets.

attenuation — (*) 1. Decrease in intensity of a signal, beam, or wave as a result of absorption of energy and of scattering out of the path of a detector, but not including the reduction due to geometric spreading, i.e., the inverse square of distance effect. 2. In mine warfare, the reduction in intensity of an influence as distance from the source increases. 3. In camouflage and concealment, the process of making an object or surface less conspicuous by reducing its contrast to the surroundings and/or background. Also called tone down.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

attenuation factor — (*) The ratio of the incident radiation dose or dose rate to the radiation dose or dose rate transmitted through a shielding material. This is the reciprocal of the transmission factor.

attitude — (*) The position of a body as determined by the inclination of the axes to some frame of reference. If not otherwise specified, this frame of reference is fixed to the Earth.

attitude indicator — (*) An instrument which displays the attitude of the aircraft by reference to sources of information which may be contained within the instrument or be external to it. When the sources of information are self-contained, the instrument may be referred to as an artificial horizon.

attrition — (*) The reduction of the effectiveness of a force caused by loss of personnel and materiel.

attrition minefield — (*) In naval mine warfare, a field intended primarily to cause damage to enemy ships. See also minefield.

attrition rate — (*) A factor, normally expressed as a percentage, reflecting the degree of losses of personnel or materiel due to various causes within a specified period of time.

attrition reserve aircraft — Aircraft procured for the specific purpose of replacing the anticipated losses of aircraft because of peacetime and/or wartime attrition.

attrition sweeping — (*) The continuous sweeping of minefields to keep the risk of mines to all ships as low as possible.

augmentation forces — Forces to be transferred from a supporting commander to the combatant command (command authority) or operational control of a supported commander during the execution of an operation order approved by the National Command Authorities. (JP 5-0)

authenticate — A challenge given by voice or electrical means to attest to the authenticity of a message or transmission.

authentication — 1. A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator. 2. A means of identifying individuals and verifying their eligibility to receive specific categories of information. 3. Evidence by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official. 4. In evasion and recovery operations, the process whereby the identity of an evader is confirmed. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations; security. (JP 3-50.3)

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

authenticator — A symbol or group of symbols, or a series of bits, selected or derived in a prearranged manner and usually inserted at a predetermined point within a message or transmission for the purpose of attesting to the validity of the message or transmission.

autocode format — An abbreviated and formatted message header used in conjunction with the mobile cryptologic support facility (MCSF) to energize the automatic communications relay functions of the MCSF, providing rapid exchange of data through the system.

automated data handling — See automatic data handling.

automated identification technology — A suite of tools for facilitating total asset visibility (TAV) source data capture and transfer. Automated identification technology (AIT) includes a variety of devices, such as bar codes, magnetic strips, optical memory cards, and radio frequency tags for marking or “tagging” individual items, multi-packs, equipment, air pallets, or containers, along with the hardware and software required to create the devices, read the information on them, and integrate that information with other logistic information. AIT integration with logistic information systems is key to the Department of Defense’s TAV efforts. Also called AIT. See also total asset visibility. (JP 4-01.8)

automatic approach and landing — A control mode in which the aircraft’s speed and flight path are automatically controlled for approach, flare-out, and landing. See also ground- controlled approach procedure.

automatic data handling — (*) A generalization of automatic data processing to include the aspect of data transfer.

automatic data processing — 1. Data processing largely performed by automatic means. 2. That branch of science and technology concerned with methods and techniques relating to data processing largely performed by automatic means.

automatic flight control system — (*) A system which includes all equipment to control automatically the flight of an aircraft or missile to a path or attitude described by references internal or external to the aircraft or missile. Also called AFCS.

automatic message processing system — Any organized assembly of resources and methods used to collect, process, and distribute messages largely by automatic means.

automatic resupply — Aresupply mission fully planned before insertion of a special operations team into the operations area that occurs at a prearranged time and location, unless changed by the operating team after insertion. See also emergency resupply; on-call resupply. (JP 3-50.3)

automatic search jammer — (*) An intercept receiver and jamming transmitter system which searches for and jams signals automatically which have specific radiation characteristics.

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

Automatic Secure Voice Communications Network — A worldwide, switched, secure voice network developed to fulfill DOD long-haul, secure voice requirements. Also called AUTOSEVOCOM.

automatic supply — A system by which certain supply requirements are automatically shipped or issued for a predetermined period of time without requisition by the using unit. It is based upon estimated or experience-usage factors.

automation network — The automation network combines all of the information collection devices, automatic identification technologies, and the automated information systems that either support or facilitate the joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration process. See also automated identification technology; joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration. (JP 4-01.8)

autonomous operation — In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has lost all communications with higher echelons. The unit commander assumes full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets.

availability date — The date after notification of mobilization by which forces will be marshalled at their home station or mobilization station and available for deployment. See also home station; mobilization; mobilization station. (JP 4-05)

available payload — The passenger and/or cargo capacity expressed in weight and/or space available to the user.

available-to-load date — A date specified for each unit in a time-phased force and deployment data indicating when that unit will be ready to load at the point of embarkation. Also called ALD.

avenue of approach — An air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path. Also called AA.

average speed — (*) The average distance traveled per hour, calculated over the whole journey, excluding specifically ordered halts.

aviation combat element — The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is task-organized to conduct aviation operations. The aviation combat element (ACE) provides all or a portion of the six functions of Marine aviation necessary to accomplish the MAGTF’s mission. These functions are antiair warfare, offensive air support, assault support, electronic warfare, air reconnaissance, and control of aircraft and missiles. The ACE is usually composed of an aviation unit headquarters and various other aviation units or their detachments. It can vary in size from a small aviation detachment of specifically required aircraft to one or more Marine aircraft wings. The ACE itself is not a formal command. Also called ACE. See also combat service support element; command element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine

As Amended Through 9 June 2004

expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

aviation life support equipment — See life support equipment.

aviation medicine — (*) The special field of medicine which is related to the biological and psychological problems of flight.

aviation ship — An aircraft carrier. See also air-capable ship; aircraft; amphibious aviation assault ship. (JP 3-04.1)

avoidance — Individual and/or unit measures taken to avoid or minimize nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) attacks and reduce the effects of NBC hazards. (JP 3-11)

axial route — A route running through the rear area and into the forward area. See also route. axis of advance — A line of advance assigned for purposes of control; often a road or a group of

roads, or a designated series of locations, extending in the direction of the enemy.

azimuth — Quantities may be expressed in positive quantities increasing in a clockwise direction, or in X, Y coordinates where south and west are negative. They may be referenced to true north or magnetic north depending on the particular weapon system used.

azimuth angle — (*) An angle measured clockwise in the horizontal plane between a reference direction and any other line.

azimuth guidance — (*) Information which will enable the pilot or autopilot of an aircraft to follow the required track.

azimuth resolution — (*) The ability of radar equipment to separate two reflectors at similar ranges but different bearings from a reference point. Normally the minimum separation distance between the reflectors is quoted and expressed as the angle subtended by the reflectors at the reference point.

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