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Background: Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and

founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist countercoup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anticommunist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end

the country’s civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti- Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Usama BIN LADIN. A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan, and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was reelected in

August 2009 for a second term. The 2014 presidential election was the country’s first to include a runoff, which featured the top two vote getters from the first round, Abdullah ABDULLAH and Ashraf GHANI. Throughout the summer of 2014, their campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between thetwo camps. In September 2014, GHANI and ABDULLAH agreed to form the Government of National Unity, with GHANI inaugurated as President and ABDULLAH elevated to the newly created position of chief

executive officer. The day after the inauguration, the GHANI administration signed the US-Afghan Bilateral Security Agreement and NATO Status of Forces Agreement, which provide the legal basis for the post-2014 international military presence in Afghanistan. Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite reports in 2015 that its founder and spiritual leader, Mullah Mohammad OMAR, died in

2013.

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran Geographic coordinates: 33

00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia Area: total: 652,230 sq km land: 652,230 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 41 Area—comparative: almost six times the size of Virginia; slightly

smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,987 km

border countries (6): China 91 km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2,670 km, Tajikistan

1,357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km,

Uzbekistan 144 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest Elevation: mean elevation: 1,884 m elevation extremes: lowest

point: Amu Darya 258 m

highest point: Noshak 7,485 m Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones, arable land

Land use: agricultural land: 58.1%

arable land: 11.9%

permanent crops: 0.2%

permanent pasture: 46%

forest: 2.1%

other: 39.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,080 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources: 65.33 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricult

total: 20.28 cu km/yr (1%/1%/98%)

per capita: 823.1 cu m/yr (2005) Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush

mountains; flooding; droughts

Environment—current issues: limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials);

desertification; air and water pollution

Environment— international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography—note: landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s)

adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz)

note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan is not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan’s 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch,

Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)

Languages: Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism, but Darifunctions as the lingua franca

note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them

Religions: Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7–89.7%, Shia 10–15%), other 0.3%

(2009 est.)

Population: 32,564,342 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41 Age structure: 0–14 years: 41.47% (male 6,861,021/female

6,644,780)

15–24 years: 22.41% (male

3,716,738/female 3,579,701)

25–54 years: 29.69% (male

4,928,181/female 4,741,601)

55–64 years: 3.88% (male

621,970/female 641,307)

65 years and over: 2.55% (male 384,267/female 444,776) (2015 est.) Dependency ratios:

Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 87%

youth dependency ratio: 82.3%

elderly dependency ratio: 4.6% potential support ratio: 21.7% (2015 est.)

Median age: total: 18.4 years

male: 18.3 years

female: 18.4 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 209

Population growth rate:

2.32% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34 Birth rate: 38.57 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11 Death rate: 13.89 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9 Net migration rate: -1.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 156

Urbanization: urban population:

26.7% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Major urban areas— population: KABUL (capital) 4.635

million (2015)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05

male(s)/female

0–14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15–24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25–54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2015 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth: 20.1

note: median age at first birth among women 25–29 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate: 396 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 22

Infant mortality rate: total:

115.08 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 122.64 deaths/1,000 live births female: 107.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 1 Life expectancy at birth: total population: 50.87 years

male: 49.52 years

female: 52.29 years (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 222 Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

Contraceptive prevalence

rate: 21.2% (2010/11)

Health expenditures: 8.1% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 46

Physicians density: 0.27

physicians/1,000 population (2013) Hospital bed density: 0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 78.2% of population rural: 47% of population total: 55.3% of population unimproved:

urban: 21.8% of population

rural: 53% of population

total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 45.1% of population rural: 27% of population total: 31.9% of population unimproved:

urban: 54.9% of population

rural: 73% of population

total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,700 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

HIV/AIDS—deaths: 300 (2014

est.)

country comparison to the world: 97

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne disease: malaria

animal contact disease: rabies

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible riskwith

extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity—adult prevalence rate: 2.4% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 182 Education expenditures: NA Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 38.2%

male: 52%

female: 24.2% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary

education): total: 11 years

male: 13 years

female: 8 years (2014)

Child labor—children ages 5–14: total number: 2,082,722

percentage: 25.3%

note: data on child labor in Afghanistan is uncertain and may be higher than the estimated 25.3% of children ages 5–14 derived from 2010–11 survey results; UNICEF estimated that 30% of children ages 5–14in 2011 were engaged in child labor (2010/11 est.)

Country name: conventional

long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form: Jamhuriye Islamiye Afghanistan

local short form: Afghanistan

former: Republic of Afghanistane etymology: the name “Afghan” originally refered to the Pashtun people (today it is understood to includeall the country’s ethnic groups), while the suffix “stan” means “place of” or “country”; so Afghanistan literally means the “Land of the Afghans”

Government type: presidential Islamic republic

Capital: name: Kabul

Geographic coordinates: 34

31 N, 69 11 E

time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions: 34 provinces (welayat, singular welayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sare Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 August (1919) Constitution: several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003—4

January 2004, signed 16 January 2004,

ratified 26 January 2004 (2016)

Legal system: mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship: citizenship by birth:

no

citizenship by descent only:

at least one parent must have been born in and continuously lived in Afghanistan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29September 2014); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29

September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014); note the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014) cabinet: Cabinet consists of 25 ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5 year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 5 April and 14 June2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: percent of vote in first round Abdullah ABDULLAH (National Coalition of Afghanistan) 45%, Ashraf GHANI (independent) 31.6%, Zalmai RASSOUL 11.4%, other 12%; percent of vote in secondround Ashraf GHANI 56.4%, Abdullah ABDULLAH 43.6%

Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of

Elders (102 seats; 34 members indirectly elected by district councils to serve 3 year terms, 34 indirectly elected by provincialcouncils to serve 4 year terms, and 34 nominated by the president of which 17 must be women, 2 mustrepresent the disabled, and 2 must be Kuchi nomads; members serve 5 year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 250 seats; members directly elected in multiseat constituencies byproportional representation vote to serve 5 year terms)

note: the constitution allows the government to convene a constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) onissues of

independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of theconstitution and prosecute the president; it is made up of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils; no Loya Jirga has ever been held, and district councilshave never been elected

elections: last held on 18 September 2010 (next to be held on 15 October 2016)

election results: results by party NA; note ethnicity is the main factor influencing political alliances; approximate percentage of seats by ethnic group Pashtun 39%, Hazara 24%,

Tajik 21%, Uzbek 6%, other10% (including Aimak, Arab, Baloch, Nuristani, Pahhai, Turkmen, Turkic); women hold 69 seats

Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Stera Mahkama (consists of the Supreme Court Chief and 8 justicesorganized into criminal, public security, civil, and commercial divisions or dewans)

judge selection and term of office: court chief and justices appointed by the president with theapproval of the Wolesi Jirga; court chief and justices serve single 10year terms

subordinate courts: Appeals Courts; Primary Courts; Special Courts for

issues including narcotics, security, property, family, and juveniles

Political parties and leaders: note the Ministry of Justice licensed 84 political parties as of December 2012

Political pressure groups and leaders: other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, TalibanInternational organization participation: ADB, CP, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM,

IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU,

MIGA, NAM, NATO (pending), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC,

SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hamdullah MOHIB (since 17 September 2015)

chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW,

Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410

FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles,

New York, Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador P. Michael MCKINLEY (since 22 December 2014)

embassy: The Great Masood Road,

Kabul

mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul,

APO, AE 09806

telephone: [00 93] 0700-108-001

FAX: [00 93] 0700-108-564

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centeredon the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands;

the center of the emblem features a mosquewith pulpit and flags on either side, below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by aborder consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the uppercenter is an Arabic inscription ofthe Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning “God is great”), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan; black signifies thepast, red is for the blood shed for independence, and green can represent either hope for the future,

agricultural prosperity, or Islam

note: Afghanistan had more changes to its national flag in the 20th century than any other country; thecolors black, red, and green appeared on most of them National symbol(s): lion; national colors: red, green, black

National anthem: name: “Milli Surood” (National Anthem) lyrics/music: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA

note: adopted 2006; the 2004 constitution of the post-Taliban government mandated that a new nationalanthem should be written containing the phrase “Allahu Akbar”

(God is Greatest) and mentioning the names of Afghanistan’s ethnic groups

Economy overview:

Afghanistan’s economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The economy has improved significantlysince the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 largely because of the infusion of international assistance, therecovery of the agricultural sector, and service sector growth. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of

housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Criminality, insecurity, weak governance, lack of infrastructure, and the Afghan Government’s difficulty in extendingrule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Afghanistan’s livingstandards are among the lowest in the world. The international community remains committed to Afghanistan’s development, pledging over $67 billion atnine donors’ conferences between 2003 and 2010. In July 2012, the donors at the Tokyo conference pledged an additional $16 billion in civilian aid through 2015. Despite this help, the Government of Afghanistan will need to

overcome a number of challenges, including low revenue collection, anemic jobcreation, high levels of corruption, weak government capacity, and poor public infrastructure. Afghanistan’s growth rate slowed markedly in 2014–15. The drawdown of international security forces thatstarted in 2014 has negatively affected economic growth, as a substantial portion of commerce, especiallyin the services sector, has catered to the ongoing international troop presence in the country. AfghanPresident Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai is dedicated to instituting economic reforms to include improvingrevenue collection and

fighting corruption. However, the reforms will take time to implement andAfghanistan will remain dependent on international donor support over the next several years.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$62.32 billion (2015 est.)

$61.53 billion (2014 est.)

$59.46 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 104

GDP (official exchange rate): $20.84 billion (2014 est.) GDP—real growth rate:

1.5% (2015 est.)

1.3% (2014 est.)

3.9% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

GDP—per capita (PPP):

$1,900 (2015 est.)

$2,000 (2014 est.)

$2,000 (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 206

Gross national saving:

23.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

29.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

30.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

GDP composition, by end use:

household consumption: 108.7%

government consumption: 12.8% investment in fixed capital: 15.8% investment in inventories: 0% exports of goods and services: 6.5%

imports of goods and services: -43.9% (2014 est.)

GDP—composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 24%

industry: 21%

services: 55%

note: data exclude opium production

(2014 est.)

Agriculture products: opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Industries: small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, nonalcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 138 Labor force: 7.983 million (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Labor force—by occupation:

agriculture: 78.6%

industry: 5.7%

services: 15.7% (FY08/09 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35%

(2008 est.)

40% (2005 est.)

country comparison to the world: 191

Population below poverty line: 36% (FY08/09 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest: 10%: 3.8%

highest: 10%: 24% (2008)

Budget: revenues: $1.7 billion expenditures: $6.639 billion (2015 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 8.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 212

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (–): -23.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 217 Fiscal year: 21 December—20 December

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

-1.5% (2015 est.)

4.7% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Commercial bank prime lending rate: 15% (31 December

2014 est.)

15.08% (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Stock of narrow money:

$6.644 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$6.192 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 91 Stock of broad money: $6.945 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$6.544 billion (31 December 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 119 Stock of domestic credit: –

$454 million (31 December 2014 est.)

-$767.8 million (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 190

Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA

Current account balance: $872 million (2015 est.)

$1.604 billion (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Exports: $2.679 billion (2013 est.)

$2.785 billion (2012 est.)

note: not including illicit exports or reexports

country comparison to the world: 131

Exports—commodities:

opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems Exports—partners: India

42.2%, Pakistan 28.9%, Tajikistan 7.6%

(2015)

Imports: $12.19 billion (2013 est.)

$11.66 billion (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Imports—commodities:

machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products Imports—partners: Pakistan

38.6%, India 8.9%, US 8.3%,

Turkmenistan 6.2%, China 6%,

Kazakhstan 5.9%, Azerbaijan 4.9%

(2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $6.681 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

$6.443 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Debt external:

$1.28 billion (FY10/11)

$2.7 billion (FY08/09)

country comparison to the world: 160 Exchange rates: afghanis (AFA) per US dollar—

63 (2015 est.)

57.25 (2014 est.)

57.25 (2013 est.)

46.75 (2011 est.)

46.45 (2010)

Electricity—production:

884.1 million kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Electricity—consumption:

3.893 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Electricity—exports: 0 kWh

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Electricity—imports: 3.071 billion kWh (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Electricity—installed generating capacity: 621,000

kW (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 135

Electricity—from fossil fuels: 35.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 169

Electricity—from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Electricity—from hydro electric plants: 64.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Electricity—from other renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Crude oil—production: 0

bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104 Crude oil—exports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94

Crude oil—imports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Crude oil—proved reserves:

NA bbl (1 January 2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products

—production: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Refined petroleum products

—consumption: 43,000 bbl/day

(2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Refined petroleum products

—exports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 151

Refined petroleum products

—imports: 42,640 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Natural gas—production:

159.6 million cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Natural gas—consumption:

159.6 million cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 106 Natural gas—exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas—imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Natural gas—proved reserves: 49.55 billion cu m (1

January 2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.552 million Mt (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 108

Telephones—fixed lines: total subscriptions: 100,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Telephones—mobile cellular: total: 23.4 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 74

(2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51 Telephone system: general assessment: limited fixedline telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks

domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobilecellular telephone service continues to improve

rapidly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90 percent ofthe population live in areas with access to mobilecellular services

international: country code 93; multiple VSAT’s provide international and domestic voice and dataconnectivity (2012)

Broadcast media: state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and televisionstations in Kabul and the provinces; an estimated 150 private radio stations, 50 TV stations, and about adozen international broadcasters are available (2007)

Radio broadcast stations: 48 (station types NA) (2009)

Television broadcast stations: 16 (1 staterun station and 15 registered private stations) (2009)

Internet country code: .af Internet hosts: 223 (2012) country comparison to the world: 199 Internet users: total: 1.9 million percent of population: 5.9% (2014 est.) country comparison to the world: 100

Airports: 52 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 91

Airports—with paved runways: total: 23

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports—with unpaved runways: total: 29

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 6 (2013)

Heliports: 9 (2013)

Pipelines: gas 466 km (2013) Roadways: total: 42,150 km paved: 12,350 km

unpaved: 29,800 km (2006)

country comparison to the world: 84 Waterways: 1,200 km; (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 60 Ports and terminals: river port(s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Military branches: Afghan National Security Forces: Afghan

National Army, Afghan Air Force, Afghan National Police, AfghanLocal Police (2016)

Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2016)

Military expenditures:

28.09% of GDP (2016)

4.74% of GDP (2011)

Disputes—international:

Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on theground

and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency andcounter terrorism efforts; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan’s restricting flow of dammed Helmand Rivertributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribalareas of its treatydefined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terroristsand other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives fromAfghanistan through Central Asian

countries

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 241,641 (Pakistan) (2015)

IDPs: 1,174,306 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to drought and political instability) (2015)

Illicit drugs: world’s largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation increased 7 percent, to a record 211,000 hectares in 2014 from 198,000 hectares in 2013, while eradication dropped sharply; relatively low opium yields due topoor weather kept potential opium

production 6,300 metric tons below the record set in 2007; theTaliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a keysource of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impedecounterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem; vulnerable todrug money laundering through informal financial networks; illicit cultivation of cannabis and regionalsource of hashish

 

Afghanistan: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAkrotiri: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAlbania: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAlgeria: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAmerican Samoa: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAndorra: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAngola: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAnguilla: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAntarctica: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAntigua and Barbuda: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useArctic Ocean: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useArgentina: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useArmenia: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAruba: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAtlantic Ocean: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAustralia: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAustria: Background,GEOGRAPHY,Location,Geographic coordinates,Map references,Coastline,Maritime claims,Climate,Terrain,Natural resources,Natural hazards,Ethnic groups,Languages,Government type,polirtical system,Religions,Demographic profile,Population,Land useAzerbaijan

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