AMD Overclocking – how to Tweak Your PC to Unleash Its Power

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Chapter 7: AMD Overclocking

AMD Background

AMD is one of the longest-lived manufacturers of x86 computing technology. The company’s market share increased rapidly after the release of its K5 core architecture. Some iterations of AMD designs were almost indistinguishable from the products of Intel or Cyrix. In the early days, nearly all x86 products resembled each other closely, as manufacturers worked to establish a common PC standard. The success of AMD’s current Athlon platform shows that the company has learned to harness the power of market diversification that began with the original K5.

With the K5 series, AMD first diverged from its competitors in design, engineering, and production. The K5 contained one of the most efficient integer execution units ever made, though its lack of a full-pipelined floating-point unit essentially relegated K5 architecture to the budget realm. Gaming and multimedia interests drove the high- end market toward performance platforms, like Intel’s redesigned Pentium processor, and away from architectures like the K5, which was closely related to the 486 design.

The AMD K5 compared favorably to the Pentium running a wide range of desktop applications. While the underpowered floating-point unit raised questions, performance was still acceptable for most users of the day. The real stumbling block for the K5 was not its engineering as much as the way it was sold to consumers.

AMD used integer benchmarking results compared to the Pentium to name, rate, and market each model in the K5 series. The choice to compare benchmark numbers instead of clock frequencies caused some analysts to accuse AMD of deception.

While the K5 could outperform the Pentium “clock for clock” in integer applications, multimedia programs lagged. Many vendors decided to market the K5 under its operating frequency, while retaining the performance rating (PR) number for general comparisons.

The K6 was an evolutionary step for AMD. It offered minimal core improvements over the K5. The main architectural differences included MMX (multimedia) instruction set enhancements and adaptations to the core that supported a split-voltage interface to maintain motherboard compatibility with Intel’s Pentium MMX. AMD’s marketing strategy for the K6 was, however, dramatically different than it had been for the K5.

AMD chose to develop, market, and name the K6 processors by their operating frequencies, dropping the questionable PR-naming convention. Further core refinements, combined with additional MMX improvements, brought the K6 series a loyal following in the budget market segments. Intel retained the lead in multimedia performance. The rather dismal floating-point unit persisted in the K6 processors, limiting AMD to the entry-level realm.

Eventually, AMD recognized the need for an architecture revision and a new multimedia solution, especially after Intel released the powerful Pentium II platform. While the K6 could compete with the Pentium MMX, it could not compete with the P2 core architecture.

Lacking the resources to develop a completely new platform, AMD looked toward a new multimedia instruction set to compete with Intel’s superior floating-point execution. The company adopted a streaming multimedia instruction set for its new K6-2. The K6-2 introduced key upgrades to the K6 design. The 3DNow! instruction set extended the floating-point capabilities of the K6, and an increase to 100 MHz in front-side bus speed improved memory and subsystem performance. The core die size also decreased to .25 micron, allowing the K6-2 to scale toward 550 MHz.

3DNow! was a forward-looking technology developed along the same lines as Intel’s MMX instruction set. MMX allows for more efficient processing of integer mathematical computations; 3DNow! allows efficient combination of multiple floating- point operations in specialized instructions. 3DNow! also required many software optimizations at the programming code level, so AMD moved quickly to acquire and maintain development contracts.

When running properly optimized software applications using 3DNow! technology, instead of pure floating-point mathematics, the K6-2 could compete and even surpass the Intel architecture’s performance. Game and hardware driver developers quickly adopted the new standard, and the K6-2 infiltrated all desktop markets. Even without 3DNow!, the K6-2 offered adequate floating-point performance through sheer increases in MHz (compared to the K5). Given low retail prices and compatibility with existing Socket 7 motherboards, the K6-2 rapidly emerged as the first real competitor to Intel’s Pentium II and Celeron product lines.

Once the K6-2 found acceptance in the desktop market, AMD saw the need to develop a workstation and server-grade processor. The primary limitation of the K6-2 is memory bandwidth performance, but AMD could do little about motherboard chipset design. Manufacturers like VIA and SIS had failed to improve memory bandwidth or latency since the inception of Socket 7. ALI did improve the architecture related to memory access, but its chipsets suffered compatibility and stability problems when used with the newly popular AGP graphics accelerators.

AMD recognized the deficiency in bandwidth and opted for a solution at the processor level. The K6-2 implements a one-tier internal cache memory buffer, with the second-level buffer surface mounted on the motherboard. The Level 2 cache is accessed at the front-side bus rate because the chipset handles the transactions.

AMD’s K6-3 took a page from Intel’s playbook by introducing a Level 2 cache embedded inside the processor core. This internal L2 operates at the same rate as the core, increasing the cache memory latency and bandwidth exponentially compared to the K6-2. The cache memory mounted on the motherboard became a third-tier cache acting as an intermediary between the fast processor and slow system memory.

The K6-3 was marketed primarily as a server. Its new three-level cache architecture encouraged integer performance exceeding that of Intel’s Pentium II at similar core clock rates. Curiously, the K6-3 450 could often exceed the integer performance of the more expensive Pentium III 450. Server environments have little need for floating- point multimedia performance; thus the K6-3 captured a significant slice of the

higher-end processor market due to its superb performance and low-cost implementation. AMD could finally compete with Intel at all levels of the x86 market.

The plus series (marked with the + symbol) of K6 processors was a stopgap to maintain market visibility for AMD in the mobile computing segment. Both the K6-2 and K6-3 product lines featured a plus series variation. Core die size was reduced to

.18 micron, which improved thermal efficiency. Architectural improvements include AMD’s new 3DNow! DSP standards. The K6-3+ core remained basically the same, while the K6-2+ was upgraded to include an on-die 128 KB Level 2 cache memory architecture.

AMD Athlon Architecture

AMD recognized the need for a new architecture upon the release of Intel’s Pentium III platform. The K6-2 had remained the mainstay for AMD throughout the reign of the Pentium II, but it could not rise to P3 standards. Instead of developing another K6- based revision, AMD undertook the arduous task of engineering a completely new design. Upon its release, the Athlon (K7) rapidly became the new choice for performance computing. The Athlon product series performs by raw power, featuring parallel execution for improved efficiency.

The transition to a new motherboard bus architecture paved the way for the Athlon’s impressive success. The K7 interface is based on Digital Equipment Corporation’s Alpha EV6 architecture. The Alpha processor is actually a 64-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC), while the Athlon is a traditional 32-bit x86 offering. Using an off- the-shelf motherboard allowed AMD to concentrate its engineering efforts on the processor core itself. The resulting K7 Athlon core still lies at the heart of AMD’s desktop computers, despite revisions to integrate on-die cache and extension set improvements.

The EV6 motherboard architecture eliminates the standard front-side bus approach by separating each relevant system bus. Buses are still interlinked through a base timing configuration for deriving transfer rates. The processor bus operates in a double-data-rate (DDR) mode that transfers information on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal. Other buses can operate as usual, though the latest Athlon architectural revisions have expanded the DDR signaling technique to the memory bus. DDR timing rates can be confusing. Remember that the base frequency is simply one-half the effective MHz frequency. For current Athlon systems 200, 266, and 66 MHz effective frequencies yield base frequencies of 100, 133, and 33 MHz, respectively.

Athlon K7

The first K7 Athlon design uses a Slot A motherboard interface that resembles Intel’s Slot 1 standard. Slot A Athlons feature a custom casing. This must be removed before installing aftermarket cooling solutions or overclocking boards. Front-side and voltage adjustments are possible from the motherboard, but AMD did implement a physically locked multiplier determined by the configuration of certain resistors found on the backside of the processor circuit board. These resistors can by modified to set

multiplier values, but overclockers needed a better way to manipulate the multiplier given the amount of experimentation required to realize overclocking potential.

Enthusiasts soon realized that the electrical connector found along the topside of the processor board was actually connected to the same circuitry as the backside resistor array. A specialized circuit board can be connected to the electrical interface and used to manipulate the multiplier value. These aftermarket boards are commonly called Gold Finger Devices (or GFDs). Several manufacturers have produced GFD designs using dials, switches, and jumpers. Regardless of their configuration, all GFD products operate by the same practical method. Some GFDs even include support for processor voltage manipulation, for those possessing the soldering skills needed to install this extra option.

Some overclocking-friendly Slot A motherboards allow configuration of the cache divider from the BIOS Setup interface, but this is not the norm for consumer-grade models. Many GFDs also include the capability to alter the Level 2 cache divider rate. The Athlon derives its L2 cache operational frequency through a fractional process, as the comparatively slow cache memory is mounted on the processor’s printed circuit board. The cache memory is incapable of sustaining operation at the processor’s core rate, thus AMD was forced into a frequency-scaling paradigm for the Slot A Athlon K7.

Cache rates can be defined at several intervals from 1/4 to 1/2 the processor’s core rate. Decreasing the fractional rate often allows for greater processor overclocking, though the performance impact could actually be negative. The bandwidth-hungry Athlon core requires a consistent supply of information from the L2 cache to sustain optimal operation. Any decrease in the cache rate lowers bandwidth and increases latency, stalling the processor at higher operating speeds. The only way to measure performance impact is through benchmark testing.

Processor-to-chipset bus overclocking of the Athlon K7 is only minimally effective. Most Slot A motherboards contain early revision chipsets, which commonly fail at operation rates beyond 112 MHz (224 DDR). Increasing the motherboard’s input/output voltage from 3.3 to 3.5 volts may offer additional returns, but increased cooling of the Northbridge chipset will likely be required. The addition of a 50 to 60 millimeter fan often works well, as many motherboards already have a heatsink cooler. Some Slot A boards reach speeds above 124 MHz when properly cooled.

Athlon K7 Overclocking

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Table 7-1: Athlon K7 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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Performance Rating 500 – 700 MHz Generation Seventh: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates L1 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate

L2 Cache Speed Fraction of Core Rate

Table 7-1: Athlon K7 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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1/2.0x, 1/2.5x, 1/3.0x Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR)

Multiplier Ratio 5.0x – 7.0+x (14x maximum) Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 184 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

L2 Cache Voltage 2.8 volts – 3.3 volts Power Consumption 38 – 45 watts

Maximum Power 42 – 50 watts

Architectural Design

Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution

RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

Floating-Point = 80 bit MM = 64 bit

Execution Units 3 × IEU

3 × AGU

3 × FP

Data Bus Width 64 (+8) bit

Max Memory Support Physical = 16 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support SMP via EV6 Bus

Level 1 Code Cache 64 KB 2-way Level 1 Data Cache 64 KB 2-way

Level 2 Cache 512 KB Inclusive Pre-fetch Queue 16 Byte

Static Branch Prediction Supported Dynamic Branch 2048 Entry

Prediction

RSB Branch Prediction 12 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!

Athlon K7 500

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Table 7-2: Athlon K7 500 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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Performance Rating 500 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 5.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 184 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 38 watts Maximum Power 42 watts

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Table 7-3: Athlon K7 500 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 500 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 5.5 – 7.0x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108 MHz Typical O/C Potential 600 – 650 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 700 – 750 MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

AMD entered the high-performance computing marketplace, a segment traditionally controlled by Intel, with the Athlon K7 500 processor. Built by a .25-micron fabrication process, the original K7 offers only modest overclocking scalability compared to later designs. Maximum scalability for the entire K7 series falls in the 750 to 850 MHz range, with the occasional unit offering slightly improved potential with extreme cooling.

The K7’s power demand always attracts attention. Though it runs at 500 MHz, this unit demands 42 watts at peak operation. Cooling is thus a big concern. The factory heatsink is well designed, but any attempts at overclocking should include the use of a quality aftermarket forced-air heatsink. Average scalability for this speed grade falls in the 600 to 650 MHz range.

Athlon K7 550

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Table 7-4: Athlon K7 550 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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Performance Rating 550 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 5.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 184 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 41 watts Maximum Power 46 watts

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Table 7-5: Athlon K7 550 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 550 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 6.0 – 7.5x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108 MHz Typical O/C Potential 600 – 700 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 750 MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC15

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The K7 550 MHz processor further extends the power threshold with a 46-watt peak power demand. As with any K7 chip, cooling is a concern. A quality aftermarket cooler should be installed before you attempt any overclocking beyond 50 MHz, especially when you are bumping core voltages beyond 1.8 volts. Average overclocking for the K7 500 is in the 600 to 700 MHz range.

Athlon K7 600

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Table 7-6: Athlon K7 600 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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Performance Rating 600 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 6.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 184 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 45 watts Maximum Power 50 watts

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Table 7-7: Athlon K7 600 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 6.5 – 7.5x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108 MHz Typical O/C Potential 650 – 700 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 750 MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Table 7-7: Athlon K7 600 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 600 MHz

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Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The K7 600 begins to show the limitations inherent in a .25-micron processor. The peak power demands jump to 50 watts, which is incredibly high for a 600-MHz processor, especially when compared to 34.5 watts for the Intel Pentium III 600 MHz, also a .25-micron based product. Scalability starts to decrease compared to earlier Athlon units, as the K7 600 reaches maximum potential around 700 to 750 MHz.

Athlon K7 650

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Table 7-7: Athlon K7 650 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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Performance Rating 650 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 6.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 184 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 48 watts Maximum Power 54 watts

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Table 7-8: Athlon K7 650 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 650 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 7.0 – 7.5x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108 MHz Typical O/C Potential 700 – 750 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 750+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Table 7-8: Athlon K7 650 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 650 MHz

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Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon K7 650 MHz processor starts the downslide in effective per-MHz overclocking. Expect maximum returns in the 700 to 750 MHz range, even when applying maximum core voltage and the best heatsink cooler. The .25-micron core architecture was nearing its maximum potential for the Athlon when the K7 650 was produced. AMD introduced only one more speed grade before shifting to the .18- micron core fabrication process.

Athlon K7 700

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Table 7-9: Athlon K7 700 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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Performance Rating 700 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 7.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .25 micron, 184 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 38 watts Maximum Power 42 watts

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Table 7-10: Athlon K7 700 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 700 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

Table 7-10: Athlon K7 700 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 700 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 7.5x – 8.0x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108 MHz Typical O/C Potential 750 – 800 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 800 MHz Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

Oddly enough, the Athlon K7 700 MHz requires slightly less wattage than its 650- MHz counterpart. The revision of the core allowed for slightly improved scalability, with overclocking returns approaching 800 MHz for many units. While not overly impressive in per-MHz scalability, the K7 700 does represent the highest possible overclock (850+ MHz potential) of any .25-micron processor ever manufactured.

Athlon K75 Background

AMD required a new idea as Intel rapidly moved its Pentium III architecture to a .18- micron fabrication process. The solution arrived in the form of the Athlon K75 processor. While nearly identical to the original Athlon, the K75 extended operating frequencies by implementing .18-micron core trace routes. While higher clock ratings are possible, K75 models remain functionally identical to the first-generation Athlon processors.

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Table 7-11: Athlon K75 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 550 – 1000 MHz Generation Seventh: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates L1 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate

L2 Cache Speed Fraction of Core Rate

Table 7-11: Athlon K75 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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1/2.0x, 1/2.5x, 1/3.0x Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR)

Multiplier Ratio 5.5x – 10.0+x (14x maximum) Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

L2 Cache Voltage 2.8 – 3.3 volts Power Consumption 28 – 60 watts

Maximum Power 31 – 65 watts

Architectural Design

Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution

RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

Floating-Point = 80 bit MM = 64 bit

Execution Units 3 × IEU

3 × AGU

3 × FP

Max Execution Rate 5 Micro-Ops per Cycle Data Bus Width 64 bit

Max Memory Support Physical = 16 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support SMP via EV6 Bus

Level 1 Code Cache 64 KB 2-way Level 1 Data Cache 64 KB 2-way

Level 2 Cache 512 KB Inclusive Pre-fetch Queue 16 Byte

Static Branch Prediction Supported Dynamic Branch 2048 Entry

Prediction

RSB Branch Prediction 12 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!

Athlon K75 550

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Table 7-12: Athlon K75 550 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 550 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 5.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 28 watts Maximum Power 31 watts

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Table 7-13: Athlon K75 550 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 550 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 6.5x – 7.5+x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 650 – 750 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 750 – 800 MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon K75 550 fairs better than its original K7 counterpart. The newly redesigned .18-micron core requires less than 60% of the wattage demanded by the

.25-micron design. Overclocking potential is similarly affected, with potential returns up to 800 MHz for the best chips. Note that the K75 retains a relatively low 70°Celsius maximum core temperature; thus cooling remains an important concern. The factory heatsink should prove adequate for an additional 50 to 100 MHz, but will fail to provide the cooling needed for stability at higher overclocking ranges.

Athlon K75 600

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Table 7-14: Athlon K75 600 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 600 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 6.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 30 watts Maximum Power 34 watts

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Table 7-15: Athlon K75 600 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 600 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 6.5x – 8.0x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 700 – 800 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 800+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The K75 600 MHz processor proves the effective scalability of the .18-micron process. The power demands are only a few percent above those for the K7 550.

This is an excellent chip to overclock, and you can expect overclocking returns approaching 800 MHz.

Athlon K75 650

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Table 7-16: Athlon K75 650 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 650 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 6.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 32 watts Maximum Power 46 watts

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Table 7-17: Athlon K75 650 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 650 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 7.5x – 8.5x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 700 – 800 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 850+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon K75 650-MHz processor offers an attractive solution for overclocking beyond 800 MHz. Most units from this K75 speed grade offer effective scalability to 200 MHz beyond factory settings, when using an external GFD overclocking device to manipulate the internal processor multiplier values. The Level 2 cache divider may also require adjustment for reaching 800 MHz and beyond, so a quality GFD can make the difference with this processor.

Athlon K75 700

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Table 7-18: Athlon K75 700 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 700 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 7.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 34 watts Maximum Power 39 watts

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Table 7-19: Athlon K75 700 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 700 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 7.5x – 8.5x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 750 – 850 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential ~ 900 MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Table 7-19: Athlon K75 700 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 700 MHz

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The K75 700-MHz processor represents the first good chance of scaling to 900 MHz with the Athlon architecture. This processor offers an opportunity for overclocking, but only with the introduction of a good forced-air heatsink cooler. Nominal returns with factory cooling are often in the 750 to 800 MHz range, with the best units scaling beyond 900 MHz, given a quality aftermarket cooler.

Athlon K75 750

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Table 7-20: Athlon K75 750 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K7

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Performance Rating 750 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 7.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 35 watts Maximum Power 40 watts

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Table 7-21: Athlon K75 750 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 750 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 8.0x – 9.0x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 800 – 900 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 950 MHz Overclocking Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Table 7-21: Athlon K75 750 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 750 MHz

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Tolerances

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon K75 750 offers a decent possibility of reaching upwards of 1000 MHz with the use of Peltier or liquid-based cooling technologies. Traditional cooling can net returns exceeding 900 MHz with little effort beyond the installation of a replacement forced-air heatsink. Operating temperatures need to be monitored closely at speeds approaching 1 GHz. Even the efficient .18-micron Athlon core can produce high thermal loads at this level.

Athlon K75 800

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Table 7-22: Athlon K75 800 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 800 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 8.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 43 watts Maximum Power 48 watts

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Table 7-23: Athlon K75 800 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 800 MHz

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Table 7-23: Athlon K75 800 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 800 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 8.5x – 9.5x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 850 – 950 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

Notice the major change in wattage requirements for the K75 800 at default settings compared to its 750 MHz sibling. With a peak power demand of 48 watts, this processor can produce extreme heat at its factory set speed. Accordingly, a quality heatsink should be installed before attempting an overclock. Expect returns in the 900 to 1000 MHz range with traditional forced-air heatsink coolers.

Athlon K75 850

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Table 7-24: Athlon K75 850 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 850 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 8.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 45 watts Maximum Power 50 watts

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Table 7-25: Athlon K75 850 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 850 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 9.0x – 10.0x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 900 – 1000 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon K75 850-MHz processor represents the turning point in this series toward per-MHz overclocking scalability. Returns diminish at speeds beyond this range, with most peaking in the 1000 to 1100 MHz range. Wattage requirements also increase for each additional speed grade; thus cooling is a dominant concern for these higher- end chips. Expect returns upwards of 1000 MHz.

Athlon K75 900

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Table 7-26: Athlon K75 900 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 900 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 9.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Table 7-26: Athlon K75 900 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Core Voltage 1.6 volts Power Consumption 53 watts Maximum Power 60 watts

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Table 7-27: Athlon K75 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 900 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 9.5x – 10.0+x

Typical front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 950 – 1000 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

Per-MHz overclocking returns quickly recede as the K75 core approaches the gigahertz level. The Athlon K75 900 proves this rule, as most units from this speed grade will peak around 1000 MHz. Overclocking returns can scale upwards to the 1050 to 1000 MHz range for those willing to undertake more radical cooling procedures.

Athlon K75 950

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Table 7-28: Athlon K75 950 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 950 MHz

Table 7-28: Athlon K75 950 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 9.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 55 watts Maximum Power 62 watts

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Table 7-29: Athlon K75 950 Overclocking

Athlon K75 Model Rating 950 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 10.0x – 10.5x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 1000 – 1050 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1050+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon K75 950-MHz processor typifies the tradeoffs inherent at the upper limits of the K75 core. Overclocking potential usually falls in the 1000 to 1050 MHz range with traditional cooling. Radical cooling and heavy tweaking can sometimes yield more than 1100 MHz, but the costs involved in reaching such a goal are often prohibitive.

Athlon K75 1000

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Table 7-30: Athlon K75 1000 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon K75

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Performance Rating 500 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 10.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 242-Pin Slot A Cartridge

Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm Transistor Count 22 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 60 watts Maximum Power 65 watts

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Table 7-31: Athlon K75 1000 Overclocking

Athlon K7 Model Rating 1000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier via

External GFD Typical Multiplier O/C 10.5x – 11.0+x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 108+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 1050 – 1100 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1100+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Coolers GlobalWin VOS-32

Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MC1501

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon K75 series comes to an end at 1000 MHz. Impressive in raw performance, this processor has only mild overclocking potential. Most units will reach 1100 MHz with quality cooling, but only a small percentage of chips will ever

approach 1200 MHz. Note that this chip requires 65 watts at its default speed, so only the best heatsink cooler should be considered for overclocking.

Athlon Thunderbird

Realizing scalability beyond 1000 MHz would be problematic, AMD opted to integrate the Level 2 cache memory in the processor core for the Athlon Thunderbird. Actual memory size was halved to 256 kilobytes, but the internal cache operates at the core frequency rate. The increase in bandwidth and decrease in latency improved performance dramatically compared to the old Athlon K7.

The Thunderbird also represented AMD’s first socket-type processor-to-motherboard interface since the K6. The move toward a socket interconnect ended the Athlon’s original Slot A interface, though a few Slot A Thunderbirds did enter the market before the standard was completely abandoned. The Socket A format was welcomed by overclocking enthusiasts, because it ended the need to disassemble slot processors to add boards or coolers.

The Athlon Thunderbird and its successors have become the processors of choice for most overclocking enthusiasts. The Socket A interface allows easy installation of large forced-air heatsink coolers. The Thunderbird also heralded a batch of overclocking-friendly motherboard designs once unavailable to AMD supporters.

Most importantly, GFDs were replaced by jumpers, dipswitches, and BIOS settings.

Unlocking the Athlon Thunderbird

The Thunderbird architecture is an overclocking paradise for those with a motherboard that supports multiplier configuration. The Athlon remains an unlocked processor, though AMD has tried to lock its Socket A chips. Most of today’s Thunderbird processors ship with no multiplier locking mechanism, while many of the earlier models require a modest amount of work to bypass the AMD locking technique.

Unlocking Thunderbird chips of the Socket A variety requires reconnecting a series of trace routes along the topside of the processor substrate. These tiny bridge connections were severed by a laser, which locked the multiplier. Luckily, AMD has stopped making such cuts because the company feared increasing processor failure rates due to the heat and stress associated with the lasercutting process.

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Figure 7-1: Athlon Thunderbird L1 bridge circuit

Reconnecting the L1 trace routes is a relatively minor operation. The routes must be connected using a conductive transfer medium. Some vendors, such as HighspeedPC.com, offer a specialized adhesive tape with tiny metal strips already embedded at the required connection points. This may offer the simplest solution.

Another quick fix is simply to redraw the bridge connections with a regular number-2 pencil. Each point of the circuit must be connected to the point directly across from it, creating a series of parallel lines. Lead pencils should be avoided. A standard wooden pencil with a finely sharpened tip works best. Sharpen the lead with sandpaper first to insure accuracy. Some hardcore enthusiasts may opt to use a silver-fluid compound instead, but be warned this often creates a permanent connection. The pencil trick is preferred because the marks can easily be erased if something goes wrong during the unlocking procedure.

Each of the L1 circuit pathways must be connected using a straight-line approach. Take great care to ensure that each pencil mark connects the intended circuit points with no overlapping of any lines. An overlapped line can cause a short circuit and consequent unusual results or even processor failure. Examine each pencil line, once it is drawn, under a magnifying glass.

Successful pencil modification allows unrestricted multiplier manipulation. Partial or no success is common on the first try. A less-than-perfect redrawing usually results in allowable multiplier manipulation in the .5 to 1x range. Erasing and redrawing the lines can fix such problems.

Once unlocked, the Thunderbird offers standard multiplier options from 5 to 12.5x, in

.5x increments. Some motherboards allow 13x and possibly 13.5 to 14x multipliers, though these cause problems for most Thunderbird models. AMD does produce a 14x Thunderbird, but the multiplier is configured internally through the regular autodetection routine.

The Athlon Thunderbird fares much better for processor-to-chipset bus overclocking compared to its older Slot 1 K7 sibling. Most early Socket A chipsets can successfully reach the 115 to 120 MHz range (230 to 240 DDR). The latest generation offers scalability to 166 MHz and beyond. Most manufacturers now equip their Athlon motherboards with active chipset cooling, as thermal regulation is necessary to maintain stability when overclocking.

Another excellent way to maximize performance of 100-MHz Thunderbird models is to lower the internal multiplier, and then raise the processor bus to 133 MHz. The Athlon is a bandwidth-intensive design that can benefit from processor bus overclocking. All the latest chipsets from ALI, SIS, and VIA allow 133-MHz processor bus support.

Athlon Thunderbird Overclocking

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Table 7-32: Athlon Thunderbird Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 650 – 1400 MHz Generation Seventh: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates L1 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate

L2 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR)

Multiplier Ratio 6.0x – 14.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 102 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 32.4 – 65 watts

Maximum Power 36.1 – 72 watts

Architectural Design

Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution

RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

Floating-Point = 80 bit MM = 64 bit

Execution Units 3 × IEU

3 × AGU

3 × FP

Data Bus Width 64 (+8) bit

Max Memory Support Physical = 16 Gigabyte

Table 7-32: Athlon Thunderbird Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support SMP via EV6 Bus

Level 1 Code Cache 64 KB 2-way Level 1 Data Cache 64 KB 2-way

Level 2 Cache 256 KB Inclusive Pre-fetch Queue 16 Byte

Static Branch Prediction Supported Dynamic Branch 2048 Entry

Prediction

RSB Branch Prediction 12 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!

Athlon Thunderbird 650

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Table 7-33: Athlon Thunderbird 650 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 650 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 6.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 32.4 watts

Maximum Power 36.1 watts

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Table 7-34: Athlon Thunderbird 650 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 650 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 7.5x – 8.0x

Table 7-34: Athlon Thunderbird 650 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 650 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 750 – 800 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 850+ MHz Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32 Alpha P7125

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Strategy

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

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Slot A = 70° Celsius

The Thunderbird specifications reveal clear advantages to the Socket A interface. The Socket A format can withstand an additional 20° Celsius compared to the same Thunderbird Slot A processor. The Slot A Thunderbird does hold a slight advantage in voltage efficiency, but 1.6 volts were required by AMD to support existing slot-type motherboards.

The Athlon Thunderbird 650-MHz processor is a relative oddity in the industry, as only a small number escaped AMD fabrication facilities. AMD produced two variants of the Socket A version of this chip: one at 1.7 volts and another at 1.75 volts.

Demand for this speed grade was small, as AMD already offered more powerful K75 Slot A designs. Those who possess this early revision Thunderbird processor can expect overclocking returns up to 800 MHz under good cooling conditions.

Athlon Thunderbird 700

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Table 7-35: Athlon Thunderbird 700 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 700 MHz

Table 7-35: Athlon Thunderbird 700 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 7.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 34.4 watts

Maximum Power 38.3 watts

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Table 7-36: Athlon Thunderbird 700 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 700 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 7.5x – 8.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 750 – 800 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 850+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32 Alpha P7125

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

Slot A = 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon Thunderbird 700 shares much in common with its 650-MHz sibling. This processor was available in limited quantities, and this speed grade was never officially launched by AMD. Overclocking returns are in line with expectations for the Thunderbird 650.

Athlon Thunderbird 750

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Table 7-37: Athlon Thunderbird 750 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 750 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 7.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 36.3 watts

Maximum Power 40.4 watts

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Table 7-38: Athlon Thunderbird 750 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 750 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 8.5x – 9.0+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 800 – 900 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 900+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32

Table 7-38: Athlon Thunderbird 750 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 750 MHz

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Alpha P7125 Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Strategy

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

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Slot A = 70° Celsius Gd

750 MHz marks the first official entry in the Athlon Thunderbird series of processors. The Thunderbird 750 also represents a great overclocking choice, as this processor can scale beyond 900 MHz with little effort. A small percentage of the Socket A version of this processor can even offer scalability toward 1 gigahertz with good cooling.

Athlon Thunderbird 800

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Table 7-39: Athlon Thunderbird 800 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 800 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 8.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 38.3 watts

Maximum Power 42.6 watts

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Table 7-40: Athlon Thunderbird 800 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 800 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 8.5x – 9.5x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 850 – 950 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32 Alpha P7125

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Strategy

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

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Slot A = 70° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 800-MHz processor offers a real chance of attaining a successful overclock to 1000 MHz. This is especially true for the Socket A version, as it features much-improved thermal efficiency compared to its Slot-A counterpart. In any case, most Thunderbird 800 chips can scale past 900 MHz with little difficulty.

Athlon Thunderbird 850

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Table 7-41: Athlon Thunderbird 850 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 850 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 8.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Table 7-41: Athlon Thunderbird 850 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 40.2 watts

Maximum Power 44.8 watts

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Table 7-42: Athlon Thunderbird 850 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 850 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 9.0x – 10.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 900 – 1000 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1000+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32 Alpha P7125

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Strategy

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

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Slot A = 70° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 850-MHz processor provides a good chance of reaching one gigahertz with little more than the use of a good heatsink cooler. As expected, the Socket-A version offers the best overclocking potential. For comparison, the Slot-A version should be capable of reaching 950 MHz, often cooled with the factory- installed heatsink.

Athlon Thunderbird 900

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Table 7-43: Athlon Thunderbird 900 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 900 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 9.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 44.6 watts

Maximum Power 49.7 watts

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Table 7-44: Athlon Thunderbird 900 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 900 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 9.5x – 10.5x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 950 – 1050 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1050+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32 Alpha P7125

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

Table 7-44: Athlon Thunderbird 900 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 900 MHz

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Slot A = 70° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon Thunderbird 900-MHz processor almost guarantees 1000 MHz for most configurations. Many chips in this speed grade can scale effectively to the gigahertz level, but most reach their limit around 1100 MHz without extreme cooling.

Athlon Thunderbird 950

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Table 7-45: Athlon Thunderbird 950 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 950 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 9.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 46.7 watts

Maximum Power 52 watts

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Table 7-46: Athlon Thunderbird 950 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 950 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 10.0x – 11.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1000 – 1100 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1100+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Table 7-46: Athlon Thunderbird 950 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 950 MHz

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Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32 Alpha P7125

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Strategy

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

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Slot A = 70° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 950-MHz processor offers mild overclocking potential. Nearly all chips from this speed grade can reach 1000 MHz with no additional voltage and cooling required. On a less positive note, the Thunderbird 950 offers minimal overclocking headroom in per-MHz analysis. This model was the last model in its particular revision.

Athlon Thunderbird 1000

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Table 7-47: Athlon Thunderbird 1000 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 1000 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 6.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage Socket A = 1.75 volts

Slot A = 1.6 volts Power Consumption 48.7 watts

Maximum Power 54.3 watts

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Table 7-48: Athlon Thunderbird 1000 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 1000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 11.0x – 12.5x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1100 – 1250 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1250+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

GlobalWin VOS-32 Alpha P7125

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Strategy

Swifttech MC1501 Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler

Maximum Core Temperature Socket A = 90° Celsius

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Slot A = 70° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 1000-MHz processor ushered in a new core revision with greater overclocking potential than previous models. A large percentage of the Socket-A version of this chip can effectively scale past 1200 MHz with the addition of a quality heatsink cooler. A smaller number has reached toward 1400 MHz with extreme cooling. The Thunderbird 1000 is also the last Slot A Athlon to be released.

Athlon Thunderbird 1100

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Table 7-49: Athlon Thunderbird 1100 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 1100 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR)

Table 7-49: Athlon Thunderbird 1100 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Multiplier Ratio 11.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

242-Pin Slot A Cartridge Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 49.5 watts Maximum Power 55.1 watts

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Table 7-50: Athlon Thunderbird 1100 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 1100 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.0 – 14.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1200 – 1300 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1300+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 1100-MHz processor offers significant scalability, especially given the fact that it introduces a new thermal rating of 95° Celsius. Most models from this speed grade offer overclocking potential beyond 1250 MHz. Some rare models are known to reach 1400 MHz, but only after the implementation of quality cooling.

Athlon Thunderbird 1200

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Table 7-51: Athlon Thunderbird 1200 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 1200 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 12.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 59 watts Maximum Power 66 watts

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Table 7-52: Athlon Thunderbird 1200 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 1200 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 13.0 – 14.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1300 – 1400 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1400+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 1200 remains a popular choice for overclocking enthusiasts, mainly due to its widespread availability. This chip offers excellent opportunities. A

small number of units scale toward 1500 MHz when paired with a chipset offering 133-MHz processor bus compatibility. Most chips from this speed grade peak around 1400 MHz, whatever the chipset or overclocking method.

Athlon Thunderbird 1300

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Table 7-53: Athlon Thunderbird 1300 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 1300 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 13.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 61 watts Maximum Power 68 watts

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Table 7-54: Athlon Thunderbird 1300 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 1300 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 13.5x – 14.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1350 – 1400 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1400+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

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Strategy

While not quite as popular as its 1200 MHz sibling, the Athlon Thunderbird 1300 MHz processor does offer a near guarantee of 1400 MHz. Most models will reach this level with nothing more than the factory AMD heatsink cooler and a modest bump in core voltage. As with the 1200, motherboards offering 133-MHz processor bus support will perform best when overclocked.

Athlon Thunderbird 1400

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Table 7-55: Athlon Thunderbird 1400 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird

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Performance Rating 1400 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 14.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 65 watts Maximum Power 72 watts

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Table 7-56: Athlon Thunderbird 1400 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 1400 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 14.0x

Typical Front-side Bus O/C 103 – 115+ MHz Typical O/C Potential 1450 – 1550 MHz

Maximum O/C Potential 1550+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Table 7-56: Athlon Thunderbird 1400 Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird Model Rating 1400 MHz

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon Thunderbird 1400-MHz processor is a rarity in OEM markets. Enthusiasts with 100-MHz processor bus systems have upgraded to this model, the last 100-MHz Thunderbird produced. Most chips of this speed grade are distributed in the retail market segment. Average overclocking returns are in the 1500 to 1550 MHz range, with the occasional model surpassing 1600 MHz when combined with a later- generation motherboard chipset.

Athlon Thunderbird B Overclocking

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Table 7-57: Athlon Thunderbird B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Performance Rating 1000 – 1400 MHz Generation Seventh: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates L1 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate

L2 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR)

Multiplier Ratio 7.5x – 10.5x (14x Max)

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm

Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 49 – 65 watts

Maximum Power 54 – 72 watts

Architectural Design

Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution

RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

Floating-Point = 80 bit MM = 64 bit

Execution Units 3 × IEU

3 × AGU

3 × FP

Table 7-57: Athlon Thunderbird B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Data Bus Width 64 (+8) bit

Max Memory Support Physical = 16 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support SMP via EV6 Bus

Level 1 Code Cache 64 KB 2-way Level 1 Data Cache 64 KB 2-way

Level 2 Cache 256 KB Exclusive Pre-fetch Queue 16 Byte

Static Branch Prediction Supported Dynamic Branch 2048 Entry

Prediction

RSB Branch Prediction 12 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!

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Athlon Thunderbird 1000B

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Table 7-58: Athlon Thunderbird 1000B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Performance Rating 1000 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 7.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 49 watts Maximum Power 54 watts

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Table 7-59: Athlon Thunderbird 1000B Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird B

Model Rating 1000 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Table 7-59: Athlon Thunderbird 1000B Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird B

Model Rating 1000 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 8.5x – 10x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1200 – 1300 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1300+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 1000B-MHz processor promises moderate overclocking success. Most models from this speed grade can scale well beyond 1200 MHz with the factory heatsink. Better cooling can yield results exceeding 1300 MHz. Be careful when monitoring temperatures: the Thunderbird 1000B retains the 90° Celsius rating of its earlier cousins.

Athlon Thunderbird 1130B

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Table 7-60: Athlon Thunderbird 1130B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Performance Rating 1130 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 8.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 56 watts

Table 7-60: Athlon Thunderbird 1130B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Maximum Power 63 watts

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Table 7-61: Athlon Thunderbird 1130B Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird B

Model Rating 1130 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 9.0x – 10.0+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1200 – 1333 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1400+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 1130B-MHz processor expanded the design by means of a core revision, including a higher thermal rating to 95° Celsius. Average overclocking returns for this model tend to reach above 1300 MHz with factory cooling. Quality cooling can extend the potential to 1400 MHz and beyond, though only a small portion of this grade will realize such a level of return.

Athlon Thunderbird 1200B

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Table 7-62: Athlon Thunderbird 1200B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Performance Rating 1200 MHz

Table 7-62: Athlon Thunderbird 1200B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 9.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 59 watts Maximum Power 66 watts

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Table 7-63: Athlon Thunderbird 1200B Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird B

Model Rating 1200 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 10.0x – 11.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1333 – 1400 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1500+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

The Athlon Thunderbird 1200B offers essentially the same potential as its 100-MHz processor bus counterpart. The average overclocking return extends to 1400 MHz with traditional cooling. Massive heatsink cooling may yield results in the 1500 to 1600 MHz range, but this is not common.

Athlon Thunderbird 1333B

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Table 7-64: Athlon Thunderbird 1333B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Performance Rating 1333 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 10.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 63 watts Maximum Power 70 watts

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Table 7-65: Athlon Thunderbird 1333B Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird B

Model Rating 1333 MHz

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Overclocking Potential Multiplier Lock Support Unlocked Multiplier

Typical Multiplier O/C 10.5x – 11.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1400 – 1500 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1500+ MHz

Overclocking Tolerances

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon Thunderbird 1333B offers essentially the same overclocking potential as its 1200-MHz sibling. As with every processor, the Thunderbird displays a maximum point of return, above which it will begin to offer less and less. Expect results in the 1400 to 1500 MHz range. Additional scalability is possible with extreme cooling techniques, but most units reach their limits around 1600 MHz.

Athlon Thunderbird 1400B

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Table 7-66: Athlon Thunderbird 1400B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thunderbird B

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Performance Rating 1400 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 10.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 120 mm Transistor Count 37 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 65 watts Maximum Power 72 watts

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Table 7-67: Athlon Thunderbird 1400B Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird B

Model Rating 1400 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 11.5x – 12.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150+ MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1530 – 1600 MHz Maximum O/C Potential ~1600+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Table 7-67: Athlon Thunderbird 1400B Overclocking

Athlon Thunderbird B

Model Rating 1400 MHz

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Strategy

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

The Athlon 1400B closes the Thunderbird family. At a default frequency of 1400 MHz, this processor is near the maximum potential for the Thunderbird core.

Overclocking scales to 1600 MHz; extreme cooling has netted returns above 1700 MHz for a small number of chips when they are used in a configuration that is optimized for overclocking.

Athlon Duron Spitfire Background

The Duron stands as the official AMD entry into budget-class computing. Though it competes directly with the Intel Celeron II in price, the Duron often beats even the Pentium III in popular benchmark tests. The Duron’s processing core architecture is the same as the Thunderbird’s, but AMD limits the Duron’s on-die Level 2 cache to 64 KB (compared to the Thunderbird’s 256 KB).

The performance impact of the smaller cache size is minimal for most popular desktop applications. The difference only arises in professional applications or for server environments, systems in which large amounts of data move between the processor and memory. In these situations the Thunderbird’s additional cache memory boosts performance significantly.

Duron Spitfire Overclocking

The Duron Spitfire offers essentially the same overclocking potential as the Athlon Thunderbird at equivalent clock ratings. The only appreciable difference is improved power efficiency for the Duron, about 80 to 90% better than the Thunderbird. The difference is derived from a smaller transistor count due to the smaller Level 2 cache of the Duron architecture. Accordingly, the Spitfire requires a marginally lower 1.60 core voltage.

All other concerns are the same for both processors. The maximum thermal rating of 90° Celsius applies to all Duron Spitfire processors. The maximum “safe” core voltage of the Duron Spitfire is 1.85 volts, the same as that for the Thunderbird. Each chip is nearly identical to its Thunderbird counterpart in both average and peak overclocking potential.

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Table 7-68: Athlon Duron Spitfire Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Duron Spitfire

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Performance Rating 550 – 950 MHz Generation Seventh: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates L1 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate

L2 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR)

Multiplier Ratio 5.5x – 9.5x (14.0x Max)

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A Core Die Size .18 micron, 100 mm

Transistor Count 25 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.6 volts

Power Consumption 18.9 – 37.2 watts

Maximum Power 21.1 – 41.5 watts

Architectural Design

Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution

RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

Floating-Point = 80 bit MM = 64 bit

Execution Units 3 × IEU

3 × AGU

3 × FP

Data Bus Width 64 (+8) bit

Max Memory Support Physical = 16 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support SMP via EV6 Bus

Level 1 Code Cache 64 KB 2-way Level 1 Data Cache 64 KB 2-way

Level 2 Cache 64 KB Exclusive Pre-fetch Queue 16 Byte

Static Branch Prediction Supported Dynamic Branch 2048 Entry

Prediction

RSB Branch Prediction 12 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!

Athlon Palomino/MP/XP

The Athlon Palomino represented the first major redesign of the Athlon core since the introduction of the Socket A processor-to-motherboard interface. The most significant new feature is a hardware data pre-fetch mechanism in the execution pipeline. This

pre-fetch circuitry allows the Palomino to speculate and buffer certain data packets, increasing per MHz efficiency and performance compared to the Thunderbird.

AMD also introduced a new streaming multimedia instruction set with the Palomino architecture. 3DNow! Professional offers all the functions in previous 3DNow! instruction sets, but expands the base set to include binary compatibility with the Intel SSE specification. Because it can process both standards, the Athlon Palomino proves a formidable market competitor.

As expected with any core revision, AMD further refined the Athlon core to improve power efficiency. Core voltage remains consistent with the Thunderbird, but power consumption rates are improved by an average of 5 to 15%. Thermal generation loads have decreased accordingly. Maximum thermal ratings vary within the 90 to 95° Celsius range.

The first Palomino core processor arrived in the form of the Athlon MP. The MP stands for multiprocessing. This processor will operate in symmetric multiprocessing configurations. Oddly enough, nearly all Socket A AMD processors support SMP. The difference is that AMD tests and certifies its MP processors for stability. The Athlon MP usually commands a higher price due to this additional testing.

The Palomino architecture debuted in the consumer market under the designation Athlon XP. The term XP is derived from the marketing of this processor as the Athlon eXPerience. However, many enthusiasts believe AMD planned to correlate the naming of its chip with the release of Windows XP. Whatever the reason, the Athlon XP reigns as AMD’s flagship consumer chip.

The most controversial aspect of the Athlon Palomino is the way it has been marketed. Labeled by comparative speed grades instead of raw MHz ratings, the Palomino’s model numbers are reminiscent of those in the older K5 series.

Some speculate that these performance-rating values are somehow correlated to the performance of the Intel Pentium 4 models. In reality, the PR numbers compare the performance of the Athlon XP and the Athlon Thunderbird on a perMHz basis. Only the 1000MP and 1200MP processors in the Palomino series feature true MHz counts in their naming conventions.

Unlocking the Athlon Palomino

AMD introduced a new wrinkle in multiplier locking with the Athlon Palomino. The primary way to unlock this chip remains the same as for the Athlon Thunderbird: simply reconnect the L1 trace-route circuitry. This process is difficult to apply to the Palomino, however, because the design features a ceramic base, containing small pits, which short to a grounded gold foil between the connection points of the L1 circuit range.

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Figure 7-2: Athlon Palomino L1 bridge circuit

Common sense dictates that these grounded pits be filled to allow connection of the L1 circuitry. Simply drawing a connection line with a pencil will not work. Even without the holes, a pencil would be ineffective: the Palomino requires a low-impedance connection between the L1 bridges to communicate the unlocking directive.

Conductive paint, intended for use in the repair of printed circuit boards, will connect the L1 bridges. This paint can be purchased from most electronics retailers. It can even be found in window defroster repair kits. A small amount goes a long way, so use conductive paint sparingly.

The Palomino needs additional hardware hacking to fill the holes between the L1 interconnects. Various methods have been used. Some enthusiasts have developed painstaking procedures for applying glues and epoxies, for example. Silicon thermal paste, available and inexpensive, works just as well for most configurations. Just apply the paste to the pits, then use a tiny, flat plastic scraper or pencil eraser to remove any excess paste that protrudes above the ceramic surface. You can also buy an XP unlocking kit that includes a cleaning agent, a non-conductive gap filler, conductive grease, an applicator, a magnifying glass, tape, and instructions, from HighspeedPC.com.

With the voids properly filled, the Palomino can be unlocked. Using a narrow needle or pin, draw connections between each L1 circuit bridge with conductive paint. As in the Thunderbird pencil trick, avoid overlapping any lines. Be patient and accomplish this procedure correctly the first time. You can try again, but removing the conductive paint is tedious. Some overclockers have taken it off with isopropyl alcohol or a pencil eraser. Neither method is easy.

Athlon Palomino/MP/XP Overclocking

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Table 7-69: Athlon Palomino/MP/XP Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino/MP/XP

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Performance Rating 1000 – 1730 MHz Generation Seventh: 80686 IA-32

Operational Rates L1 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate

L2 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR)

Multiplier Ratio 7.5x – 13.0x (14.0+x Max)

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm

Transistor Count 37.5 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 41.3 – 64.3 watts

Maximum Power 46.1 – 72 watts

Architectural Design

Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution

RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

Floating-Point = 80 bit MM = 64 bit

Execution Units 3 × IEU

3 × AGU

3 × FP

Data Bus Width 64 (+8) bit

Max Memory Support Physical = 16 Gigabyte

Virtual = 64 Terabyte Multi-Processor Support SMP via EV6 Bus

Level 1 Code Cache 64 KB 2-way Level 1 Data Cache 64 KB 2-way

Level 2 Cache 256 KB Exclusive Hardware Date Pre-fetch Supported

Pre-fetch Queue 16 Byte Static Branch Prediction Supported

Dynamic Branch 2048 Entry Prediction

RSB Branch Prediction 12 Entry Floating-Point Processor Integrated

Multimedia Extensions MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!,

3DNow! Professional (SSE)

Athlon Palomino 1000

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Table 7-70: Athlon Palomino 1000 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating 1000 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 7.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption MP = 41.3 watts Maximum Power MP = 46.1 watts

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Table 7-71: Athlon Palomino 1000 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating 1000 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 9.0x – 10.5+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1200 – 1400 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1400+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

The Athlon Palomino is represented at 1000 MHz by the Athlon MP processor. This is an early-generation design, which debuted prior to the introduction of AMD’s performance rating designations. Effective overclocking scalability of this unit often falls in the 1200 to 1400 MHz realm, though a few rare samples have been know to exceed 1400 MHz under extreme cooling conditions.

Athlon Palomino 1200

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Table 7-72: Athlon Palomino 1200 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating 1200 MHz

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 9.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption MP = 49.1 watts Maximum Power MP = 54.7 watts

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Table 7-73: Athlon Palomino 1200 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating 1200 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 10.0x – 11.0+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1333 – 1530 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1550+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 95° Celsius

The Athlon MP 1200 has much in common with its 1000-MHz counterpart. It too arrived before the performance-rating marketing initiative, and also reigned in as the premier choice in Athlon multiprocessing environments for several months. By

offering decent power efficiency, this processor can often scale beyond 1500 MHz in dedicated overclocking configurations.

Athlon Palomino 1333 (XP/MP 1500+)

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Table 7-74: Athlon Palomino 1333 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating Real = 1333 MHz

XP/MP = 1500+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 10.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 53.8 watts Maximum Power 60 watts

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Table 7-75: Athlon Palomino 1333 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1333 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP/MP = 1500+

Typical Multiplier O/C 10.5x – 11.5+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1450 – 1500 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1500 – 1600+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature XP = 90° Celsius

MP = 95° Celsius

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Strategy

The dreaded comparative performance ratings debuted with the release of the Palomino at 1333 MHz. Both the Athlon XP and MP designs at this speed grade carry the marketing designation 1500+. This model name describes the overclocking potential of this processor quite accurately. Many units from this speed grade can scale beyond 1500 MHz when paired with an effective heatsink cooler.

Athlon Palomino 1400 (XP/MP 1600+)

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Table 7-76: Athlon Palomino 1400 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating Real = 1400 MHz

XP/MP = 1600+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 10.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 56.3 watts Maximum Power 62.8 watts

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Table 7-77: Athlon Palomino Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1400 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP/MP = 1600+

Typical Multiplier O/C 11.0x – 12.0+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1500 – 1600 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1600+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Table 7-77: Athlon Palomino Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1400 MHz

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Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature XP = 90° Celsius

MP = 95° Celsius

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Strategy

The Palomino 1400-MHz core is marketed under the 1600+ designation for both the Athlon MP and XP series of processors. Overclocking falls in line with expectations; this core is capable of operation exceeding 1600 MHz. While the factory-supplied heatsink can often push this processor an additional 50 to 100 MHz, a quality aftermarket cooler should always be installed when pushing beyond 1600 MHz, especially if any increase in core voltage is required.

Athlon Palomino 1466 (XP 1700+)

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Table 7-78: Athlon Palomino 1466 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating Real = 1466 MHz

XP = 1700+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 11.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 57.4 watts Maximum Power 64 watts

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Table 7-79: Athlon Palomino 1466 Overclocking

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Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1466 MHz XP = 1700+

Table 7-79: Athlon Palomino 1466 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1466 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 11.5x – 12.5+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1550 – 1650 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1650+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

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Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

The Athlon XP 1700+ is based on a 1466-MHz Palomino core. Oddly enough, AMD has never officially released an MP 1700+ processor, skipping this speed grade in its production schedule. Despite the marketing glitch, this processor offers decent overclocking potential. Most 1466-MHz units are scalable beyond 1600 MHz with quality cooling and a slight bump in core voltage.

Athlon Palomino 1533 (XP 1800+)

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Table 7-80: Athlon Palomino 1533 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating Real = 1533 MHz

XP = 1800+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 11.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 59.2 watts

Table 7-80: Athlon Palomino 1533 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Maximum Power 66 watts

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Table 7-81: Athlon Palomino 1533 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1533 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP/MP = 1800+

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.0x – 13.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1600 – 1700 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1700+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature XP = 90° Celsius

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MP = 95° Celsius

Just as quickly as the Athlon MP dropped out for the Palomino 1446-MHz core, it reappeared as the Athlon 1800+, with the 1553-MHz iteration of the MP and XP families. The overclocking limits of the .18-micron Athlon architecture are evident with the Athlon 1800+. Most units from this speed grade see overclocking returns in the 1600 to 1700 MHz range with traditional cooling techniques.

Athlon Palomino 1600 (XP/MP 1900+)

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Table 7-82: Athlon Palomino 1600 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating Real = 1600 MHz

Table 7-82: Athlon Palomino 1600 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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XP/MP = 1900+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 12.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 60.7 watts Maximum Power 68 watts

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Table 7-83: Athlon Palomino 1600 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1600 MHz XP/MP = 1900+

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.xx – 13.0+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1650 – 1750 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1750+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature XP = 90° Celsius

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MP = 95° Celsius

Both the Athlon MP and XP 1900+ are built on a 1600-MHz Palomino processing core. The Athlon 1900+ offers modest scalability. Most units post overclocking returns approaching, and sometimes exceeding, 1700 MHz. Cooling is a definite

concern when pushing into that frequency range. Use only a quality cooler when increasing the core voltage.

Athlon Palomino 1667 (XP/MP 2000+)

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Table 7-84: Athlon Palomino 1667 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating Real = 1667 MHz

XP/MP = 2000+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 12.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 62.5 watts Maximum Power 70 watts

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Table 7-85: Athlon Palomino 1667 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1667 MHz XP/MP = 2000+

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 13.0x – 13.5+x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1700 – 1800 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1800+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature XP = 90° Celsius

MP = 95° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon 2000+ is a popular choice in computing communities. This processor ushered AMDs into the 2 gigahertz arena—at least in marketing theory. This chip is built atop a 1667-MHz Palomino processing core. Expect overclocking returns around 1800 MHz for the better chips in this grade. Take note of the 1667-MHz rating. It appears that AMD avoided the whole “666” issue the same way Intel did.

Athlon Palomino 1733 (XP/MP 2100+)

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Table 7-86: Athlon Palomino 1733 Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Palomino

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Performance Rating Real = 1733 MHz

XP/MP = 2100+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 13.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 128 mm Transistor Count 37.5 Million

Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 64.3 watts Maximum Power 72 watts

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Table 7-87: Athlon Palomino 1733 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1733 MHz XP/MP = 2100+

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical Multiplier O/C 13.5x – 14.0x Typical Front-side Bus O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1750 – 1850 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1900+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Table 7-87: Athlon Palomino 1733 Overclocking

Athlon Palomino Model Rating Real = 1733 MHz XP/MP = 2100+

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Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature XP = 90° Celsius

MP = 95° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon XP 2100+ offers marginal overclocking returns in the 1800 to 1900 MHz range for the majority of configurations. A dedicated overclocking system designed around cooling can achieve 2000 MHz, but this is not common.

Duron Morgan Background

The AMD Morgan core architecture is a Palomino-derived extension to the Duron series of budget-oriented microprocessors. Upgrades include 3DNow! Professional, hardware data pre-fetching, and various core improvements for better regulation of both thermal and power consumption rates. The scaledback cache architecture comes over from the Spitfire, as the Morgan still features 64 KB to the Palomino’s 256 KB. The addition of a hardware data pre-fetch mechanism works well to offset the Morgan’s cache deficiency. This latest-model Duron can boast performance exceeding that of the supposedly more powerful Athlon Thunderbird. The Morgan is expected to be the last Duron core marketed by AMD. The impressive Athlon Thoroughbred will soon relegate the XP to entry-level systems.

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Processor Family

Table 7-88: Duron Morgan Specifications

Model Name AMD Duron Morgan

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Operational Rates

Performance Rating 1000 – 1300 MHz Generation Seventh: 80686 IA-32

L1 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate

L2 Cache Speed 1.0x Core Rate Front-side Bus Speed 100 MHz (200 DDR)

Multiplier Ratio 9.0x – 13.0x (14.0x Max)

Physical Design Interface Packing 462-Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .18 micron, 106 mm

Processor Family

Table 7-88: Duron Morgan Specifications

Model Name AMD Duron Morgan

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Architectural Design

Virtual = 64 Terabyte

Transistor Count 25.2 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.75 volts

Power Consumption 39.2 – 42.7 watts

Maximum Power 55.2 – 60 watts

Core Technology OOO and Speculative Execution RISC

Register Support Integer = 32 bit

Floating-Point = 80 bit MM = 64 bit

Execution Units 3 × IEU

3 × AGU

3 × FP

Data Bus Width 64 (+8) bit

Max Memory Support Physical = 16 Gigabyte

Multi-Processor SMP via EV6 Bus Support

Level 1 Code Cache 64 KB 2-way Level 1 Data Cache 64 KB 2-way

Level 2 Cache 64 KB Exclusive Hardware Date Pre- Supported

fetch

Pre-fetch Queue 16 Byte Static Branch Supported

Prediction

Dynamic Branch 2048 Entry Prediction

RSB Branch 12 Entry Prediction

Floating-Point Integrated Processor

Multimedia MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!, 3DNow! Extensions Professional (SSE)

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Table 7-89: Duron Morgan Overclocking

Duron Morgan Model Rating 1000 – 1300 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical O/C Potential 1300 – 1400+ MHz Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers

Strategy

Alpha PAL-8045 TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.85 volts with Heatsink

image

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

The Duron Morgan processor offers an overclocking opportunity for most configurations. Many Duron Morgan processors are able to exceed 1300 MHz with quality forced-air heatsink cooling. Some of the higher speed processors in the series have been known to overclock past 1400 MHz with relative ease. This Palomino- derived processor displays great thermal and electrical efficiency.

Athlon Thoroughbred

The Athlon Thoroughbred is AMD’s successor to the Palomino. Featuring a smaller

0.13 micron core, the Thoroughbred is a cooler running processor than the Palomino and it has other physical improvements. It debuted with an XP 2200+ version, though AMD later backtracked, releasing several slower processors in the Thoroughbred core as well.

Like the Palomino, the Thoroughbreds below the XP 2400+ are clock multiplier locked. The L1 bridges must be reconnected to allow multiplier changes. You can freely change the multiplier of XP 2400+ and newer Thoroughbreds using KT400 based motherboards without any processor alteration.

The Thoroughbred is currently available in two model revisions: Revision A and Revision B. The Revision A models (at speeds of XP 1700+ to XP 2200+, or 1.47 GHz to 1.80 GHz) are not all that impressive in their overclocking ability, though the lower speed models such as the XP 1700+ do offer better potential than the higher speed models. The entire speed range of the Revision B models is improved and their overclocking potential is significant. Having learned from the Revision A model, AMD implemented a few physical improvements for the Revision B model, such as additional transistors and an additional metal layer within the processor to optimize its electrical properties and increase its maximum clock speed potential.

If you own (or plan to purchase) an Athlon XP 2400+ or faster, you can be assured that it is a Revision B type since those processors were never manufactured as the Revision A type. Otherwise, if you own or plan to buy anywhere from an Athlon XP 1800+ to an XP 2200+, the only way to tell the difference between a Revision A and Revision B Thoroughbred is by knowing the CPUID of the processor, though some retailers may specifically sell Revision B processors, so be sure to look for a “B” designation.

Revision A processors are known by their CPUID of 680, and Revision B by their CPUID of 681. Revision B Thoroughbreds are definitely better overclockers, with a potential upwards of 2.4 GHz, and lower speed Revision B models are recommended (such as the 1800+ XP, Rev. B), since they have a bigger potential than the higher speed models that are already operating near their maximums.

Note that as of November 2002, the Thoroughbred became available in a 166MHz DDR (333MHz) FSB variety. The new 166MHz variant offers more bandwidth and extra future expandability as processor speeds increase, though you could accomplish the same thing by increasing the FSB of a proc.

Athlon Thoroughbred 1467 Rev. A (XP 1700+)

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Table 7-90: Athlon Thoroughbred 1467 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

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Performance Rating Real = 1467 MHz

XP/MP = 1700+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 11.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .13-micron, 80mm2 Transistor Count 37.2 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.50v Power Consumption 44.9 watts

Maximum Power 49.4 watts

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Table 7-91: Athlon Thoroughbred 1467 Rev. A Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 1467 MHz

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XP = 1700+

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.0x – 13.0x Typical FSB O/C 145 – 150 MHz

Table 7-91: Athlon Thoroughbred 1467 Rev. A Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 1467 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

Typical O/C Potential 1600 – 1667 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1733+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

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Strategy

The slowest Thoroughbred available, the Athlon XP 1700+ offers good overclocking capabilities and is popular due to its low cost and good quality, despite it being available in the “A” revision only. Some users have reported overclocks as high as 2000 MHz with extreme cooling and extreme voltages of 2.0v+, but that voltage level is not recommended and you will more realistically see around 1700 MHz with 1.7v.

Athlon Thoroughbred 1533 Rev. A (XP 1800+)

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Table 7-92: Athlon Thoroughbred 1533 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

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Performance Rating Real = 1533 MHz

XP = 1800+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 11.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .13-micron, 80mm2 Transistor Count 37.2 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.50v Power Consumption 46.3 watts

Maximum Power 51.0 watts

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Table 7-93: Athlon Thoroughbred 1533 Rev. A Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 1533 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP = 1800+

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.0x – 13.5x Typical FSB O/C 145 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1600 – 1800 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1862 MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Cooleres Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon XP 1800+ offers slightly better results than the Thoroughbred 1467, as you are likely to see around 1800 MHz with this processor, using approximately 1.75v, or 1700 MHz with a less aggressive voltage and cooling.

Athlon Thoroughbred 1600 Rev. A (XP 1900+)

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Table 7-94: Athlon Thoroughbred 1600 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

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Performance Rating Real = 1600 MHz

XP = 1900+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 12.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .13-micron, 80mm2 Transistor Count 37.2 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.50v Power Consumption 47.7 watts

Table 7-94: Athlon Thoroughbred 1600 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

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Maximum Power 52.5 watts

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Table 7-95: Athlon Thoroughbred 1600 Rev. A Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 1600 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP = 1900+

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.5x – 13.5x Typical FSB O/C 140 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1662 – 1795 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1862 MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

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Strategy

The Athlon XP 1900+ offers decent overclocking potential, but real world results may be on the low end, closer to 1700 MHz, than the high end, such as 1800+ MHz, without major voltage increases and extreme cooling.

Athlon Thoroughbred 1667 Rev. A (XP 2000+)

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Table 7-96: Athlon Thoroughbred 1667 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

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Performance Rating Real = 1667 MHz

XP = 2000+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 12.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Table 7-96: Athlon Thoroughbred 1667 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

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Core Die Size .13-micron, 80mm2 Transistor Count 37.2 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.60v-1.65v Power Consumption 54.7 watts

Maximum Power 60.3 watts

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Table 7-97: Athlon Thoroughbred 1667 Rev. A Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 1667 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP = 2000+

Typical Multiplier O/C 13.0x – 14.0x Typical FSB O/C 136 – 144 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1700 – 1800 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1862+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

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Strategy

The XP 2000+ is marginally overclockable by about 100 MHz, which is decent in case you already own one, but don’t go out and buy one of these processors, as there are other models with better price to performance ratios than this one. Some users have reported overclocks up to 1900+ MHz but this is not typical, and better results have been obtained using processors with the “AGOIA” stepping than without.

Athlon Thoroughbred 1733 Rev. A (XP 2100+)

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Table 7-98: Athlon Thoroughbred 1733 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

image

Performance Rating Real = 1733 MHz

XP = 2100+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 13.0x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .13-micron, 80mm2 Transistor Count 37.2 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.60v Power Consumption 56.4 watts

Maximum Power 62.1 watts

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Table 7-99: Athlon Thoroughbred 1733 Rev. A Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 1733 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP = 2100+

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.0x – 13.0x Typical FSB O/C 145 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1750 – 1800 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1850+ MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 90° Celsius

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Strategy

Overclocking returns begin to diminish at this speed level and this processor is therefore not recommended for overclockers. Cheaper, slower rated Throughbreds have a higher performance to price ratio than the XP 2100+.

Athlon Thoroughbred 1800 Rev. A (XP 2200+)

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Table 7-100: Athlon Thoroughbred 1800 Rev. A Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. A

image

Performance Rating Real = 1800 MHz

XP = 2200+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 13.5x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .13-micron, 80mm2 Transistor Count 37.2 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.65v Power Consumption 61.7 watts

Maximum Power 67.9 watts

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Table 7-101: Athlon Thoroughbred 1800 Rev. A Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 1800 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP = 2200+

Typical Multiplier O/C 12.0x – 13.0x Typical FSB O/C 145 – 150 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 1825 – 1850 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 1900 MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

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Strategy

The Revision A core is pushed to its limits with the XP 2200+, and overclocking returns are therefore not impressive. This processor’s Maximum Core Temperature also decreased by 5° Celsius over the other speed grades in the Thoroughbred Revision A class, making heat tolerance a bigger factor.

Athlon Thoroughbred 2000 Rev. B (XP 2400+)

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Table 7-102: Athlon Thoroughbred 2000 Rev. B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. B

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Performance Rating Real = 2000 MHz

XP = 2400+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 15x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .13-micron, 84mm2 Transistor Count 37.6 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.65v Power Consumption 62 watts

Maximum Power 68.3 watts

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image

Table 7-103: Athlon Thoroughbred 2000 Rev. B Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 2000 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP = 2400+

Typical Multiplier O/C 16.5x – 17.5x Typical FSB O/C 145 – 155 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 2200 – 2327 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2450 MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

image

Strategy

The Athlon XP 2400+ offers a good price/performance ratio and is a favorite amongst Thoroughbred overclocking enthusiasts. Extreme cooling will get you to 2400 MHz (though HardOCP.com, for instance, did achieve 2500 MHz with the Thermalright SLK-800 and a very aggressive 1.95v, and they also achieved 2400 MHz with average cooling), but 2200MHz or so is more likely with standard to moderate cooling. The XP 2400+ is the first Thoroughbred to be L1 factory unlocked, and you can therefore adjust the multiplier freely if you have a KT400 based motherboard.

Athlon Thoroughbred 2133 Rev. B (XP 2600+)

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Table 7-104: Athlon Thoroughbred 2133 Rev. B Specifications

Processor Family Model Name AMD Athlon Thoroughbred, Rev. B

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Performance Rating Real = 2133 MHz

XP = 2600+

Front-side Bus Speed 133 MHz (266 DDR) Multiplier Ratio 16x

Physical Design Interface Packing 462 Pin Socket A

Core Die Size .13-micron, 84mm2 Transistor Count 37.6 Million Voltage Interface Split Core and I/O

Core Voltage 1.65v Power Consumption 62 watts

Maximum Power 68.3 watts

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Table 7-105: Athlon Thoroughbred 2133 Rev. B Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 2133 MHz

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Overclocking Tolerances

XP = 2600+

Typical Multiplier O/C 16.5x – 17.5x Typical FSB O/C 145 – 155 MHz

Typical O/C Potential 2200 – 2350 MHz Maximum O/C Potential 2450 MHz

Recommended Cooling Type Forced-Air Heatsink

Recommended Heatsink Thermalright SK-6

Coolers Alpha PAL-8045

TaiSol CGK742092

Recommended Peltier Active Swifttech MCX370

Table 7-105: Athlon Thoroughbred 2133 Rev. B Overclocking

Athlon Thoroughbred Model Rating Real = 2133 MHz

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Cooler

Maximum Core Voltage 1.80v with Heatsink

Cooler Maximum Core Temperature 85° Celsius

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Strategy

Like the XP 2400+, the XP 2600+ is L1 factory unlocked, and the multiplier can be freely changed with KT400 based motherboards. This processor is reasonably comparable to the XP 2400+, though you may be able to overclock the XP 2600+ by the same speed increase as the XP 2400+ while using a lower voltage with the XP 2600+.

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